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PAX8 (paired box 8)

Written2009-05Dario de Biase, Luca Morandi, Giovanni Tallini
Bologna University School of Medicine, Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Bellaria, Via Altura 3, 40139 Bologna, Italy

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namespaired box gene 8
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) PAX8
LocusID (NCBI) 7849
Atlas_Id 382
Location 2q13  [Link to chromosome band 2q13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 113973574 and ends at 114036498 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping PAX8.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
ANGPTL4 (19p13.2) / PAX8 (2q13)CNDP2 (18q22.3) / PAX8 (2q13)LRP8 (1p32.3) / PAX8 (2q13)
PAX8 (2q13) / ANGPTL4 (19p13.2)PAX8 (2q13) / CNDP2 (18q22.3)PAX8 (2q13) / GLIS1 (1p32.3)
PAX8 (2q13) / NFE2L2 (2q31.2)PAX8 (2q13) / PAX8 (2q13)PAX8 (2q13) / PPARG (3p25.2)
PPARG (3p25.2) / PAX8 (2q13)RPS6KC1 (1q32.3) / PAX8 (2q13)

DNA/RNA

 
  Structure of PAX8 gene.
Description 62924 bp, 11 exons, cDNA 4065bp.
Transcription Five different isoforms due to alternative splicing.

Protein

Description Pax8 is a transcription factor. The molecular weight of the unprocessed precursor is ~48kD. Five different isoforms have been described (a-e):
-Isoform a (450 aa, 4065bp)
-Isoform b (387 aa, 3876bp, lack exon 8; mass of ~42kD)
-Isoform c (398 aa, 3986bp, lack exons 7, 8; mass of ~43kD)
-Isoform d (321 aa, 3755bp, lack exon 8; mass of ~35kD)
-Isoform e (287 aa, 3653bp, lack exons 8, 9, 10; mass of ~31kD)
Expression Pax8 is expressed in embryonal human tissues, in particular in the developing thyroid gland, kidney, Müllerian structures, and nervous system (e.g. otic placode), and in the human placenta. During thyroid development PAX8 is expressed in the thyroid anlage. During kidney development it is expressed in the S-shaped body and in the early proximal tube, but is absent in the uretic bud and condensing mesenchyme. In the adult Pax8 is expressed in the thyroid gland and kidney but it is absent in most other developed organs. Pax8 expression has been described in several tumor types including thyroid and ovarian carcinomas and Wilms' tumor.
Localisation Cell nucleus.
Function The paired box (PAX) genes code for a family of transcription factors containing a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type homeodomain. PAX proteins are essential for the formation of several tissues from all germ layers in the mammalian embryo. Pax8 is a member of this family with a crucial role in the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland. It also has an important organogenetic role for the kidney, Müllerian system and inner ear.
In the thyroid, Pax8 is a master gene that regulates maintenance of the differentiated thyroid follicular cell phenotype. As such it controls and activates the transcription and thyroid specific expression of the main proteins responsible for the functional activity of follicular cells such as TG (thyroglobulin), TPO (thyroperoxidase) and NIS (sodium/iodide symporter).
In the developing Kidney PAX8 is important for renal vescicle formation and regulates the expression of the WT1 gene.
Homology PAX family members (especially PAX2).

Mutations

Note Germ line PAX8 mutations are a cause of congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 2 (CHNG2). PAX8 rearrangement and fusion with PPARgamma1 are associated with the development of thyroid tumors of follicular cell derivation.
Germinal -R31H (Sporadic, Hypoplasia, Hypothyroid)
-Q40P (Sporadic, Hypoplasia, Hypothyroid)
-C57Y (Familial, Hypoplasia, Hypothyroid)
-L62R (Familial, Hypoplasia, Cystic rudiment, Hypothyroid)
-R108TER (Sporadic, Ectopia with hypoplasia, Elevated TSH, elevated TG)
-R31C
-R52P
-S54G
-S48F
-T225M
-F329L (Polymorphism)
-c.989_992delACCC
Somatic t(2;3)(q13;p25): PAX8/PPARgamma Fusion Gene

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Thyroid tumors
Note PAX8/PPARgamma1 is an oncoprotein resulting from fusion of the DNA-binding domains of PAX8 to domains A to F of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-1 (PPARgamma1). It involves a chromosome 3p25 and 2q13 translocation, creating a fusion gene. This encompasses the promoter and the proximal coding portion of PAX8 gene and most of the coding sequence of the PPARgamma1 gene. PPARgamma1 maps to 3p25, which is a breakpoint hot spot region for thyroid tumors of follicular cell origin (follicular carcinomas and adenomas).
Cytogenetics t(2;3)(q13;p25). Fine mapping and molecular characterization of the 2q13 and 3p25 translocation breakpoint regions revealed fusion between exons 1 to 7, 1 to 8, or 1 to 9 of PAX8 (2q13) and exons 1 to 6 of PPARgamma1 (3p25).
 
Abnormal Protein PAX8/PPARgamma1 (PPFP)
 
PD: Paired Homeobox (DNA Binding Domain)
HD: Partial Homeobox
AD: Activation Domain
DBD: DNA Binding Domain
LB: Ligand Binding
Oncogenesis Translocations or inversions can give rise to the activation of an oncogene through its positioning near a strong promoter or its fusion with another gene, endowing the fused transcript with tumorigenic properties.
PAX8 is a transcription factor with a key role in the maintenance of a differentiated phenotype in thyroid follicular cells. PPARgamma is a ligand dependent nuclear transcription factor highly expressed in adipose tissue.
The PAX8 promoter, which is active in thyroid follicular cells, drives the expression of PAX8/PPARgamma1 fusion protein (PPFP). Since no point mutations in the PPARgamma1 gene have been found in thyroid carcinomas and cell lines, it is speculated that PPARgamma1 activation resulting from the rearrangement plays a direct oncogenetic role. Reduced expression of normal PAX8 protein may also contribute to tumor development. In fact, PPFP oncogenic effects could relate to constitutive overexpression of the full length PPARgamma1 domain, interference with wild-type PPARgamma1 or PAX8 function, novel intrinsic properties of PPFP, or a combination of the above. PPARgamma1 is thought to be the principal target of a class of antidiabetic agents (thiazolidinediones) and PPFP inhibits thiazolidinedione-induced gene transactivation by wild-type PPARgamma1. PAX8/PPARgamma1 has been identified in thyroid tumors of follicular cell derivation characterized by a well developed follicular pattern of growth. These tumors are usually follicular carcinomas but may also be follicular variant papillary carcinomas or follicular adenomas. It has therefore been suggested that PAX8/PPARgamma1 represents an early event in follicular cell tumorigenesis. Diagnosis of thyroid malignancies with a follicular growth pattern is primarily based on the identification of capsular or vascular invasion, which can only be assessed by histopathological examination of the surgically removed specimen. As a consequence, many individuals diagnosed with a follicular-patterned thyroid neoplasm undergo surgery. Since PAX8/PPARgamma1 is associated with a diagnosis of carcinoma, identification of the rearrangement may prove a useful tool for molecular diagnosis.
  
  
Entity Thyroid follicular carcinoma
Note PAX8/PPARgamma1 has been identified in thyroid tumors of follicular cell derivation characterized by a well developed follicular pattern of growth. These tumors are usually follicular carcinomas but may also be follicular variant papillary carcinomas or follicular adenomas.
Disease Thyroid follicular carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and lacking the diagnostic nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
Prognosis PAX8/PPARgamma1 is detected in ~30-40% of thyroid follicular carcinomas. Follicular carcinomas with PAX8/PPARgamma1 are angioinvasive and may be aggressive.
  
  
Entity Papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant
Note PAX8/PPARgamma1 has been identified in some papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular variant (up to 30% in some series).
Disease A malignant epithelial tumor showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and characterized by distinctive nuclear features (enlargement, oval shape, elongation and overlapping). Follicular variant papillary carcinoma is composed of follicular structures without well developed papillae.
  
  
Entity Thyroid follicular adenoma
Note PAX8/PPARgamma1 has been identified in ~5-10% of thyroid follicular adenoma.
Disease A benign, encapsulated tumor of the thyroid showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation.
Prognosis Thyroid follicular adenomas are benign tumors.
  
  
Entity Wilms' tumor
Note PAX8 is expressed in Wilms' tumor and it is potentially involved in its induction. Pax-8 gene product resides upstream of wt1 in a common regulatory pathway. Two PAX8 isoforms, generated by alternative splicing at the C-terminus, were found to be capable of activating wt1 expression. PAX8 function during mesenchymal-epithelial cell transition in renal development is to induce wt1 gene expression.
Disease Wilms' tumor, or nephroblastoma, is a malignant embryonal neoplasm of the kidney derived from nephrogenic blastemal cells that replicate the histology of the developing kidney. The tumor often shows divergent differentiation patterns. It is characterized by abortive tubules and glomeruli, surrounded by a spindled cell stroma. The stroma may include striated muscle, cartilage, bone, fat tissue. The genes predisposing to Wilms' tumor are WT1 and WT2.
Prognosis Wilms' tumor is aggressive but potentially curable.
  
  
Entity Ovarian carcinoma
Note Aberrant transcriptional expression of PAX8 has been reported in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Disease Malignant tumors of the ovary derived from the ovarian surface epithelium or its derivatives.
  
  
Entity Acute myeloid leukaemia
Note PAX8 (with PAX2) may be a candidate for the upregulation of WT1 in a proportion of Acute myeloid leukaemias.
Disease Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood or other tissue.
  
  
Entity Congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 2 (CHNG2)
Note Several PAX8 mutations have been identified, located in the conserved paired domain of PAX8.
Disease Congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 2 (CHNG2) is a congenital form of hypothyroidism due to thyroid dysgenesis (athyreotic hypothyroidism), while congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 1 (CHNG1) is due to resistance to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Primary congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but if caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited.
The mutant proteins have markedly reduced DNA binding with subsequent loss of transcriptional activation function. The mutations are thought to disrupt the pronounced gain of alpha helical PAX8 content that follows the interaction of PAX8 with DNA: they impair the unstructured to structured transition that occurs during DNA recognition (loss of "induced fit"). As a result of the mutations PAX8 protein cannot perform its role in activating transcription of its target-genes, such as TG, TPO and NIS.
Marked phenotypic variability has been found within affected families, suggesting variable penetrance and expressivity of PAX8 gene defects.
Some PAX8 mutations cause congenital hypothyroidism, while others mildly reduce thyroid hormone levels or have no detectable effect. Accordingly, thyroid glands of patients with PAX8 mutations are often small and hypoplastic, sometimes completely absent (athyreosis), supporting the concept that PAX8 mutations disrupt the normal growth and survival of thyroid cells during embryonic development. The reduced thyroid parenchymal mass may be unable to produce the required amounts of thyroid hormone. However, normal thyroid glands have also been reported in patients carrying PAX8 mutations. A small deletion (c.989_992delACCC) in exon 7 causing a frameshift with premature stop codon after codon 277 has been described in a patient with congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid hypoplasia.
  

Breakpoints

 
  PAX8/PPARgamma1 breakpoints and chimeric mRNA.

Bibliography

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PMID 15459102
 
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PMID 15531527
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
de, Biase D ; Morandi, L ; Tallini, G
PAX8 (paired box 8)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(4):412-415.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/PAX8ID382ch2q13.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Thyroid: Oncocytic tumors


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)PAX8   8622
Cards
AtlasPAX8ID382ch2q13
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PAX8  7849  paired box 8
Aliases
GeneCards (Weizmann)PAX8
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000125618 [Gene_View]  chr2:113973574-114036498 [Contig_View]  PAX8 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000125618 [Gene_View]  chr2:113973574-114036498 [Contig_View]  PAX8 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000125618
TCGA cBioPortalPAX8
AceView (NCBI)PAX8
Genatlas (Paris)PAX8
WikiGenes7849
SOURCE (Princeton)PAX8
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PAX8
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PAX8  -     chr2:113973574-114036498 -  2q13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PAX8  -     2q13   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblPAX8 - 2q13 [CytoView hg19]  PAX8 - 2q13 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIPAX8 [Mapview hg19]  PAX8 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM167415   218700   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK023855 AK096795 AK124991 AK225538 AK292191
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_003466 NM_013951 NM_013952 NM_013953 NM_013992
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000002 NC_018913 NG_012384 NT_005403 NW_004929304
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PAX8
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.469728 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.469728
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000125618
Gene ExpressionPAX8 [ NCBI-GEO ]   PAX8 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PAX8 [ SEEK ]   PAX8 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PAX8 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)7849
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PAX8
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ06710   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ06710  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ06710
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ06710
PhosPhoSitePlusQ06710
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PAIRED_1 (PS00034)    PAIRED_2 (PS51057)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Homeodomain-like    Paired_dom    Pax2_C    WHTH_DNA-bd_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)PAX (PF00292)    Pax2_C (PF12403)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00292    pfam12403   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)PAX (SM00351)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PAX8
DMDM Disease mutations7849
Blocks (Seattle)PAX8
PDB (SRS)2K27   
PDB (PDBSum)2K27   
PDB (IMB)2K27   
PDB (RSDB)2K27   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase2K27   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)2K27   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)2K27   
SuperfamilyQ06710
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000125618
Peptide AtlasQ06710
HPRD01335
IPIIPI00790594   IPI00306346   IPI00335892   IPI00183926   IPI00221027   IPI00816011   IPI01025072   IPI01024847   IPI01025436   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q06710
IntAct (EBI)Q06710
FunCoupENSG00000125618
BioGRIDPAX8
STRING (EMBL)PAX8
ZODIACPAX8
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ06710
Ontology : AmiGORNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding  transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding  urogenital system development  branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  kidney development  mesonephros development  mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis  DNA binding  DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  sulfur compound metabolic process  central nervous system development  anatomical structure morphogenesis  thyroid gland development  thyroid gland development  thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway  pronephric field specification  inner ear morphogenesis  regulation of apoptotic process  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  pronephros development  cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus  otic vesicle development  positive regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis  metanephric epithelium development  metanephric distal convoluted tubule development  metanephric comma-shaped body morphogenesis  metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis  metanephric nephron tubule formation  negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron morphogenesis  regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation  positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in metanephros development  negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric collecting duct development  negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron tubule development  positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation  positive regulation of thyroid hormone generation  regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion  
Ontology : EGO-EBIRNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding  transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding  urogenital system development  branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  kidney development  mesonephros development  mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis  DNA binding  DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  sulfur compound metabolic process  central nervous system development  anatomical structure morphogenesis  thyroid gland development  thyroid gland development  thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway  pronephric field specification  inner ear morphogenesis  regulation of apoptotic process  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  pronephros development  cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus  otic vesicle development  positive regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis  metanephric epithelium development  metanephric distal convoluted tubule development  metanephric comma-shaped body morphogenesis  metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis  metanephric nephron tubule formation  negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron morphogenesis  regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation  positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in metanephros development  negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric collecting duct development  negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron tubule development  positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation  positive regulation of thyroid hormone generation  regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion  
Pathways : KEGGThyroid hormone synthesis    Pathways in cancer    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer    Thyroid cancer   
NDEx NetworkPAX8
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPAX8
Wikipedia pathwaysPAX8
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB7849
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000125618
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPAX8
HOVERGENQ06710
HOGENOMQ06710
Homologs : HomoloGenePAX8
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PAX8
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanLRP8/PAX8 [1p32.3/2q13]  [t(1;2)(p32;q13)]  
Fusion : MitelmanPAX8/GLIS1 [2q13/1p32.3]  [t(1;2)(p32;q13)]  
Fusion : MitelmanPAX8/NFE2L2 [2q13/2q31.2]  [t(2;2)(q13;q31)]  
Fusion : MitelmanPAX8/PPARG [2q13/3p25.2]  [t(2;3)(q13;p25)]  
Fusion : COSMICPAX8 [2q13]  -  PPARG [3p25.2]  [fusion_1215]  [fusion_1216]  [fusion_1217]  [fusion_1218]  [fusion_1219]  [fusion_1220]  [fusion_1223]  
[fusion_1224]  [fusion_1225]  
Fusion: TCGALRP8 1p32.3 PAX8 2q13 THCA
Fusion: TCGAPAX8 2q13 GLIS1 1p32.3 THCA
Fusion: TCGAPAX8 2q13 NFE2L2 2q31.2 THCA
Fusion: TCGAPAX8 2q13 PPARG 3p25.2 THCA
Fusion: TCGAPPARG 3p25.2 PAX8 2q13 THCA
Fusion : TICdbPAX8 [2q13]  -  PPARG [3p25.2]
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPAX8 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PAX8
dbVarPAX8
ClinVarPAX8
1000_GenomesPAX8 
Exome Variant ServerPAX8
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)PAX8 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP7849
Genomic Variants (DGV)PAX8 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHER (Syndromes)2:113973574-114036498  ENSG00000125618
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPAX8 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalPAX8 
TCGA Data PortalPAX8 
Broad Tumor PortalPAX8
OASIS PortalPAX8 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Cancer Gene: CensusPAX8 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPAX8  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPAX8
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch PAX8
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PAX8
DoCM (Curated mutations)PAX8 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PAX8 (select a term)
intoGenPAX8
NCG5 (London)PAX8
Cancer3DPAX8(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM167415    218700   
Orphanet905    12668    12667    12675   
MedgenPAX8
Genetic Testing Registry PAX8
NextProtQ06710 [Medical]
TSGene7849
GENETestsPAX8
Huge Navigator PAX8 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease7849
BioCentury BCIQPAX8
ClinGenPAX8 (curated)
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD7849
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA32962
Clinical trialPAX8
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)PAX8 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed157 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMinePAX8
EVEXPAX8
GoPubMedPAX8
iHOPPAX8
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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