NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)

1999-02-01   Franz Watzinger , Thomas Lion 

Childrens Cancer Research Institute (CCRI), Kinderspitalgasse 6, A-1090 Vienna, Austria




Atlas Image
evolution of two N-ras mRNA transcripts
the slightly differing consensus sequence of the poly A addition site (AATATA instead of AATAAA) leads to inefficient processing and to two different RNA transcripts; exons that encode protein are shown as black boxes, untranslated exons as white boxes; the upstream untranslated exon is indicated as Exon -1


consists of seven exons, spread over 8kb of genomic DNA


inefficient processing of pre-mRNA reveals two different transcripts of 4.3kb and 2kb (see Fig), differing in the extension of the 3 end of the smaller message; the longer transcript is probably a result of an RNA-extension through the termination site



p21N-ras; regular RAS protein - characterized in the page


ubiquitously expressed


anchored to the inner surface of the plasma membrane


analogously to other GTP-binding proteins (such as Translation Elongation Factor EFTu or signal transducing G-Proteins) RAS proteins are involved in signal transduction pathways


ras gene family is part of the ras superfamily including the mammalian RAS, RAL, RAC, RHO, RAP, and RAB gene families and the yeast homologs like SEC4 and YPT1 genes; genes encode small monomeric proteins of low molecular mass (20-30 kDa) which share at least 30% homology to RAS proteins

Implicated in

Entity name
tumor (frequency of N-RAS mutations); references in Full Bibliography
Entity name
acute non lymphocytic leukemia and myelodysplasia (20-40%)
Entity name
chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia (0-10%)
Entity name
brain (0-15%)
Entity name
skin (0-20%)
Entity name
thyroid (0-60%)
Entity name
testis (0-40%)
Entity name
stomach (gastric tumors) (5%)
Entity name
testis liver (0-15%)


Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
67007141984Transforming ras genes from human melanoma: a manifestation of tumour heterogeneity?Albino AP et al
32922511988Incidence of ras gene mutations in neuroblastoma.Ballas K et al
21149811990ras oncogenes: their role in neoplasia.Barbacid M et al
25475131989ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review.Bos JL et al
89195451996Ras oncogene mutations in thyroid tumors: polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis from paraffin-embedded tissues.Capella G et al
13236011992Infrequent point mutations in codons 12 and 61 of ras oncogenes in human hepatocellular carcinomas.Challen C et al
91566601997N-ras gene point mutations in Brazilian acute myelogenous leukemia patients correlate with a poor prognosis.De Melo MB et al
36007951987A new oncogene in human thyroid papillary carcinomas and their lymph-nodal metastases.Fusco A et al
91374941997Mutation of ras oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma: association with histological phenotype.Kim TY et al
26482531989High frequency of ras oncogene activation in all stages of human thyroid tumorigenesis.Lemoine NR et al
91074281997Ras oncogene mutations in childhood brain tumors.Maltzman TH et al
14211671992ras activation in experimental carcinogenesis.Mangues R et al
18927761991No N-ras mutations in human uveal melanoma: the role of ultraviolet light revisited.Mooy CM et al
13819461992Detection of RAS mutations in archival testicular germ cell tumors by polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide hybridization.Moul JW et al
26824611989Activated ras genes in human seminoma: evidence for tumor heterogeneity.Mulder MP et al
15742461992Multiple point mutation of N-ras and K-ras oncogenes in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia.Nakagawa T et al
81238511994Prognostic importance of mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.Neubauer A et al
33077601987Human cancer and cellular oncogenes.Nishimura S et al
96394161998RAS, FMS and p53 mutations and poor clinical outcome in myelodysplasias: a 10-year follow-up.Padua RA et al
81436141993K-ras oncogene codon 12 point mutations in testicular cancer.Ridanpää M et al
85052021993Investigation of the role of the ras protooncogene point mutation in human uveal melanomas.Soparker CN et al
32836561988Detection of activated ras oncogenes in human thyroid carcinomas.Suárez HG et al
15447041992N-ras gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia: accurate detection by solid-phase minisequencing.Syvänen AC et al
17399101992High incidence of ras gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.Tada M et al
80331171994Absence of N-ras mutations in myeloid and lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.Watzinger F et al
95934691998Correlation of N-ras point mutations with specific chromosomal abnormalities in primary myelodysplastic Souza Fernandez T et al
26746801989N-ras mutations in human cutaneous melanoma from sun-exposed body sites.van 't Veer LJ et al

Other Information

Locus ID:

NCBI: 4893
MIM: 164790
HGNC: 7989
Ensembl: ENSG00000213281


dbSNP: 4893
ClinVar: 4893
TCGA: ENSG00000213281


Gene IDTranscript IDUniprot

Expression (GTEx)



PathwaySourceExternal ID
MAPK signaling pathwayKEGGko04010
ErbB signaling pathwayKEGGko04012
Autophagy - animalKEGGko04140
mTOR signaling pathwayKEGGko04150
Axon guidanceKEGGko04360
VEGF signaling pathwayKEGGko04370
Gap junctionKEGGko04540
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicityKEGGko04650
T cell receptor signaling pathwayKEGGko04660
B cell receptor signaling pathwayKEGGko04662
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathwayKEGGko04664
Long-term potentiationKEGGko04720
Long-term depressionKEGGko04730
Regulation of actin cytoskeletonKEGGko04810
Insulin signaling pathwayKEGGko04910
GnRH signaling pathwayKEGGko04912
Renal cell carcinomaKEGGko05211
Endometrial cancerKEGGko05213
Prostate cancerKEGGko05215
Thyroid cancerKEGGko05216
Bladder cancerKEGGko05219
Chronic myeloid leukemiaKEGGko05220
Acute myeloid leukemiaKEGGko05221
Non-small cell lung cancerKEGGko05223
MAPK signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04010
ErbB signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04012
Autophagy - animalKEGGhsa04140
mTOR signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04150
Axon guidanceKEGGhsa04360
VEGF signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04370
Gap junctionKEGGhsa04540
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicityKEGGhsa04650
T cell receptor signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04660
B cell receptor signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04662
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04664
Long-term potentiationKEGGhsa04720
Long-term depressionKEGGhsa04730
Regulation of actin cytoskeletonKEGGhsa04810
Insulin signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04910
GnRH signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04912
Pathways in cancerKEGGhsa05200
Renal cell carcinomaKEGGhsa05211
Endometrial cancerKEGGhsa05213
Prostate cancerKEGGhsa05215
Thyroid cancerKEGGhsa05216
Bladder cancerKEGGhsa05219
Chronic myeloid leukemiaKEGGhsa05220
Acute myeloid leukemiaKEGGhsa05221
Non-small cell lung cancerKEGGhsa05223
Chemokine signaling pathwayKEGGko04062
Chemokine signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04062
Neurotrophin signaling pathwayKEGGko04722
Neurotrophin signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04722
Hepatitis CKEGGko05160
Hepatitis CKEGGhsa05160
Cholinergic synapseKEGGhsa04725
HTLV-I infectionKEGGko05166
HTLV-I infectionKEGGhsa05166
Serotonergic synapseKEGGhsa04726
Viral carcinogenesisKEGGhsa05203
Viral carcinogenesisKEGGko05203
PI3K-Akt signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04151
PI3K-Akt signaling pathwayKEGGko04151
Hepatitis BKEGGhsa05161
Proteoglycans in cancerKEGGhsa05205
Proteoglycans in cancerKEGGko05205
Estrogen signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04915
Estrogen signaling pathwayKEGGko04915
Prolactin signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04917
Prolactin signaling pathwayKEGGko04917
MicroRNAs in cancerKEGGhsa05206
MicroRNAs in cancerKEGGko05206
Ras signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04014
Rap1 signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04015
Rap1 signaling pathwayKEGGko04015
FoxO signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04068
Thyroid hormone signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04919
Oxytocin signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04921
Oxytocin signaling pathwayKEGGko04921
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cellsKEGGhsa04550
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cellsKEGGko04550
Central carbon metabolism in cancerKEGGhsa05230
Choline metabolism in cancerKEGGhsa05231
Central carbon metabolism in cancerKEGGko05230
Choline metabolism in cancerKEGGko05231
Sphingolipid signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04071
Sphingolipid signaling pathwayKEGGko04071
Diseases of signal transductionREACTOMER-HSA-5663202
Signaling by EGFR in CancerREACTOMER-HSA-1643713
Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in CancerREACTOMER-HSA-5637815
Constitutive Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Cancer VariantsREACTOMER-HSA-1236382
Signaling by EGFRvIII in CancerREACTOMER-HSA-5637812
Constitutive Signaling by EGFRvIIIREACTOMER-HSA-5637810
Signaling by FGFR in diseaseREACTOMER-HSA-1226099
Signaling by FGFR1 in diseaseREACTOMER-HSA-5655302
Signaling by FGFR2 in diseaseREACTOMER-HSA-5655253
Signaling by FGFR3 in diseaseREACTOMER-HSA-5655332
Signaling by FGFR4 in diseaseREACTOMER-HSA-5655291
Immune SystemREACTOMER-HSA-168256
Adaptive Immune SystemREACTOMER-HSA-1280218
Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR)REACTOMER-HSA-983705
Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR)REACTOMER-HSA-1168372
Activation of RAS in B cellsREACTOMER-HSA-1169092
Innate Immune SystemREACTOMER-HSA-168249
DAP12 interactionsREACTOMER-HSA-2172127
DAP12 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-2424491
RAF/MAP kinase cascadeREACTOMER-HSA-5673001
RAF activationREACTOMER-HSA-5673000
MAP2K and MAPK activationREACTOMER-HSA-5674135
Negative regulation of MAPK pathwayREACTOMER-HSA-5675221
Regulation of RAS by GAPsREACTOMER-HSA-5658442
Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signalingREACTOMER-HSA-2454202
FCERI mediated MAPK activationREACTOMER-HSA-2871796
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs)REACTOMER-HSA-5621481
CD209 (DC-SIGN) signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5621575
Cytokine Signaling in Immune systemREACTOMER-HSA-1280215
Signaling by InterleukinsREACTOMER-HSA-449147
Interleukin-2 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-451927
Interleukin receptor SHC signalingREACTOMER-HSA-912526
Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signalingREACTOMER-HSA-512988
Cell surface interactions at the vascular wallREACTOMER-HSA-202733
Tie2 SignalingREACTOMER-HSA-210993
Signal TransductionREACTOMER-HSA-162582
Signaling by EGFRREACTOMER-HSA-177929
GRB2 events in EGFR signalingREACTOMER-HSA-179812
SHC1 events in EGFR signalingREACTOMER-HSA-180336
Signaling by FGFRREACTOMER-HSA-190236
Signaling by FGFR1REACTOMER-HSA-5654736
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1REACTOMER-HSA-5654687
FRS-mediated FGFR1 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5654693
SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR1REACTOMER-HSA-5654688
Signaling by FGFR2REACTOMER-HSA-5654738
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2REACTOMER-HSA-5654696
FRS-mediated FGFR2 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5654700
SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR2REACTOMER-HSA-5654699
Signaling by FGFR3REACTOMER-HSA-5654741
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3REACTOMER-HSA-5654708
FRS-mediated FGFR3 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5654706
SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3REACTOMER-HSA-5654704
Signaling by FGFR4REACTOMER-HSA-5654743
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4REACTOMER-HSA-5654716
FRS-mediated FGFR4 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5654712
SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4REACTOMER-HSA-5654719
Signaling by Insulin receptorREACTOMER-HSA-74752
Insulin receptor signalling cascadeREACTOMER-HSA-74751
IRS-mediated signallingREACTOMER-HSA-112399
SOS-mediated signallingREACTOMER-HSA-112412
Signalling by NGFREACTOMER-HSA-166520
NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membraneREACTOMER-HSA-187037
Signalling to ERKsREACTOMER-HSA-187687
Signalling to RASREACTOMER-HSA-167044
p38MAPK eventsREACTOMER-HSA-171007
Signalling to p38 via RIT and RINREACTOMER-HSA-187706
Prolonged ERK activation eventsREACTOMER-HSA-169893
Frs2-mediated activationREACTOMER-HSA-170968
ARMS-mediated activationREACTOMER-HSA-170984
Signaling by PDGFREACTOMER-HSA-186797
Downstream signal transductionREACTOMER-HSA-186763
Signaling by VEGFREACTOMER-HSA-194138
VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferationREACTOMER-HSA-5218921
Signaling by SCF-KITREACTOMER-HSA-1433557
Signaling by ERBB2REACTOMER-HSA-1227986
SHC1 events in ERBB2 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-1250196
GRB2 events in ERBB2 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-1963640
Signaling by ERBB4REACTOMER-HSA-1236394
SHC1 events in ERBB4 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-1250347
MAPK family signaling cascadesREACTOMER-HSA-5683057
MAPK1/MAPK3 signalingREACTOMER-HSA-5684996
Signaling by GPCRREACTOMER-HSA-372790
Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPKREACTOMER-HSA-881907
EGFR Transactivation by GastrinREACTOMER-HSA-2179392
Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R)REACTOMER-HSA-2404192
IGF1R signaling cascadeREACTOMER-HSA-2428924
SHC-related events triggered by IGF1RREACTOMER-HSA-2428933
IRS-related events triggered by IGF1RREACTOMER-HSA-2428928
Signaling by LeptinREACTOMER-HSA-2586552
Developmental BiologyREACTOMER-HSA-1266738
Axon guidanceREACTOMER-HSA-422475
NCAM signaling for neurite out-growthREACTOMER-HSA-375165
Phospholipase D signaling pathwayKEGGko04072
Phospholipase D signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04072
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complicationsKEGGko04933
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complicationsKEGGhsa04933
Longevity regulating pathwayKEGGhsa04211
Longevity regulating pathway - multiple speciesKEGGko04213
Longevity regulating pathway - multiple speciesKEGGhsa04213
Signaling by PTK6REACTOMER-HSA-8848021
PTK6 Regulates RHO GTPases, RAS GTPase and MAP kinasesREACTOMER-HSA-8849471
Signaling by FGFR3 point mutants in cancerREACTOMER-HSA-8853338
Signaling by FGFR3 fusions in cancerREACTOMER-HSA-8853334
EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistanceKEGGko01521
Endocrine resistanceKEGGko01522
EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistanceKEGGhsa01521
Endocrine resistanceKEGGhsa01522
RET signalingREACTOMER-HSA-8853659
Breast cancerKEGGko05224
Breast cancerKEGGhsa05224
Neutrophil degranulationREACTOMER-HSA-6798695
Oncogenic MAPK signalingREACTOMER-HSA-6802957
Signaling by RAS mutantsREACTOMER-HSA-6802949
Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutantsREACTOMER-HSA-6802948
Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutantsREACTOMER-HSA-6802946
Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAFREACTOMER-HSA-6802955
Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusionsREACTOMER-HSA-6802952
RAS signaling downstream of NF1 loss-of-function variantsREACTOMER-HSA-6802953
Signaling by METREACTOMER-HSA-6806834
MET activates RAS signalingREACTOMER-HSA-8851805
Apelin signaling pathwayKEGGhsa04371
Mitophagy - animalKEGGko04137
Mitophagy - animalKEGGhsa04137

Protein levels (Protein atlas)

Not detected


Entity IDNameTypeEvidenceAssociationPKPDPMIDs
PA10040cetuximabChemicalLabelAnnotation, VipGeneassociated26438111
PA153561371egfr inhibitorsChemicalVipGeneassociated26438111
PA162373091panitumumabChemicalLabelAnnotation, VipGeneassociated26438111
PA165946873vemurafenibChemicalLabelAnnotation, VipGeneassociated
PA166114911dabrafenibChemicalLabelAnnotation, VipGeneassociated
PA34183RAF1GenePathwayassociated20124951, 28362716
PA443622Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell LungDiseaseClinicalAnnotationassociatedPD21636554
PA444760Leukemia, Myeloid, AcuteDiseaseVipGeneassociated
PA446108Colorectal NeoplasmsDiseaseVipGeneassociated21305640


Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
211073232010Melanomas acquire resistance to B-RAF(V600E) inhibition by RTK or N-RAS upregulation.818
206197392010Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.666
206197392010Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.666
240248392013Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer.629
225892702012A comprehensive survey of Ras mutations in cancer.455
184506022008Mutations and treatment outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.422
227738102012Lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors occasionally harbor BRAF gene mutations but lack mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or MEK1.176
221801782012NRAS mutation status is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma.172
194872992009Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1.151
189809762008KIT gene mutations and copy number in melanoma subtypes.148


Franz Watzinger ; Thomas Lion

NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999-02-01

Online version: