Bladder: Squamous cell carcinoma

1999-10-01   Jean-Loup Huret , Claude Léonard 

1.Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers France

Classification

Classification

existence of different histologic types of bladder cancer:
  • sqamous cell carcinoma, herein described
  • transitional cell carcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma, rare
  • poorly differenciated carcinoma/small cell carcinoma, exceptional
  • Clinics and Pathology

    Etiology

    most often secondary to bilharzial infection (schistosoma haematobium), may be associated with other types of long term irritations: chronic infections, calculi, treatment with cyclophosphamid

    Epidemiology

    geographic areas of high incidence: represents 70 to 80% of the cases of badder cancer in the Middle East and in Africa, in particular in Egypt, were it is the most common adult cancer; only 5% in Europe and in the USA, where the transitional cell carcinoma represents 90-95 % of cases

    Pathology

    grading and staging: tumours are:
  • graded by the degree of cellular atypia (G0->G3), and
  • staged: pTIS carcinoma in situ (but high grade), and pTa papillary carcinoma, both mucosally confined; pT1 lamina propria invasive; pT2 infiltrates the superficial muscle, and pT3a, the deep mucle; pT3b invasion into perivesical fat; pT4 extends into neighbouring structures and organs
  • Atlas Image

    Prognosis

    considered to have a poorer prognosis than the transitional cell carcinoma

    Cytogenetics

    Cytogenetics morphological

    highly complex karyotypes, yet poorly known
  • allelic losses are frequent; the most frequent regions involved in loss of heterozygocity (LOH) are 3p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 17p; the karyotype is more complex in advanced grades/stages, as in transitional cell carcinoma
  • Chromosome 7: trisomy 7 seems to be more frequent than in transitional cell carcinoma, and is found more often in advanced stages; unknown significance as +7 may also be found in normal tissues
  • Chromosome 9: monosomy 9 is an early event and might even occur at dysplastic stages; allelic losses are frequent, mainly in 9p (65%), more often than for transitional cell carcinoma; LOH are found in particular in the locus where CDKN2/P16 sits; homozygous deletion of P16 is frequent (50%) and may also be found in squamous metaplasias from cancerous patients (but not in squamous metaplasias from non cancerous patients); trisomy 9, on the other hand, would be frequent in advance diseases
  • Chromosome 17: P53 is often implicated, especially in high grades/stages; the profile of mutations of P53 is different from what is found in transitional cell carcinoma
  • Cytogenetics molecular

    comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multi-FISH (M-FISH) are complementary tools to determine respectively unbalanced segments and structural rearrangements in these complex karyotypes

    Genes Involved and Proteins

    Note

    multistep process; largely unknown

    Bibliography

    Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
    107919251999Expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 in bladder cancer: relation to schistosomiasis.Eissa S et al
    107024042000DNA copy number changes in Schistosoma-associated and non-Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer.El-Rifai W et al
    95460641998Chromosomal abnormalities in two bladder carcinomas with secondary squamous cell differentiation.Fadl-Elmula I et al
    87121801996Aberrations of chromosomes 9 and 17 in bilharzial bladder cancer as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.Ghaleb AH et al
    76584991995High frequency of chromosome 9p allelic loss and CDKN2 tumor suppressor gene alterations in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.Gonzalez-Zulueta M et al
    97205351998Numerical aberrations of chromosomes 7, 9 and 17 in squamous cell and transitional cell cancer of the bladder: a comparative study performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.Pycha A et al
    100489621999Partial allelotype of schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer.Shaw ME et al
    98817041998Early acquisition of homozygous deletions of p16/p19 during squamous cell carcinogenesis and genetic mosaicism in bladder cancer.Tsutsumi M et al
    78750391994Bladder irrigation specimens assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to interphase nuclei.Wheeless LL et al

    External Links

    Citation

    Jean-Loup Huret ; Claude Léonard

    Bladder: Squamous cell carcinoma

    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999-10-01

    Online version: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/solid-tumor/5062/bladder-squamous-cell-carcinoma