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Trisomy 19

Clinics and Pathology

Disease Trisomy 19 (+19) as a sole karyotypic aberration is strongly associated with myeloid disorder. In a previously published literature review, among 31 patients with isolated +19, 25 were diagnosed with myeloid malignancy, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in 14 cases and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 11 cases. Four out of the 14 AML patients had a preceding MDS phase, with +19 appearing at the time of leukaemic transformation. None of the MDS or AML cases, however, had a history of exposure to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hence isolated +19 is associated with a subgroup of de novo myeloid disorder, in which the clinical characteristics and prognostic impact require further delineation.

As a secondary or additional abnormality, +19 is frequently encountered in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Though not as common as trisomy 8, i(17q) and extra Ph chromosome, +19 is nevertheless seen in up to 15% of CML patients with additional abnormalities.

Frequent gain of chromosome 19 or 19q was recently detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 4 out of 12 (33.3%) patients samples of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AML-M7) and 9 out of 11 (81.8%) megakaryoblastic cell lines. In none of the primary patient samples was the abnormality detected by G-banding analysis. In another study on childhood and adult AML-M7, +19 was detected in 7 out of 53 patients, although as an additional abnormality in all cases. It appears +19 may play a role in the pathogenesis of megakaryoblastic leukaemia.

Etiology Isolated +19 is probably associated with de novo myeloid disorders, as none of the AML and MDS cases with this abnormality reported had a history of prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy exposure.
Prognosis Although isolated +19 is strongly associated with myeloid disorders, most probably de novo disease, its prognostic significance requires further elucidation.

Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 +19 or trisomy 19

Bibliography

Trisomy 19 in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and thrombocytosis.
Humphries JE, Wheby MS
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1990 ; 44 (2) : 187-191.
PMID 2297677
 
Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.
Johansson B, Billstrˆm R, Mauritzson N, Mitelman F
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1994 ; 74 (1) : 62-65.
PMID 8194050
 
Frequent gain of chromosome 19 in megakaryoblastic leukemias detected by comparative genomic hybridization.
Alvarez S, MacGrogan D, Calasanz MJ, Nimer SD, Jhanwar SC
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 2001 ; 32 (3) : 285-293.
PMID 11579469
 
Chromosome 19 abnormalities are commonly seen in AML, M7.
Nimer SD, MacGrogan D, Jhanwar S, Alvarez S
Blood. 2002 ; 100 (10) : 3838-3839.
PMID 12411327
 
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Contributor(s)

Written06-2003Edmond S.K. Ma, Thomas S.K. Wan

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Ma, ESK ; Wan, TSK
+19 or trisomy 19
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2003;7(3):185-185.
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URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Anomalies/tri19ID1039.html

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indexed on : Fri Sep 5 13:11:14 CEST 2014


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