NME1 (NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1)

2013-02-01   Marie-Lise Lacombe , Mathieu Boissan 

INSERM UMRS_938, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 27 rue Chaligny, 75012 Paris, France





The NME1 gene was identified in 1988 as the first metastasis suppressor, due to its reduced expression in metastatic murine melanoma cell line (Steeg et al., 1988; reviewed in: Lee et al., 2009). The human gene, also named NM23-H1, was shown to be homologous to the Drosophila AWD gene, involved in larvae development, and to exhibit an expression inversely correlated to the metastatic spread in primary breast tumors (Rosengard et al., 1989). It is the first described member of a family of ten genes in human (Desvignes et al., 2009; reviewed in: Boissan et al., 2009).
Atlas Image
The NME1 gene viewed at three different levels of detail (highlighted between two red vertical boundary lines). 1) Overview within chromosome 17. 2) Partial regional view within chromosome 17q21.3. 3) Detailed view within chromosome 17q21.33 showing two of the transcription variants of NME1, which include NME1 (NM_000269.2) and NME1B (NM_198175.1). Abbreviations: M and K: mega- and kilobase pairs from pter; Kbp: kilobase pairs; Chr: chromosome; CDS: coding sequence.


The gene is composed of 6 exons of which five are coding exons. Exon 2 skipping results in a shorter transcript.


Two transcripts have been reported for this gene (Rosengard et al., 1989; Ni et al., 2003). A read-through variant, resulting of the co-transcription of NME1 and the neighboring NME2, generates a transcript, which encodes a fusion protein sharing identity with each individual gene products (Valentijn et al., 2006).


A pseudogene of NME1 (NME1P1) is located on chromosome 13q12.11 (NC_000013.10, Gene ID: 100874501).



The NME1 gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) (Wallet et al., 1990). The two most abundantly expressed and the most studied genes are NM23-H1 and NM23-H2 (NME1 and NME2). They encode, respectively the A and B subunits of NDPK, 88% identical in their amino acid sequences (Gilles et al., 1991).
NME1 was demonstrated to be a metastasis suppressor 1) by its enforced expression in various metastatic cell lines which decreased motility and invasion (Lee et al., 2009), 2) in double transgenic mice invalidated for Nme1 and prone to develop hepatocarcinoma in which lack of Nme1 increased incidence of pulmonary metastases (Boissan et al., 2005) and 3) by its invalidation (SiRNA) in non-aggressive hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines which induced a "metastatic phenotype" (Boissan et al., 2010). The role of the homologous gene, NME2, in cancer progression is less documented (reviewed in: Thakur et al., 2011).
The mechanisms involved in the metastatic potential control are largely unknown. They could involve several known NM23 enzymatic activities (nucleoside diphosphate kinase, histidine kinase, and 3-5 exonuclease), protein-protein interactions and downstream gene regulation properties (for reviews: Marino et al., 2011; Marino et al., 2012). A Granzyme A activated DNAse (GAAD) activity involved in caspase-independent apoptosis was also reported for this gene (reviewed in: Lieberman, 2010).


The main transcript encodes a protein of 152 amino acids with a Mr of 17 kDa (Rosengard et al., 1989). The longer transcript encodes a protein of 177 amino acids (Ni et al., 2003).




Mostly cytoplasmic but also reported in nucleus (Bosnar et al., 2009).


Nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity responsible for the synthesis of most cellular (oxy- and deoxy-) nucleoside triphosphates (Parks and Agarwal, 1973). Other functions have been proposed, histidine protein kinase activity, 3-5 exonuclease activity (for review: Marino et al., 2011) and Granzyme A activated DNAse (GAAD) activity (Lieberman, 2010).


The human NME1 gene is conserved in amniota with a high percentage of identity in the pairwise alignment of protein vs. chimpanzee (99%), rat (95%), mouse (94%), dog (93%), cow (93%), opossum (89%) and chicken (84%). The paralogs of human NME1 include NME2, NME3, NME4, NME5, NME6, NME7, NME8 (TXNDC3), NME9 (TXL2) and RP2 (NME10) (Desvignes et al., 2009; Desvignes et al., 2010). These genes encode one (NME1 to NME6 and NME9) or several (NME7 and NME8) conserved NDPK domains, either full length or truncated. The NDPK domain occurs individually or associated with extra-domains (NME5, NME7, NME8, NME9 and RP2) (Boissan et al., 2009).



A S120G mutation was reported in aggressive neuroblastoma (Chang et al., 1994).

Implicated in

Entity name
NME1 plays a crucial role in cancer metastasis. Numerous clinical studies reported an inverse association between NME1 expression and the metastatic potential for human solid tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, liver, colorectal, ovarian and lung carcinomas and for melanoma (for review: Marino et al., 2012). A dual expression was reported with an increased expression of NME1 and often NME2 in the primary tumor as compared to the adjacent non-tumoral tissue (Lacombe et al., 1991; Flørenes et al., 1992; Martinez et al., 1995) and with a decreased expression of NME1 in the primary tumor correlated with metastatic spread. If, for liver, breast and lung carcinomas and for melanoma, the vast majority of studies reported an inverse correlation with metastasis and/or poor overall survival, this is less marked in colorectal, gastric and ovarian carcinomas for which more discrepant results are found. The conflicting data reported in the literature, might be due to the presence of the two closely related isoforms (NME1 and NME2) which are most often not discriminated by antibodies and probes, the heterogeneous expression in the primary tumors and the criteria to evaluate and grade NME1 expression in the clinical samples.
Remarkably, enforced NME1 expression induced by transfection in epithelial cancer derived cell lines and melanoma reverses their motility and invasive potential. This was observed with cell lines derived from melanoma (Leone et al., 1991) and from breast (Leone et al., 1993a), colon (Suzuki et al., 2004), lung (Nie et al., 2008), liver (She et al., 2010), ovarian (Li et al., 2006), prostate (Andolfo et al., 2011) and oral (Wang YF et al., 2008) carcinomas.
In other types of cancers such as neuroblastoma (Leone et al., 1993b; Garcia et al., 2012), hematopoietic malignancies (Yokoyama et al., 1998) and osteosarcoma (Liao et al., 2000), a high tumoral expression was noted which was most often correlated with poor clinical outcome.
Entity name
Breast cancer
Most clinical studies reported an inverse correlation between NME1 expression in breast primary tumors and the metastatic dissemination and/or shorter patient survival (Bevilacqua et al., 1989; Hennessy et al., 1991; Tokunaga et al., 1993; Toulas et al., 1996; Charpin et al., 1997; Caligo et al., 1997; Yamaguchi et al., 1998; Yoshida et al., 1998; Bertheau et al., 1998; Heimann et al., 2000; Mao et al., 2001; Terasaki-Fukuzawa et al., 2002; Niu et al., 2002; Ding and Wu, 2004; Bal et al., 2008; Dong et al., 2011). In some cases, an increased NME1 expression in tumoral cells as compared to normal tissue was observed (Lacombe et al., 1991; Goodall et al., 1994; Caligo et al., 1997). However, some studies showed that NME1 expression was of no prognostic relevance (Russo et al., 1996; Russell et al., 1997; Belev et al., 2002; Göhring et al., 2002) or even positively associated with a poor overall survival (Galani et al., 2002). Yoshida et al. (Yoshida et al., 1998) noted a low NME1 expression at the invasive front. Forced expression of NME1 by transfection in breast cancer cell lines reduced cell motility in vitro and metastasis formation in xenograft mouse models (Kantor et al., 1993; Leone et al., 1993a; Russell et al., 1998; Bhujwalla et al., 1999).
Entity name
Hepatobiliary carcinoma
Hepatobiliary carcinoma are among of the most aggressive cancers with a five year survival of less than 15%. Most studies reported an inverse association between NME1 expression and metastatic dissemination in hepatocellular carcinoma (reviews: Boissan and Lacombe, 2006 and An et al., 2010) and gallbladder carcinoma (Lee and Pirdas-Zivcic, 1994; Yang et al., 2008) but this is not always the case (Lin et al., 1998). Boissan et al. (2010) noted a low NME1 expression at the invasive front of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, highly aggressive hepatocarcinoma cell lines exhibited a decrease level of NME1 as compared to less aggressive counterpart (Lin et al., 1995; Qin et al., 2007). NME1 overexpression, induced by transfection in the H7721 hepatocarcinoma cell line, inhibited cell migration and invasion (She et al., 2010). Conversely, NME1 silencing in non-aggressive hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF5 (Boissan et al., 2010), induced several parameters of a "metastatic phenotype" (loss of cell-cell contacts, increased motility and invasion).
Entity name
Lung carcinoma
In lung carcinoma, an inverse association with metastatic spread was reported by several studies (Huwer et al., 1994; Lai et al., 1996; Kawakubo et al., 1997; Ohta et al., 2001; Graham et al., 2002; Katakura et al., 2002; Goncharuk et al., 2004; Tang et al., 2005; Chen et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2011) but was not found by others (Higashiyama et al., 1992; Gazzeri et al., 1996; MacKinnon et al., 1997; Tomita et al., 1999; Wang et al., 2010). Some studies noted an increased level of NME1 in tumors as compared to non-tumoral tissue (Huwer et al., 1994; Gazzeri et al., 1996). Few studies reported a positive association between NME1 expression and metastatic dissemination to lymph nodes (Tomita et al., 2001). NME1 determination in bronchial lavages was proposed as a diagnostic tool for lung cancer (Huwer et al., 1997). In lung carcinoma cell lines, increased NME1 expression (Nie et al., 2008) and NME1 silencing (Zhao et al., 2013) decreased invasion and increased TGFβ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition, respectively.
Entity name
An inverse correlation between NME1 mRNA levels and malignant potential of melanoma was reported in several studies (Flørenes et al., 1992; Xerri et al., 1994). This correlation was also found by immunohistochemical studies (Lee et al., 1996; Sarris et al., 2004; Ferrari et al., 2007), one including more than 100 patients (McDermott et al., 2000). However, other studies, including fewer cases, concluded to a lack of correlation (Easty et al., 1996; Saitoh et al., 1996; van den Oord et al., 1997).
In uveal melanoma, high NME1 expression was related to better survival rate (Bakalian et al., 2007) and, inversely, with prognostic factors of metastasis (Greco et al., 1997). Moreover, the high expression of NME1 mRNA and NME1 protein in derived-cell lines from human uveal melanomas is closely correlated with a reduced metastatic behavior in experimental animals (Ma et al., 1996). In accordance with its role as a metastasis suppressor, NME1 deficiency promotes metastasis in a UV radiation-induced mouse model of human melanoma (Jarrett et al., 2013). Enforced expression of NME1 in aggressive melanoma cell lines inhibited their metastatic potential (Leone et al., 1991; Zabrenetzky et al., 1994).
Entity name
Colorectal cancer
Concerning colorectal cancers (CRC), data about NME1 expression are highly conflicting. An enhanced NME1 expression was noted in CRC as compared to normal adjacent tissues at the mRNA (Ayhan et al., 1993; Myeroff and Markowitz, 1993; Yamaguchi et al., 1993; Zeng et al., 1994; Martinez et al., 1995; Okuno et al., 2001) as well as at the protein (Haut et al., 1991; Ayhan et al., 1993; Martinez et al., 1995; Sarris and Lee, 2001; Kapitanovic et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2011; Alvarez-Chaver et al., 2011) levels. Several studies reported 1) an inverse correlation with tumor stages (Cheah et al., 1998) and metastatic spread (Ayhan et al., 1993; Yamaguchi et al., 1993; Royds et al., 1994a; Martinez et al., 1995; Tannapfel et al., 1997; Dursun et al., 2002; Bertucci et al., 2004; Su and Li, 2004; Kapitanovic et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2005; Elagoz et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2011) or 2) no correlation (Haut et al., 1991; Myeroff and Markowitz, 1993; Ichikawa, 1994; Heide et al., 1994; Lindmark, 1996; Heys et al., 1998; Tabuchi et al., 1999; Lee et al., 2001; Dusonchet et al., 2003; Soliani et al., 2004; Qian et al., 2012) and 3) even a positive correlation with aggressiveness (Berney et al., 1999; Brenner et al., 2003). Boissan et al. (2010) observed a low NME1 expression at the invasive front of CRC.
In contrast to other cancers, for which NME1 LOH was rarely reported, several studies reported LOH for NME1 gene in CRC (Lamb et al., 1996; Lenehan et al., 1997; Sugai et al., 2000; Tsai et al., 2002; Kapitanovic et al., 2004). Allelic loss was correlated with advanced stage of the disease (Kapitanovic et al., 2004), shorter disease free and overall patient survival (Campo et al., 1994) and with formation of distant metastases (Wang et al., 1993; Cohn et al., 1997; Yang et al., 2008) or not correlated (Lamb et al., 1996). In addition, few studies reported no allellic loss of NME1 in CRC (Heide et al., 1994; Cawkwell et al., 1994).
Enhanced expression of NME1 by transfection in colon cancer cell lines reduced their migratory ability and their metastatic potential to the liver (Suzuki et al., 2004). Conversely, silencing NME1 expression by SiRNA in the colon cancer cell line, HCT8/S11, induced a "metastatic phenotype" (Boissan et al., 2010).
Entity name
Gastric carcinoma
In gastric carcinoma, many studies reported a negative correlation between NME1 expression in the primary tumors and advanced stage of the disease (Yang et al., 2008), metastatic dissemination (Kodera et al., 1994; Kim et al., 1995; Ura et al., 1996; Wang et al., 1999; Terada et al., 2002; Li et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2005; Guan-Zhen et al., 2007) and overall poor survival (Ura et al., 1996; Terada et al., 2002; Li et al., 2003). However, in some studies, NME1 expression was not correlated (Müller et al., 1998; Yoo et al., 1999; Lee et al., 2003; Mönig et al., 2007; Wang LB et al., 2008) or positively correlated (Wang et al., 1998; Nesi et al., 2001) with metastasis and poor survival.
Entity name
Ovarian carcinoma
In ovarian cancers, conflicting results were obtained. If several studies observed an inverse correlation with metastatic dissemination and/or poor patient survival (Mandai et al., 1994; Kapitanovic et al., 1995; Okubo et al., 1995; Scambia et al., 1996; Ferrandina et al., 1996; Qian et al., 1997; Galani et al., 2002; Hua et al., 2008), other studies did not observed any correlation (Baekelandt et al., 1999) and others reported a positive correlation with advanced stages, lymph node invasion or shorter overall survival (Leary et al., 1995; Harlozinska et al., 1996; Schneider et al., 2000; Arik and Kulacoglu, 2011). NME1 overexpression induced by transfection inhibited the metastatic potential of aggressive ovarian cancer cells (Li et al., 2006).
Entity name
In neuroblastoma, all studies reported an enhanced expression of NME1 in tumors, correlated, when evaluated, with a poor prognosis (Hailat et al., 1991; Leone et al., 1993b; Chang et al., 1994; Hiyama et al., 2004; Garcia et al., 2012). In accordance with a metastatic promoting role, enhanced NME1 expression in the NB69 neuroblastoma cell line increased cell migration and metastatic potential (Almgren et al., 2004). A S120G mutation of Nme1 was found in aggressive cases (Chang et al., 1994).
Entity name
In several hematopoietic malignancies, NME1 was overexpressed and this high expression was positively correlated with poor prognosis. This was the case for acute myeloid leukemia (Yokoyama et al., 1996; Okabe-Kado et al., 1998; Wakimoto et al., 1998; Yokoyama et al., 1998; Cui et al., 2004), for Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma (Aryee et al., 1996; Lee et al., 2006), for acute lymphoid leukemia (Koomägi et al., 1998; Ning et al., 2009), for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2003a; Huang et al., 2006; Niitsu et al., 2011) and for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2004). Interestingly, the poor prognosis can be evaluated by ELISA test of the NME1 level in patient sera for Hodgkin lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2008) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2001a; Niitsu et al., 2001b), for acute myeloid leukemia (Niitsu et al., 2000), for myelodysplastic syndrome (Ito et al., 2002), for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2004; Niitsu et al., 2006) and for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (Niitsu et al., 2003b). However, Bircan et al. (Bircan et al., 2008) reported that the increased NME1 expression was of no prognostic value in a series of Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma. Pointing to a role of extracellular NME1, recombinant NME1 protein was shown to promote the survival of acute myeloid leukemia blast cells (Okabe-Kado et al., 2009a; Lilly et al., 2011) but to decrease the survival of primary cultured normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Okabe-Kado et al., 2009b).
Entity name
Other cancers
NME1 has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in other types of cancer with various results, against pointing to a potential interest of NME1 as a metastasis suppressor specifically in carcinoma.
Controversial data have been obtained for prostate cancers (reviewed in: Myers and Grizzle, 1997). Several studies reported NME1 overexpression in tumor cells as compared to normal prostatic tissue (Myers et al., 1996; Jensen et al., 1996; Igawa et al., 1996; Luo et al., 2001; Prowatke et al., 2007). NME1 expression was shown to be inversely correlated with metastatic dissemination (Konishi et al., 1993; Stravodimos et al., 2000; Ding et al., 2006), of no prognostic interest (Borchers et al., 1996; Prowatke et al., 2007) or even related to advanced stage of the disease (Igawa et al., 1994) and poor prognosis (Andolfo et al., 2011). Interestingly, NME1 overexpression induced by transfection in PC3 prostate cancer cells, inhibited cell motility (Andolfo et al., 2011).
Few reports exist for pancreas cancers. Friess et al. (Friess et al., 2001) reported that early pancreatic cancer stages exhibited higher NME1 immunostaining than advanced tumor stages, while Nakamori et al. (Nakamori et al., 1993) observed that NME1 expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis.
In thyroid cancers, several studies reported an increased expression in primary tumors (Zou et al., 1993; Ferenc et al., 2004; Al-Maghrabi and Asa, 2005) and a reduced expression in the metastatic lymph nodes (Arai et al., 1995; Shirahige et al., 1997), most often not correlated with patient survival (Luo et al., 1993; Farley et al., 1993; Zou et al., 1993; Royds et al., 1994b; Okubo et al., 1995; Al-Maghrabi and Asa, 2005; Tabriz et al., 2009). Zafon et al. (2001) observed a decreased expression in metastatic lymph nodes from papillary and follicular carcinomas, correlated with a decreased overall patient survival in follicular carcinoma. Bertheau et al. (1994) noted a nuclear NME1 labeling associated with a longer disease free survival.
For head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, several studies pointed to the absence of prognostic interest for NME1 (Takes et al., 2001; Tsuzuki et al., 2005; Sheikh et al., 2006; Mhawech-Fauceglia et al., 2007). However, some authors reported a lower NME1 level in lymph nodes as compared to the primary tumor (Takes et al., 2001; Wang YF et al., 2008) or an inverse correlation with lymph node invasion but not associated with better survival (Song et al., 2000). McDonald et al. (1996) have shown that a high NME1 expression in the primary tumor predicts a favorable outcome although the reverse was found by another study (Pavelic et al., 2000). Wang YF et al. (2008) have observed a low NME1 level in lymph node metastases of patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma and that induced NME1 overexpression in these cancer derived cell lines decreased their invasive potential.
In osteosarcoma, a positive immunoreactivity was detected in tumoral cells (Oda et al., 1995; Liao et al., 2000), but no correlation (Liao et al., 2000; Ozger et al., 2009) or a positive correlation (Oda et al., 2000) between NME1 expression and metastatic spread was observed.
Two studies reported that NME1 expression could possess a diagnostic interest by discriminating between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma (Ohta et al., 2005; Saffar et al., 2011) with a lower expression in malignant tumors. This observation should be confirmed by larger studies.


Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
159518582005Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. An immunohistological assessment.Al-Maghrabi JA et al
152804462004Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A/nm23-H1 promotes metastasis of NB69-derived human neuroblastoma.Almgren MA et al
213856322011Selection of putative colorectal cancer markers by applying PCA on the soluble proteome of tumors: NDK A as a promising candidate.Alvarez-Chaver P et al
209341132010Expressions of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (nm23) in tumor tissues are related with metastasis and length of survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.An R et al
215530042011Correlation of NM23-H1 cytoplasmic expression with metastatic stage in human prostate cancer tissue.Andolfo I et al
76176491995Preferential reduction of nm23-H1 gene product in metastatic tissues from papillary and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.Arai T et al
214694252011P53, bcl-2, and nm23 expressions in serous ovarian tumors: correlation with the clinical and histopathological parameters.Arik D et al
89567791996Variability of nm23-H1/NDPK-A expression in human lymphomas and its relation to tumour aggressiveness.Aryee DN et al
80994591993Reduced expression of nm23 protein is associated with advanced tumor stage and distant metastases in human colorectal carcinomas.Ayhan A et al
106314621999The significance of metastasis-related factors cathepsin-D and nm23 in advanced ovarian cancer.Baekelandt M et al
178855832007Expression of nm23-H1 in uveal melanoma.Bakalian S et al
185107812008Expression of nm23 in the spectrum of pre-invasive, invasive and metastatic breast lesions.Bal A et al
122340272002Nm23 gene product expression in invasive breast cancer--immunohistochemical analysis and clinicopathological correlation.Belev B et al
104507311999Protein markers in colorectal cancer: predictors of liver metastasis.Berney CR et al
95637801998C-erbB-2, p53, and nm23 gene product expression in breast cancer in young women: immunohistochemical analysis and clinicopathologic correlation.Bertheau P et al
149735502004Gene expression profiling of colon cancer by DNA microarrays and correlation with histoclinical parameters.Bertucci F et al
24752431989Association of low nm23 RNA levels in human primary infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas with lymph node involvement and other histopathological indicators of high metastatic potential.Bevilacqua G et al
103328711999Nm23-transfected MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells form tumors with altered phospholipid metabolism and pH: a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study in vivo and in vitro.Bhujwalla ZM et al
183012512008nm23-H1 expression in non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas.Bircan S et al
208414692010Implication of metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 in maintaining adherens junctions and limiting the invasive potential of human cancer cells.Boissan M et al
169443042006Nm23/NDP kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma.Boissan M et al
159283042005Increased lung metastasis in transgenic NM23-Null/SV40 mice with hepatocellular carcinoma.Boissan M et al
86183401996NM23 gene expression in human prostatic carcinomas and benign prostatic hyperplasias: altered expression in combined androgen blockaded carcinomas.Borchers H et al
193735462009Subcellular localization of Nm23/NDPK A and B isoforms: a reflection of their biological function?Bosnar MH et al
126784752003Analysis of both NM23-h1 and NM23-H2 expression identifies "at-risk" patients with colorectal cancer.Brenner AS et al
90368781997NM23 gene expression in human breast carcinomas: loss of correlation with cell proliferation in the advanced phase of tumor progression.Caligo MA et al
81999881994Prognostic significance of the loss of heterozygosity of Nm23-H1 and p53 genes in human colorectal carcinomas.Campo E et al
79470851994Frequency of allele loss of DCC, p53, RBI, WT1, NF1, NM23 and APC/MCC in colorectal cancer assayed by fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction.Cawkwell L et al
80471381994Nm23-H1 mutation in neuroblastoma.Chang CL et al
92914311997Automated and quantitative immunocytochemical assays of Nm23/NDPK protein in breast carcinomas.Charpin C et al
150400162004Expression of heparanase gene, CD44v6, MMP-7 and nm23 protein and their relationship with the invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinomas.Chen JQ et al
172781922007Survey of molecular profiling during human colon cancer development and progression by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray.Chen WC et al
157779722005Expression of E-cadherin and nm23 is associated with the clinicopathological factors of human non-small cell lung cancer in China.Chen XF et al
90100961997The significance of allelic deletions and aneuploidy in colorectal carcinoma. Results of a 5-year follow-up study.Cohn KH et al
155019662004Proteomic analysis of human acute leukemia cells: insight into their classification.Cui JW et al
210856022010Nme gene family evolutionary history reveals pre-metazoan origins and high conservation between humans and the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.Desvignes T et al
173482072006[Study on the correlationship between the expression of nm23H1mRNA, TGF-beta1mRNA and tumor metastases, survival rate with prostate cancer].Ding GF et al
152699842004[Expression of sialylated carbohydrate antigens and nm23-H1 gene in prognosis of breast cancer].Ding KF et al
219137432011Expression patterns of ER, HER2, and NM23-H1 in breast cancer patients with different menopausal status: correlations with metastasis.Dong SW et al
124083412002Prognostic implication of nm23-H1 expression in colorectal carcinomas.Dursun A et al
128836902003Nm23-H1 expression does not predict clinical survival in colorectal cancer patients.Dusonchet L et al
86794421996Expression of NM23 in human melanoma progression and metastasis.Easty DJ et al
165549122006The intratumoral microvessel density and expression of bFGF and nm23-H1 in colorectal cancer.Elagoz S et al
82733821993Expression of a potential metastasis suppressor gene (nm23) in thyroid neoplasms.Farley DR et al
157572022004Analysis of nm23-H1 protein immunoreactivity in follicular thyroid tumors.Ferenc T et al
86516071996NM23 in Ovarian Cancer. Correlation with clinicopathological and biochemical parameters.Ferrandina G et al
176969182007Dermatopathological indicators of poor melanoma prognosis are significantly inversely correlated with the expression of NM23 protein in primary cutaneous melanoma.Ferrari D et al
13566241992Levels of nm23 messenger RNA in metastatic malignant melanomas: inverse correlation to disease progression.Flørenes VA et al
113313212001Differential expression of metastasis-associated genes in papilla of vater and pancreatic cancer correlates with disease stage.Friess H et al
121749142002Correlation of MDR-1, nm23-H1 and H Sema E gene expression with histopathological findings and clinical outcome in ovarian and breast cancer patients.Galani E et al
223285612012A three-gene expression signature model for risk stratification of patients with neuroblastoma.Garcia I et al
85691781996Overexpression of nucleoside diphosphate/kinase A/nm23-H1 protein in human lung tumors: association with tumor progression in squamous carcinoma.Gazzeri S et al
18511581991Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from human erythrocytes. Structural characterization of the two polypeptide chains responsible for heterogeneity of the hexameric enzyme.Gilles AM et al
123750202002Lack of prognostic significance of nm23 expression in human primary breast cancer.Göhring UJ et al
151299042004Co-downregulation of PTEN, KAI-1, and nm23-H1 tumor/metastasis suppressor proteins in non-small cell lung cancer.Goncharuk VN et al
78920431994Evaluation of the expression levels of nm23-H1 mRNA in primary breast cancer, benign breast disease, axillary lymph nodes and normal breast tissue.Goodall RJ et al
118960682002Increased nm23 immunoreactivity is associated with selective inhibition of systemic tumour cell dissemination.Graham AN et al
91955621997An immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 gene product expression in uveal melanoma.Greco IM et al
175044472007Reduced protein expression of metastasis-related genes (nm23, KISS1, KAI1 and p53) in lymph node and liver metastases of gastric cancer.Guan-Zhen Y et al
20561281991High levels of p19/nm23 protein in neuroblastoma are associated with advanced stage disease and with N-myc gene amplification.Hailat N et al
89003771996nm23 expression in tissue sections and tumor effusion cells of ovarian neoplasms.Harłozińska A et al
20232731991Induction of nm23 gene expression in human colonic neoplasms and equal expression in colon tumors of high and low metastatic potential.Haut M et al
79810871994Expression and mutational analysis of Nm23-H1 in liver metastases of colorectal cancer.Heide I et al
106675802000Separating favorable from unfavorable prognostic markers in breast cancer: the role of E-cadherin.Heimann R et al
19940571991Expression of the antimetastatic gene nm23 in human breast cancer: an association with good prognosis.Hennessy C et al
95381871998NM23 gene product expression does not predict lymph node metastases or survival in young patients with colorectal cancer.Heys SD et al
13258271992Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 gene product/NDP kinase expression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma: lack of prognostic value.Higashiyama M et al
146916372004Expression profiling of favorable and unfavorable neuroblastomas.Hiyama E et al
189493582008Estrogen and progestin regulate metastasis through the PI3K/AKT pathway in human ovarian cancer.Hua K et al
171663782006[Expression and clinical significance of nm23-H1 and MUC-1 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma].Huang HQ et al
78634931994Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: does the nm23 gene expression correlate to the tumor stage?Huwer H et al
90801431997Expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene nm23 in the bronchial system of patients with squamous cell lung cancer.Huwer H et al
75375071994Positive relationship between expression of CD44 and hepatic metastases in colorectal cancer.Ichikawa W et al
81188211994High levels of nm23 expression are related to cell proliferation in human prostate cancer.Igawa M et al
89319741996Association of nm23 protein levels in human prostates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression at autopsy.Igawa M et al
118402812002Elevated plasma level of differentiation inhibitory factor nm23-H1 protein correlates with risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome.Ito Y et al
226993622013NM23 deficiency promotes metastasis in a UV radiation-induced mouse model of human melanoma.Jarrett SG et al
87384061996Increased levels of nm23 H1/nucleoside diphosphate kinase A mRNA associated with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.Jensen SL et al
84818971993Inhibition of cell motility after nm23 transfection of human and murine tumor cells.Kantor JD et al
155636742004nm23-H1 expression and loss of heterozygosity in colon adenocarcinoma.Kapitanović S et al
119962412002Clinical significance of nm23 expression in resected pathologic-stage I, non-small cell lung cancer.Katakura H et al
91940301997Expression of nm23 protein in pulmonary adenocarcinomas: inverse 1orrelation to tumor progression.Kawakubo Y et al
89242241995Expression of p53 and NDP-K/nm23 in gastric carcinomas--association with metastasis and clinicopathologic parameters.Kim KM et al
82933861994Expression of nm23 H-1 RNA levels in human gastric cancer tissues. A negative correlation with nodal metastasis.Kodera Y et al
76936351993Expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 proteins in prostate carcinoma.Konishi N et al
98914831998nm23-H1 protein expression in newly diagnosed and relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Koomägi R et al
16598431991Overexpression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Nm23) in solid tumours.Lacombe ML et al
88935911996Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23-H1 in stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a useful marker in prediction of metastases.Lai WW et al
86310331996Allelic imbalance at NME1 in microdissected primary and metastatic human colorectal carcinomas is frequent but not associated with metastasis to lymph nodes or liver.Lamb RF et al
76223071995Increased expression of the NME1 gene is associated with metastasis in epithelial ovarian cancer.Leary JA et al
89123481996Immunohistochemical demonstration of the nm23-H1 gene product in human malignant melanoma and Spitz nevi.Lee CS et al
112238262001Reappraisal of the role of NM23-H1 in colorectal cancers.Lee JC et al
168918072006nm23-H1 protein expression and gene mutation in 150 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.Lee JH et al
194154622009Altered gene and protein expression by Nm23-H1 in metastasis suppression.Lee JH et al
128108312003Prognostic significance of p53, nm23, PCNA and c-erbB-2 in gastric cancer.Lee KE et al
90570381997Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability at the DCC and nm23 loci in Duke's B colorectal carcinoma.Lenehan K et al
83956761993Transfection of human nm23-H1 into the human MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cell line: effects on tumor metastatic potential, colonization and enzymatic activity.Leone A et al
83843561993Evidence for nm23 RNA overexpression, DNA amplification and mutation in aggressive childhood neuroblastomas.Leone A et al
161799302006Inhibition of ovarian cancer metastasis by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of nm23H1 in an orthotopic implantation model.Li J et al
129695352003[Expression of MUC1, CD44v6, nm23 in gastric carcinomas and regional lymph node tissues and their association with invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of the tumor].Li Y et al
111039612000Expression of nm23 protein in human osteosarcoma in relationship with early metastasis.Liao WM et al
205365572010Granzyme A activates another way to die.Lieberman J et al
211694122011Nm23-h1 indirectly promotes the survival of acute myeloid leukemia blast cells by binding to more mature components of the leukemic clone.Lilly AJ et al
85292111995Increased invasive activity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells is associated with an overexpression of thyroid hormone beta 1 nuclear receptor and low expression of the anti-metastatic nm23 gene.Lin KH et al
95681751998Significance of nm23 mRNA expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.Lin LI et al
220240622011Tissue microarrays in Chinese human rectal cancer: study of expressions of the tumor-associated genes.Lin MS et al
89125371996NM-23 H1 immunohistochemistry is not useful as predictor of metastatic potential of colorectal cancer.Lindmark G et al
214950342011Prognostic impact of nm23-H1 and PCNA expression in pathologic stage I non-small cell lung cancer.Liu C et al
164253512005Expression and significance of CD44s, CD44v6, and nm23 mRNA in human cancer.Liu YJ et al
150499002004Metastasis in pleural mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical markers for disseminated disease.Lumb PD et al
114065372001Human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: molecular dissection by gene expression profiling.Luo J et al
83964791993Immunohistochemical analysis of expression of nm23-H1/nucleoside diphosphate kinase in human thyroid carcinomas: lack of correlation between its expression and lymph node metastasis.Luo W et al
88439131996Association between NM23-H1 gene expression and metastasis of human uveal melanoma in an animal model.Ma D et al
91962971997p53, c-erbB-2 and nm23 expression have no prognostic significance in primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma.MacKinnon M et al
79079451994Expression of metastasis-related nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 genes in ovarian carcinomas: correlation with clinicopathology, EGFR, c-erbB-2, and c-erbB-3 genes, and sex steroid receptor expression.Mandai M et al
111794912001Loss of nm23 expression predicts distal metastases and poorer survival for breast cancer.Mao H et al
217133832011Protein-protein interactions: a mechanism regulating the anti-metastatic properties of Nm23-H1.Marino N et al
227067792012Insights into the biology and prevention of tumor metastasis provided by the Nm23 metastasis suppressor gene.Marino N et al
85499511995Overexpression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 genes in colorectal carcinomas and loss of nm23-H1 expression in advanced tumour stages.Martinez JA et al
106570132000Immunohistochemical expression of nm23 in primary invasive malignant melanoma is predictive of survival outcome.McDermott NC et al
111735801996nm23-H1 Expression in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.McDonald JS et al
166989502007Value of ezrin, maspin and nm23-H1 protein expressions in predicting outcome of patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy.Mhawech-Fauceglia P et al
176954922007Clinical significance of nm23 gene expression in gastric cancer.Mönig SP et al
98744521998Expression of nm23 in gastric carcinoma: association with tumor progression and poor prognosis.Müller W et al
84183041993Increased nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 messenger RNA expression and absence of mutations in colon carcinomas of low and high metastatic potential.Myeroff LL et al
91525211997Changes in biomarker expression in the development of prostatic adenocarcinoma.Myers RB et al
88925851996Expression of nm23-H1 in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma.Myers RB et al
83830291993Expression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase/nm23 gene product in human pancreatic cancer: an association with lymph node metastasis and tumor invasion.Nakamori S et al
118485372001Expression of nm23 gene in gastric cancer is associated with a poor 5-year survival.Nesi G et al
126015552003Isolation and characterization of a novel human NM23-H1B gene, a different transcript of NM23-H1.Ni X et al
207319322008[The mechanism and influence on the biological behavior of human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell lines with transfection of nm23-H1 gene.].Nie Q et al
168058252006Phase II study of the CPT-11, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone regimen in combination with rituximab in elderly patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Niitsu N et al
214783362011Expression of nm23-H1 is associated with poor prognosis in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified.Niitsu N et al
127507202003Serum levels of the nm23-H1 protein and their clinical implication in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.Niitsu N et al
201136512009[Expression of nm23 H(1) gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the relationship between nm23 H(1) expression and immunophenotype].Ning F et al
119206472002Potential markers predicting distant metastasis in axillary node-negative breast carcinoma.Niu Y et al
108726652000Comparison of histological changes and changes in nm23 and c-MET expression between primary and metastatic sites in osteosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.Oda Y et al
75931311995Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in malignant bone tumors.Oda Y et al
155236992005Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma.Ohta S et al
112679482001The predictive value of vascular endothelial growth factor and nm23 for the diagnosis of occult metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.Ohta Y et al
196552212009Extracellular NM23-H1 protein inhibits the survival of primary cultured normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and activates the cytokine production.Okabe-Kado J et al
85214521995Expression of nm23-H1 gene product in thyroid, ovary, and breast cancers.Okubo T et al
112279512001Gene expression analysis in colorectal cancer using practical DNA array filter.Okuno K et al
192936132009[The effect of resistance-related proteins on the prognosis and survival of patients with osteosarcoma: an immunohistochemical analysis].Ozger H et al
107945472000Increased activity of nm23-H1 gene in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is associated with advanced disease and poor prognosis.Pavelić K et al
171464772007Expression analysis of imbalanced genes in prostate carcinoma using tissue microarrays.Prowatke I et al
230985012012Multivariate analysis of molecular indicators for postoperative liver metastasis in colorectal cancer cases.Qian LY et al
95942871997Expression of antimetastatic gene nm23-H1 in epithelial ovarian cancer.Qian M et al
179645172007Proliferation and migration mediated by Dkk-1/Wnt/beta-catenin cascade in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Qin X et al
196620922009Genome-wide profile of pleural mesothelioma versus parietal and visceral pleura: the emerging gene portrait of the mesothelioma phenotype.Røe OD et al
25099411989Reduced Nm23/Awd protein in tumour metastasis and aberrant Drosophila development.Rosengard AM et al
81959291994Nm23 'anti-metastatic' gene product expression in colorectal carcinoma.Royds JA et al
78087921994Nm23 protein expression in thyroid neoplasms.Royds JA et al
97432881998Relationship of nm23 to proteolytic factors, proliferation and motility in breast cancer tissues and cell lines.Russell RL et al
215943411996nm23-H1 protein immunohistochemical expression in human breast cancer.Russo A et al
213501022011Expression of galectin-3, nm-23, and cyclooxygenase-2 could potentially discriminate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.Saffar H et al
89715561996Expression of metastasis suppressor gene product, nm23 protein, is not inversely correlated with the tumour progression in human malignant melanomas.Saitoh K et al
112897542001nm23 protein expression in colorectal carcinoma metastasis in regional lymph nodes and the liver.Sarris M et al
150911902004Cytoplasmic expression of nm23 predicts the potential for cerebral metastasis in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.Sarris M et al
86367411996nm23 in ovarian cancer: correlation with clinical outcome and other clinicopathologic and biochemical prognostic parameters.Scambia G et al
108175012000nm23-H1 expression defines a high-risk subpopulation of patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma.Schneider J et al
206189912010Nm23-H1 suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell adhesion and migration on fibronectin by modulating glycosylation of integrin beta1.She S et al
165317622006NM-23 gene loss of heterozygosity and protein expression in high-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas.Sheikh H et al
215900441997Immunohistochemical detection of nm23-H1/NDP kinase in childhood thyroid carcinoma.Shirahige Y et al
151385552004Prognostic significance of nm23 gene product expression in patients with colorectal carcinoma treated with radical intent.Soliani P et al
106294902000Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.Song AU et al
33469121988Evidence for a novel gene associated with low tumor metastatic potential.Steeg PS et al
112684612000Immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and nm-23 H1 antioncogene in prostate cancer: divergent correlation with clinicopathological parameters.Stravodimos K et al
153346732004Lymphatic metastasis and nm23H1 genetic instability in Chinese colon cancer patients.Su ZH et al
107299182000Use of crypt isolation to determine loss of heterozygosity of multiple tumor suppressor genes in colorectal carcinoma.Sugai T et al
146396042004nm23-H1 reduces in vitro cell migration and the liver metastatic potential of colon cancer cells by regulating myosin light chain phosphorylation.Suzuki E et al
189966492009Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm.Tabriz HM et al
100307351999Expression of nm23-H1 in colorectal cancer: no association with metastases, histological stage, or survival.Tabuchi Y et al
114393612001Expression of genetic markers in lymph node metastases compared with their primary tumours in head and neck cancer.Takes RP et al
158901092005[Expressions of Nm23, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in non-small cell lung cancer and their correlations with metastasis and prognosis].Tang XJ et al
92197951997The prediction of lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer by expression of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase/nm23-H1 and histopathological variables.Tannapfel A et al
125129182002Clinical significance of nm23 expression and chromosome 17 numerical aberrations in primary gastric cancer.Terada R et al
117449912002Decreased nm23 expression, but not Ki-67 labeling index, is significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma.Terasaki-Fukuzawa Y et al
215568882011Mechanisms of non-metastatic 2 (NME2)-mediated control of metastasis across tumor types.Thakur RK et al
81021311993Reduced expression of nm23-H1, but not of nm23-H2, is concordant with the frequency of lymph-node metastasis of human breast cancer.Tokunaga Y et al
114041502001Expression of nm23-H1 gene product in mediastinal lymph nodes from lung cancer patients.Tomita M et al
86050981996Potential prognostic value in human breast cancer of cytosolic Nme1 protein detection using an original hen specific antibody.Toulas C et al
120639672002RER and LOH association with sporadic colorectal cancer in Taiwanese patients.Tsai MH et al
163652202005Reliability of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor as a prognostic factor for oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas.Tsuzuki H et al
90179551996The significance of nm23 protein expression in human gastric carcinomas.Ura H et al
164427752006Read-through transcript from NM23-H1 into the neighboring NM23-H2 gene encodes a novel protein, NM23-LV.Valentijn LJ et al
96491491998Combined analysis of differentiation inhibitory factor nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 as prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukaemia.Wakimoto N et al
21634581990Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate kinase highly homologous to Nm23 and Awd proteins involved in mammalian tumor metastasis and Drosophila development.Wallet V et al
96527891998Distant metastasis of gastric cancer is associated with elevated expression of the antimetastatic nm23 gene.Wang CS et al
79166501993Mutation in the nm23 gene is associated with metastasis in colorectal cancer.Wang L et al
183309572008Changes of histology and expression of MMP-2 and nm23-H1 in primary and metastatic gastric cancer.Wang LB et al
179181572008Nm23-H1 expression of metastatic tumors in the lymph nodes is a prognostic indicator of oral squamous cell carcinoma.Wang YF et al
118193971999nm23 expression in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with lymphoproliferation.Wang YK et al
206716112010Gene expression levels of CSNK1A1 and AAC-11, but not NME1, in tumor tissues as prognostic factors in NSCLC patients.Wang Z et al
79810811994NM23 expression in metastasis of malignant melanoma is a predictive prognostic parameter correlated with survival.Xerri L et al
96634281998Expression of nm23-H1 gene and Sialyl Lewis X antigen in breast cancer.Yamaguchi A et al
188107742008Relationship between nm23H1 genetic instability and clinical pathological characteristics in Chinese digestive system cancer patients.Yang YQ et al
94906651998Evaluation by multivariate analysis of the differentiation inhibitory factor nm23 as a prognostic factor in acute myelogenous leukemia and application to other hematologic malignancies.Yokoyama A et al
103620871999Prognostic significance of CD44 and nm23 expression in patients with stage II and stage IIIA gastric carcinoma.Yoo CH et al
98246221998Heterogeneous expression of nm23 gene product as a predictor of lymph nodal status in human breast cancer.Yoshida H et al
79279181994Expression of the extracellular matrix molecule thrombospondin inversely correlates with malignant progression in melanoma, lung and breast carcinoma cell lines.Zabrenetzky V et al
115028412001nm23-H1 immunoreactivity as a prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Zafon C et al
79470791994High level of Nm23-H1 gene expression is associated with local colorectal cancer progression not with metastases.Zeng ZS et al
231376492013nm23-H1 is a negative regulator of TGF-β1-dependent induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.Zhao R et al
163280382006nm23 is expressed in reactive mesothelium and is not useful for detection of malignant cells in serous effusions.Zimmerman RL et al
83941051993High levels of Nm23 gene expression in advanced stage of thyroid carcinomas.Zou M et al
91671781997Prognostic significance of nm23 protein expression in malignant melanoma. An immunohistochemical study.van den Oord JJ et al

Other Information

Locus ID:

NCBI: 4830
MIM: 156490
HGNC: 7849
Ensembl: ENSG00000239672


dbSNP: 4830
ClinVar: 4830
TCGA: ENSG00000239672


Gene IDTranscript IDUniprot

Expression (GTEx)



PathwaySourceExternal ID
Purine metabolismKEGGko00230
Pyrimidine metabolismKEGGko00240
Purine metabolismKEGGhsa00230
Pyrimidine metabolismKEGGhsa00240
Metabolic pathwaysKEGGhsa01100
Pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, UMP => UDP/UTP,CDP/CTPKEGGhsa_M00052
Adenine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, IMP => ADP,ATPKEGGM00049
Guanine ribonucleotide biosynthesis IMP => GDP,GTPKEGGM00050
Pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, UMP => UDP/UTP,CDP/CTPKEGGM00052
Adenine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, IMP => ADP,ATPKEGGhsa_M00049
Guanine ribonucleotide biosynthesis IMP => GDP,GTPKEGGhsa_M00050
Metabolism of nucleotidesREACTOMER-HSA-15869
Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphatesREACTOMER-HSA-499943

Protein levels (Protein atlas)

Not detected


Entity IDNameTypeEvidenceAssociationPKPDPMIDs
PA10005adefovir dipivoxilChemicalPathwayassociated


Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
121052132002Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor phosphorylation of kinase suppressor of Ras via a histidine protein kinase pathway.55
155926842005Reduced metastasis-suppressor gene mRNA-expression in breast cancer brain metastases.46
208414692010Implication of metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 in maintaining adherens junctions and limiting the invasive potential of human cancer cells.46
158704342005Medroxyprogesterone acetate elevation of Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor expression in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer.43
249700862014Membrane trafficking. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases fuel dynamin superfamily proteins with GTP for membrane remodeling.42
180898052007Nm23-H1 suppresses metastasis by inhibiting expression of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor EDG2.34
149605672004The metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 possesses 3'-5' exonuclease activity.32
187007472008Human metastasis regulator protein H-prune is a short-chain exopolyphosphatase.32
121635902002The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 interacts with EBNA3C at sequences located between the glutamine- and proline-rich domains and can cooperate in activation of transcription.31
197248522009CD44v6, MMP-7 and nuclear Cdx2 are significant biomarkers for prediction of lymph node metastasis in primary gastric cancer.28


Marie-Lise Lacombe ; Mathieu Boissan

NME1 (NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2013-02-01

Online version: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/gene/445/nme1