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LGALS3 (lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3)

Written2010-10Pratima Nangia-Makker, Vitaly Balan, Avraham Raz
Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 110 E Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesLGALS2
lectin
Alias_symbol (synonym)MAC-2
GALIG
Other aliasCBP35
GAL3
GALBP
L31
MAC2
HGNC (Hugo) LGALS3
LocusID (NCBI) 3958
Atlas_Id 44396
Location 14q22.3  [Link to chromosome band 14q22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 55129217 and ends at 55145430 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping LGALS3.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
FBXO34 (14q22.3) / LGALS3 (14q22.3)LGALS3 (14q22.3) / ATG12 (5q22.3)LGALS3 (14q22.3) / LGALS3 (14q22.3)
TBC1D17 (19q13.33) / LGALS3 (14q22.3)

DNA/RNA

Description Size 16277 bases.
Consists of at least 6 exons.
Transcription Two transcription initiation sites were identified in human LGALS3. These transcripts arise from an internal gene embedded within LGALS3, named galig (galectin-3 internal gene) (Barondes et al., 1994; Hirayabashi and Kasai, 1998).
Pseudogene None.

Protein

Description 250 amino acids; 26152 Da; The initial 12 amino acid N-terminal peptide sequence also called small N-terminal, precede the proline/glycin-rich repetitive domain consisting of about 100 amino acids. C-terminal consists of about 130 amino acids encoding carbohydrate-binding domain. Galectin-3 is the only chimeric protein among a family of 15 galectins known so far (Hirayabashi and Kasai, 1998).
Localisation In adults, galectin-3 is ubiquitously expressed and localizes to the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm and the nucleus (Hirayabashi and Kasai, 1998; Krzeslak and Lipinska, 2004).
Function Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding protein: a characteristic that it shares with other members of galectin family. The collagen alpha like N terminal sequence can be cleaved by Matrix metalloproteinases and the cleavage results in an enhanced binding efficiency to carbohydrates (Ochieng et al.,1994; Shekhar et al., 2004). Intra-cellularly it functions as an anti-apototic protein because of the presence of Asp-Trp-Gly-Arg (NWGR) motif at the C terminal (Akahani et al., 1997; Nakahara et al., 2005; Yang et al., 1996). NWGR is designated as the anti-death motif characteristic of the BCL2 family. Extra-cellular protein however, functions as a pro-apoptotic entity on T cells (Fukumori et al., 2003). Galectin-3 has also exhibited pro-angiogenic properties (Nangia-Makker et al., 2000).
Homology N-terminal domain has 33.5% identity with collagen alpha1 (II) chain of bovine cartilage, so it is also designated as a collagen-like N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain of galectin-3, forming a globular structure, accommodates whole carbohydrate-binding site, and is very similar to CRD of other lectins.

Mutations

Germinal P64H (rs4644), T98P (rs4652), R183K (rs10148371).
Functional germline mutation in the galectin-3 gene at position 191 (rs4644) substituting proline with histidine (P64H), which results in susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinase cleavage and acquisition of resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. This substitution correlates with incidence of breast cancer and racial disparity (Balan et al., 2008). Rs10148371 is localized in the anti-apoptotic motif NWGR.
Somatic None.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Various cancers
Disease Over-expression of galectin-3 was reported in the metastatic cell lines compared to their non-metastatic counterparts. Galectin-3 concentrations were significantly higher in the serum of patients with melanoma and breast cancer compared to the normal controls. In the tumor tissues, upregulation and/or redistribution of galectin-3 was shown in thyroid, colon, breast, gastric, prostate, melanoma and head and neck cancers, however, the data in some cases are not consistent (Dumic et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2008). Recently, it was reported in breast and prostate cancer that after cleavage by Matrix metalloproteases galectin-3 is not recognized by the commonly used monoclonal antibody TIB166 (Nangia-Makker et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2009), which could explain some of the discrepancy in the earlier reports.
  
  
Entity Autoimmune disease
Disease Galectin-3 plays a role in pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Endogenous protein promotes inflammatory response in asthma, pharmacological application of galectin-3 might suppress it (del Pozo et al., 2002; Zuberi et al., 2004), thus opening a new approach for future treatment of the disease. In Crohn's disease and systemic lupus, erythematosus and polymyositis/dermatomyositis anti-galectin-3 auto-antibodies were identified (Jensen-Jarolim et al., 2001; Lim et al., 2002). In sera and synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, galectin-3 level was found to be elevated (Ohshima et al., 2003).
Prognosis Galectin-3 is differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma compared with benign and normal thyroid specimens, suggesting that Galectin-3 is a good diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer (Chiu et al., 2010).
Oncogenesis Galectin-3 is not an oncogene, but helps in cancer progression once it is initiated.
  

To be noted

Acknowledgements: Supported by the National Institutes of Health (R37CA46120-19 to A.R).

Bibliography

Galectin-3: a novel antiapoptotic molecule with a functional BH1 (NWGR) domain of Bcl-2 family.
Akahani S, Nangia-Makker P, Inohara H, Kim HR, Raz A.
Cancer Res. 1997 Dec 1;57(23):5272-6.
PMID 9393748
 
Racial disparity in breast cancer and functional germ line mutation in galectin-3 (rs4644): a pilot study.
Balan V, Nangia-Makker P, Schwartz AG, Jung YS, Tait L, Hogan V, Raz T, Wang Y, Yang ZQ, Wu GS, Guo Y, Li H, Abrams J, Couch FJ, Lingle WL, Lloyd RV, Ethier SP, Tainsky MA, Raz A.
Cancer Res. 2008 Dec 15;68(24):10045-50.
PMID 19074869
 
Galectins. Structure and function of a large family of animal lectins.
Barondes SH, Cooper DN, Gitt MA, Leffler H.
J Biol Chem. 1994 Aug 19;269(33):20807-10. (REVIEW)
PMID 8063692
 
Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in thyroid cancer.
Chiu CG, Strugnell SS, Griffith OL, Jones SJ, Gown AM, Walker B, Nabi IR, Wiseman SM.
Am J Pathol. 2010 May;176(5):2067-81. Epub 2010 Apr 2.
PMID 20363921
 
Galectin-3: an open-ended story.
Dumic J, Dabelic S, Flogel M.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Apr;1760(4):616-35. Epub 2006 Jan 18. (REVIEW)
PMID 16478649
 
CD29 and CD7 mediate galectin-3-induced type II T-cell apoptosis.
Fukumori T, Takenaka Y, Yoshii T, Kim HR, Hogan V, Inohara H, Kagawa S, Raz A.
Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 1;63(23):8302-11.
PMID 14678989
 
Evolution of animal lectins.
Hirabayashi J, Kasai KI.
Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 1998;19:45-88. (REVIEW)
PMID 15898188
 
Anti-Galectin-3 IgG autoantibodies in patients with Crohn's disease characterized by means of phage display peptide libraries.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Neumann C, Oberhuber G, Gscheidlinger R, Neuchrist C, Reinisch W, Zuberi RI, Penner E, Liu FT, Boltz-Nitulescu G.
J Clin Immunol. 2001 Sep;21(5):348-56.
PMID 11720007
 
Galectin-3 as a multifunctional protein.
Krzes'lak A, Lipin'ska A.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2004;9(2):305-28. (REVIEW)
PMID 15213811
 
Identification of autoantibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lim Y, Lee DY, Lee S, Park SY, Kim J, Cho B, Lee H, Kim HY, Lee E, Song YW, Jeoung DI.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jul 5;295(1):119-24.
PMID 12083777
 
On the role of galectin-3 in cancer apoptosis.
Nakahara S, Oka N, Raz A.
Apoptosis. 2005 Mar;10(2):267-75. (REVIEW)
PMID 15843888
 
Galectin-3 cleavage: a novel surrogate marker for matrix metalloproteinase activity in growing breast cancers.
Nangia-Makker P, Raz T, Tait L, Hogan V, Fridman R, Raz A.
Cancer Res. 2007 Dec 15;67(24):11760-8.
PMID 18089806
 
Galectin-3 is a novel substrate for human matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9.
Ochieng J, Fridman R, Nangia-Makker P, Kleiner DE, Liotta LA, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Raz A.
Biochemistry. 1994 Nov 29;33(47):14109-14.
PMID 7947821
 
Galectin 3 and its binding protein in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ohshima S, Kuchen S, Seemayer CA, Kyburz D, Hirt A, Klinzing S, Michel BA, Gay RE, Liu FT, Gay S, Neidhart M.
Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Oct;48(10):2788-95.
PMID 14558084
 
Alterations in galectin-3 expression and distribution correlate with breast cancer progression: functional analysis of galectin-3 in breast epithelial-endothelial interactions.
Shekhar MP, Nangia-Makker P, Tait L, Miller F, Raz A.
Am J Pathol. 2004 Dec;165(6):1931-41.
PMID 15579437
 
Regulation of prostate cancer progression by galectin-3.
Wang Y, Nangia-Makker P, Tait L, Balan V, Hogan V, Pienta KJ, Raz A.
Am J Pathol. 2009 Apr;174(4):1515-23. Epub 2009 Mar 12.
PMID 19286570
 
Expression of galectin-3 modulates T-cell growth and apoptosis.
Yang RY, Hsu DK, Liu FT.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 25;93(13):6737-42.
PMID 8692888
 
Galectins: structure, function and therapeutic potential.
Yang RY, Rabinovich GA, Liu FT.
Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008 Jun 13;10:e17. (REVIEW)
PMID 18549522
 
Critical role for galectin-3 in airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma.
Zuberi RI, Hsu DK, Kalayci O, Chen HY, Sheldon HK, Yu L, Apgar JR, Kawakami T, Lilly CM, Liu FT.
Am J Pathol. 2004 Dec;165(6):2045-53.
PMID 15579447
 
Gene therapy with galectin-3 inhibits bronchial obstruction and inflammation in antigen-challenged rats through interleukin-5 gene downregulation.
del Pozo V, Rojo M, Rubio ML, Cortegano I, Cardaba B, Gallardo S, Ortega M, Civantos E, Lopez E, Martin-Mosquero C, Peces-Barba G, Palomino P, Gonzalez-Mangado N, Lahoz C.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 1;166(5):732-7.
PMID 12204873
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Nangia-Makker, P ; Balan, V ; Raz, A
LGALS3 (lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2011;15(6):499-501.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/LGALS3ID44396ch14q22.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Head and Neck: Laryngeal tumors: an overview


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)LGALS3   6563
Cards
AtlasLGALS3ID44396ch14q22
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)LGALS3  3958  galectin 3
AliasesCBP35; GAL3; GALBP; GALIG; 
L31; LGALS2; MAC2
GeneCards (Weizmann)LGALS3
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000131981 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000131981 [Gene_View]  chr14:55129217-55145430 [Contig_View]  LGALS3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000131981
TCGA cBioPortalLGALS3
AceView (NCBI)LGALS3
Genatlas (Paris)LGALS3
WikiGenes3958
SOURCE (Princeton)LGALS3
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)LGALS3
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)LGALS3  -     chr14:55129217-55145430 +  14q22.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)LGALS3  -     14q22.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblLGALS3 - 14q22.3 [CytoView hg19]  LGALS3 - 14q22.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBILGALS3 [Mapview hg19]  LGALS3 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM153619   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB006780 AB209391 AF266280 AF266280 AK314929
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001177388 NM_002306
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)LGALS3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.531081 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.531081
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000131981
Gene ExpressionLGALS3 [ NCBI-GEO ]   LGALS3 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   LGALS3 [ SEEK ]   LGALS3 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)LGALS3 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3958
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)LGALS3
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000131981-LGALS3 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP17931   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP17931  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP17931
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP17931
PhosPhoSitePlusP17931
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)GALECTIN (PS51304)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)ConA-like_dom    Galectin_3    Galectin_CRD   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Gal-bind_lectin (PF00337)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00337   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)Gal-bind_lectin (SM00908)  GLECT (SM00276)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)LGALS3
DMDM Disease mutations3958
Blocks (Seattle)LGALS3
PDB (SRS)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
PDB (PDBSum)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
PDB (IMB)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
PDB (RSDB)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1A3K    1KJL    1KJR    2NMN    2NMO    2NN8    2XG3    3AYA    3AYC    3AYD    3AYE    3T1L    3T1M    3ZSJ    3ZSK    3ZSL    3ZSM    4BLI    4BLJ    4BM8    4JC1    4JCK    4LBJ    4LBK    4LBL    4LBM    4LBN    4LBO    4R9A    4R9B    4R9C    4R9D    4RL7    4XBN    5E88    5E89    5E8A    5EXO    5H9P    5H9R   
SuperfamilyP17931
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000131981-LGALS3 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP17931
HPRD01090
IPIIPI00465431   IPI01026139   IPI00375620   IPI00385850   IPI00385851   IPI00956684   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P17931
IntAct (EBI)P17931
FunCoupENSG00000131981
BioGRIDLGALS3
STRING (EMBL)LGALS3
ZODIACLGALS3
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP17931
Ontology : AmiGOimmunological synapse  monocyte chemotaxis  RNA binding  protein binding  extracellular space  nucleus  spliceosomal complex  cytoplasm  mitochondrial inner membrane  plasma membrane  mRNA processing  RNA splicing  membrane  IgE binding  carbohydrate binding  neutrophil chemotaxis  secretory granule membrane  epithelial cell differentiation  extracellular matrix  chemoattractant activity  regulation of T cell proliferation  laminin binding  neutrophil degranulation  innate immune response  negative regulation of endocytosis  eosinophil chemotaxis  macrophage chemotaxis  negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway  positive chemotaxis  extracellular exosome  regulation of T cell apoptotic process  mononuclear cell migration  positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration  positive regulation of calcium ion import  ficolin-1-rich granule membrane  regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors  negative regulation of immunological synapse formation  negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell  positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation  negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
Ontology : EGO-EBIimmunological synapse  monocyte chemotaxis  RNA binding  protein binding  extracellular space  nucleus  spliceosomal complex  cytoplasm  mitochondrial inner membrane  plasma membrane  mRNA processing  RNA splicing  membrane  IgE binding  carbohydrate binding  neutrophil chemotaxis  secretory granule membrane  epithelial cell differentiation  extracellular matrix  chemoattractant activity  regulation of T cell proliferation  laminin binding  neutrophil degranulation  innate immune response  negative regulation of endocytosis  eosinophil chemotaxis  macrophage chemotaxis  negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway  positive chemotaxis  extracellular exosome  regulation of T cell apoptotic process  mononuclear cell migration  positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration  positive regulation of calcium ion import  ficolin-1-rich granule membrane  regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors  negative regulation of immunological synapse formation  negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell  positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation  negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
REACTOMEP17931 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-879415 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkLGALS3
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkLGALS3
Wikipedia pathwaysLGALS3
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB3958
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000131981
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamLGALS3
HOVERGENP17931
HOGENOMP17931
Homologs : HomoloGeneLGALS3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)LGALS3
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanFBXO34/LGALS3 [14q22.3/14q22.3]  [t(14;14)(q22;q22)]  
Fusion: TCGAFBXO34 14q22.3 LGALS3 14q22.3 LUAD OV
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerLGALS3 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)LGALS3
dbVarLGALS3
ClinVarLGALS3
1000_GenomesLGALS3 
Exome Variant ServerLGALS3
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000131981
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000131981
Genetic variants : HAPMAP3958
Genomic Variants (DGV)LGALS3 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERLGALS3 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisLGALS3 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalLGALS3 
TCGA Data PortalLGALS3 
Broad Tumor PortalLGALS3
OASIS PortalLGALS3 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICLGALS3  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDLGALS3
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch LGALS3
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)LGALS3
DoCM (Curated mutations)LGALS3 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)LGALS3 (select a term)
intoGenLGALS3
NCG5 (London)LGALS3
Cancer3DLGALS3(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM153619   
Orphanet
MedgenLGALS3
Genetic Testing Registry LGALS3
NextProtP17931 [Medical]
TSGene3958
GENETestsLGALS3
Target ValidationLGALS3
Huge Navigator LGALS3 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease3958
BioCentury BCIQLGALS3
ClinGenLGALS3
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD3958
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA30340
Clinical trialLGALS3
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)LGALS3 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineLGALS3
EVEXLGALS3
GoPubMedLGALS3
iHOPLGALS3
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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