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PLA2G4A (phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent))

Written2009-12Amanda Linkous, Eugenia Yazlovitskaya
Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, SS1411 Medical Center North, 1161 21 Avenue S., Nashville, TN 37232, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesPLA2G4
phospholipase A2
Alias_symbol (synonym)cPLA2-alpha
Other aliasCPLA2
MGC126350
HGNC (Hugo) PLA2G4A
LocusID (NCBI) 5321
Atlas_Id 41733
Location 1q31.1  [Link to chromosome band 1q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 186798032 and ends at 186958113 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping PLA2G4A.png]
Local_order Centromere- PDC (phosducin), PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2), PLA2G4A (cytosolic phospholipase A2), FDPSL1 (farnesyl diphosphate synthase-like 1) -Telomere.

DNA/RNA

 
  PLA2G4A gene. PLA2G4A is comprised of 18 exons. The ATG start codon is located within exon 2 and the TAG stop codon is found in exon 18. The sizes of exons 1-18 are 135 bp, 101 bp, 81 bp, 148 bp, 113 bp, 37 bp, 141 bp, 136 bp, 222 bp, 114 bp, 137 bp, 92 bp, 71 bp, 242 bp, 184 bp, 195 bp, 157 bp, and 604 bp, respectively.
Description According to Entrez-Gene, human PLA2G4A maps to locus NC_000001.10. This gene contains 18 exons that encompass approximately 160 kb of genomic DNA. In mice, Pla2g4a maps to NC_000067.5 and contains 18 exons that span 131 kb of DNA within the mouse genome.
Transcription Human PLA2G4A mRNA (NG_024420) consists of 2940 bp, and murine Pla2g4a mRNA (NM_008869) contains 2846 bp.
Pseudogene No pseudogene has been identified for PLA2G4A.

Protein

 
  cPLA2-alpha structure. The binding of calcium (Ca2+) ions to the C2 domain promotes the translocation of cPLA2alpha from the cytosol to the perinuclear/membrane region of the cell. Following this change in subcellular localization, cPLA2alpha is phosphorylated on key serine residues by MAPKs (ERK1/ERK2 and p38), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), or MAPK-interacting kinase (Mnk1). Ser228 is located in the first catalytic domain and is critical for the enzymatic activity of cPLA2alpha.
Description cPLA2alpha is an 85 kDa protein consisting of 749 amino acids. cPLA2alpha belongs to the alpha-beta hydrolase family which is identified by a characteristic nucleophile elbow with a consensus sequence of Sm-X-Nu-Sm (Sm = small residue, X = any residue and Nu = nucleophile). The protein contains an N-terminal C2 domain (Ca2+-dependent, phospholipid binding) and two catalytic domains (alpha/beta hydrolase). The N-terminal region of the first catalytic domain contains the lipase consensus sequence, GXSGS. At the active site, cPLA2alpha contains a serine nucleophile (Ser228) through which the catalytic mechanism is initiated. The active site is partially covered by a solvent-accessible flexible lid which spans from Arg413 to Gln457. cPLA2alpha displays interfacial activation as it exists in both "closed lid" and "open lid" forms. Upon membrane binding, gross conformational changes in the enzyme result in the movement of the cPLA2alpha lid thus exposing a greater hydrophobic surface and the active site. This allows the fatty acyl chain of a substrate phospholipid molecule to enter the active site.
Expression cPLA2alpha is ubiquitously expressed throughout normal tissues, but is often overexpressed in human cancers.
Localisation Prior to activation, cPLA2alpha is localized to the cytoplasm. Upon an influx of intracellular calcium (Ca2+), however, Ca2+ ions bind to the C2 domain and promote the translocation of cPLA2alpha to either the nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. The membrane-associated localization is then stabilized through the binding of the protein to anionic phospholipids or by phosphorylation of Ser505, Ser515, or Ser727. As a result of these molecular events, the enzymatic activity of cPLA2alpha is increased.
Function Following activation by Ca2+ concentration and/or phosphorylation, cPLA2alpha hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2-acyl ester bond to yield both free fatty acid as well as lysophospholipid second messengers.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in mammalian cell membranes and is the primary target of cPLA2alpha. The cPLA2alpha-mediated cleavage of PC results in the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). AA is further metabolized to prostaglandins and leukotrienes by the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways, respectively. Thus, cPLA2alpha and AA are key contributors to the inflammatory process. Lipid second messengers such as LPC and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are involved in downstream signal transduction that affects cell survival, proliferation, motility, and invasiveness.
Homology Homologs of human PLA2G4A have been identified in the following organisms : Pan troglodytes, Canis lupus familiaris, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio. In addition, at least four paralogs of cPLA2 have been identified in mammals. They include cPLA2alpha, cPLA2beta, cPLA2gamma, and cPLA2delta. All paralogs contain the N-terminal C2 domain except cPLA2gamma. Human cPLA2gamma also harbors a myristoylation site at the N-terminus and is farnesylated at the C-terminus. The main residues that are essential to cPLA2 catalytic activity (Arg200, Ser228, Asp549, Arg566) are conserved among all four paralogs of the enzyme.

Mutations

Germinal In a study performed on 118 British family trios of schizophrenia patients, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the PTGS2/PLA2G4A locus. SNP4 was detected in the 5'-flanking region of the gene and was associated with elevated susceptibility to schizophrenia.
In a separate study of inherited prostanoid biosynthesis deficiency, a patient was found to possess three mutations of the PLA2G4A gene (S111P, R485H, and K651R). As a result of these mutations, the patient suffered from recurrent ulcerations of the small intestine and repeated episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Thus, such findings suggest that cPLA2alpha is important for maintaining the integrity of the small intestine.
Somatic Overexpression of cPLA2alpha has been identified in a variety of cancers including Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cholangiosarcomas, esophageal cancers, and cancers of the colon and small intestine. In many cases of NSCLC, cPLA2alpha expression is often associated with the presence of oncogenic Ras mutations.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Solid cancers
Disease Non-small cell lung cancer, cholangiosarcoma, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, cancer of the small intestine, and ovarian cancer.
Oncogenesis cPLA2alpha has been shown to contribute to tumor progression through increased COX-2 production and the promotion of angiogenesis by arachidonic acid and LPC. Activation of cPLA2alpha is also associated with increased resistance to radiation therapy among tumor vasculature. This resistance is often the result of cPLA2alpha-mediated LPC generation and subsequent downstream activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pro-survival signal transduction pathways.
  
  
Entity Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Note Multiple studies have shown that cPLA2alpha is frequently overexpressed in established NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissue samples from NSCLC patients. Overexpression of cPLA2alpha resulted in increased levels of COX-2 as well as PGE2. Both COX-2 and PGE2 are associated with enhanced lung tumorigenesis.
  
  
Entity Cholangiosarcoma
Note Cholangiosarcoma is a tumor of the bile duct connective tissues that accounts for 10-15% of primary liver cancers. In this highly malignant tumor, a 5-fold increase in cPLA2alpha mRNA has been reported. In addition, cPLA2alpha has been shown to activate a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta). Activation of PPARdelta accelerates the growth of human cholangiosarcoma.
  
  
Entity Colorectal cancer
Note Compared to normal colon tissue, cPLA2alpha protein levels and enzymatic activity are often elevated as much as 50-60% in surgically excised human tumor tissue and established colon cancer cell lines. Increased cPLA2alpha expression was positively correlated with enhanced COX-2 expression. COX-2 plays a vital role in the progression of colorectal cancer through its promotion of cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
  
  
Entity Esophageal cancer
Note Esophageal cancer is the sixth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. With an 18% increase in cPLA2alpha protein levels in tumor cells, recent reports have demonstrated that activation of the cPLA2alpha/COX-2 pathway stimulates esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cellular proliferation.
  
  
Entity Tumors of the small intestine
Note In vivo studies using cPLA2alpha-deficient/APCMin mice revealed that the size of small intestinal polyps was reduced by 11-fold compared to their cPLA2alpha+/+/APCMin counterparts. The results also demonstrated an 83% reduction in the total number of intestinal tumors in cPLA2alpha-deficient/APCMin mice.
  
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note cPLA2alpha is responsible for the production of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). However, LPC is frequently hydrolyzed to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which is a known stimulant of tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis. A growing number of reports have shown that plasma LPA levels are elevated in ovarian cancer patients. In a study of 133 patients, women with ovarian cancer exhibited significantly higher LPA levels within their plasma (16.99 µM) compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors (7.73 µM) or patients with no ovarian malignancy (2.92 µM). Thus, cPLA2alpha may serve as an important target for ovarian cancer therapy.
  
  
Entity Other diseases
Disease cPLA2alpha has also been implicated in a variety of other diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, and arthritis. In addition to these and other inflammatory disorders, cPLA2alpha expression is positively correlated with psychiatric disease states such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders.
  

To be noted

Recent data have shown that cPLA2alpha may serve as a novel molecular target for anti-inflammatory agents, anti-angiogenesis therapy and tumor sensitization to radiation therapy.

Bibliography

Inherited human cPLA(2alpha) deficiency is associated with impaired eicosanoid biosynthesis, small intestinal ulceration, and platelet dysfunction.
Adler DH, Cogan JD, Phillips JA 3rd, Schnetz-Boutaud N, Milne GL, Iverson T, Stein JA, Brenner DA, Morrow JD, Boutaud O, Oates JA.
J Clin Invest. 2008 Jun;118(6):2121-31.
PMID 18451993
 
The 85-kD cytosolic phospholipase A2 knockout mouse: a new tool for physiology and cell biology.
Bonventre JV.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Feb;10(2):404-12.
PMID 10215342
 
Structure and mechanism of human cytosolic phospholipase A(2).
Dessen A.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Oct 31;1488(1-2):40-7.
PMID 11080675
 
Regulatory mechanism and physiological role of cytosolic phospholipase A2.
Hirabayashi T, Murayama T, Shimizu T.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Aug;27(8):1168-73.
PMID 15305015
 
Cytosolic phospholipase A2: targeting cancer through the tumor vasculature.
Linkous A, Geng L, Lyshchik A, Hallahan DE, Yazlovitskaya EM.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 1;15(5):1635-44. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
PMID 19240173
 
Epinephrine stimulates esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cell proliferation via beta-adrenoceptor-dependent transactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cyclooxygenase-2 pathway.
Liu X, Wu WK, Yu L, Sung JJ, Srivastava G, Zhang ST, Cho CH.
J Cell Biochem. 2008 Sep 1;105(1):53-60.
PMID 18452159
 
Roles of cPLA2alpha and arachidonic acid in cancer.
Nakanishi M, Rosenberg DW.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1761(11):1335-43. Epub 2006 Sep 15. (REVIEW)
PMID 17052951
 
Lysophosphatidic acid: an ovarian cancer marker.
Sedlakova I, Vavrova J, Tosner J, Hanousek L.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2008;29(5):511-4.
PMID 19051824
 
A study of a genetic association between the PTGS2/PLA2G4A locus and schizophrenia.
Wei J, Hemmings GP.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Apr;70(4):413-5.
PMID 15041036
 
Depletion of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages protects against lung cancer progression and metastasis.
Weiser-Evans MC, Wang XQ, Amin J, Van Putten V, Choudhary R, Winn RA, Scheinman R, Simpson P, Geraci MW, Nemenoff RA.
Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 1;69(5):1733-8. Epub 2009 Feb 10.
PMID 19208832
 
A novel positive feedback loop between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta and prostaglandin E2 signaling pathways for human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth.
Xu L, Han C, Wu T.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 10;281(45):33982-96. Epub 2006 Sep 11.
PMID 16966336
 
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 regulates viability of irradiated vascular endothelium.
Yazlovitskaya EM, Linkous AG, Thotala DK, Cuneo KC, Hallahan DE.
Cell Death Differ. 2008 Oct;15(10):1641-53. Epub 2008 Jun 20.
PMID 18566601
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Linkous, A ; Yazlovitskaya, E
PLA2G4A (phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(10):926-929.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/PLA2G4AID41733ch1q31.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)PLA2G4A   9035
LRG (Locus Reference Genomic)LRG_596
Cards
AtlasPLA2G4AID41733ch1q31
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PLA2G4A  5321  phospholipase A2 group IVA
AliasesPLA2G4; cPLA2; cPLA2-alpha
GeneCards (Weizmann)PLA2G4A
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000116711 [Gene_View]  chr1:186798032-186958113 [Contig_View]  PLA2G4A [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000116711 [Gene_View]  chr1:186798032-186958113 [Contig_View]  PLA2G4A [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000116711
TCGA cBioPortalPLA2G4A
AceView (NCBI)PLA2G4A
Genatlas (Paris)PLA2G4A
WikiGenes5321
SOURCE (Princeton)PLA2G4A
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PLA2G4A
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PLA2G4A  -     chr1:186798032-186958113 +  1q31.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PLA2G4A  -     1q31.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblPLA2G4A - 1q31.1 [CytoView hg19]  PLA2G4A - 1q31.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIPLA2G4A [Mapview hg19]  PLA2G4A [Mapview hg38]
OMIM600522   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK290336 AK302938 BC114340 BX118890 DA451491
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001311193 NM_024420
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000001 NC_018912 NG_012203 NT_004487 NW_004929293
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PLA2G4A
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.497200 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.497200
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000116711
Gene ExpressionPLA2G4A [ NCBI-GEO ]   PLA2G4A [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PLA2G4A [ SEEK ]   PLA2G4A [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PLA2G4A [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)5321
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PLA2G4A
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP47712   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP47712  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP47712
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP47712
Catalytic activity : Enzyme3.1.1.4 [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   3.1.1.43.1.1.4 [ IntEnz-EBI ]   3.1.1.4 [ BRENDA ]   3.1.1.4 [ KEGG ]   
PhosPhoSitePlusP47712
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)C2 (PS50004)    PLA2C (PS51210)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Acyl_Trfase/lysoPLipase    C2_dom    LysoPLipase_cat_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)C2 (PF00168)    PLA2_B (PF01735)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00168    pfam01735   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)C2 (SM00239)  PLAc (SM00022)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PLA2G4A
DMDM Disease mutations5321
Blocks (Seattle)PLA2G4A
PDB (SRS)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
PDB (PDBSum)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
PDB (IMB)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
PDB (RSDB)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1BCI    1CJY    1RLW   
SuperfamilyP47712
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000116711
Peptide AtlasP47712
HPRD08986
IPIIPI00026108   IPI00909648   IPI00815689   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P47712
IntAct (EBI)P47712
FunCoupENSG00000116711
BioGRIDPLA2G4A
STRING (EMBL)PLA2G4A
ZODIACPLA2G4A
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP47712
Ontology : AmiGOovulation from ovarian follicle  luteolysis  lysophospholipase activity  phospholipase A2 activity  phospholipase A2 activity  phospholipase A2 activity  calcium ion binding  calcium-dependent phospholipid binding  nucleus  cytoplasm  mitochondrial inner membrane  endoplasmic reticulum membrane  Golgi apparatus  cytosol  cytosol  phospholipid metabolic process  phosphatidic acid biosynthetic process  platelet activating factor biosynthetic process  icosanoid metabolic process  aging  positive regulation of cell proliferation  phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase activity  phospholipid catabolic process  response to heat  response to lithium ion  response to organonitrogen compound  arachidonic acid metabolic process  positive regulation of bone mineralization  positive regulation of vesicle fusion  positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of fever generation  response to lipopolysaccharide  response to vitamin D  histone acetyltransferase binding  cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylglycerol acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylinositol acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylserine acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylcholine acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylethanolamine acyl-chain remodeling  response to hydrogen peroxide  zymogen granule  positive regulation of apoptotic process  surfactant homeostasis  icosanoid biosynthetic process  decidualization  calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  arachidonic acid secretion  response to glucocorticoid  response to calcium ion  response to methylmercury  cellular response to antibiotic  
Ontology : EGO-EBIovulation from ovarian follicle  luteolysis  lysophospholipase activity  phospholipase A2 activity  phospholipase A2 activity  phospholipase A2 activity  calcium ion binding  calcium-dependent phospholipid binding  nucleus  cytoplasm  mitochondrial inner membrane  endoplasmic reticulum membrane  Golgi apparatus  cytosol  cytosol  phospholipid metabolic process  phosphatidic acid biosynthetic process  platelet activating factor biosynthetic process  icosanoid metabolic process  aging  positive regulation of cell proliferation  phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase activity  phospholipid catabolic process  response to heat  response to lithium ion  response to organonitrogen compound  arachidonic acid metabolic process  positive regulation of bone mineralization  positive regulation of vesicle fusion  positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of fever generation  response to lipopolysaccharide  response to vitamin D  histone acetyltransferase binding  cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylglycerol acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylinositol acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylserine acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylcholine acyl-chain remodeling  phosphatidylethanolamine acyl-chain remodeling  response to hydrogen peroxide  zymogen granule  positive regulation of apoptotic process  surfactant homeostasis  icosanoid biosynthetic process  decidualization  calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  arachidonic acid secretion  response to glucocorticoid  response to calcium ion  response to methylmercury  cellular response to antibiotic  
Pathways : BIOCARTAFc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast Cells [Genes]    Aspirin Blocks Signaling Pathway Involved in Platelet Activation [Genes]    Eicosanoid Metabolism [Genes]    p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGGlycerophospholipid metabolism    Ether lipid metabolism    Arachidonic acid metabolism    Linoleic acid metabolism    alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism    MAPK signaling pathway    Ras signaling pathway    Vascular smooth muscle contraction    VEGF signaling pathway    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway    Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis    Glutamatergic synapse    Serotonergic synapse    Long-term depression    GnRH signaling pathway    Ovarian steroidogenesis   
REACTOMEP47712 [protein]
REACTOME Pathways111995 [pathway]   1482788 [pathway]   1482798 [pathway]   1482801 [pathway]   1482839 [pathway]   1482922 [pathway]   1482925 [pathway]   1483115 [pathway]   1483166 [pathway]   2142753 [pathway]   418592 [pathway]   432142 [pathway]   6811436 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkPLA2G4A
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPLA2G4A
Wikipedia pathwaysPLA2G4A
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB5321
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000116711
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPLA2G4A
HOVERGENP47712
HOGENOMP47712
Homologs : HomoloGenePLA2G4A
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PLA2G4A
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPLA2G4A [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PLA2G4A
dbVarPLA2G4A
ClinVarPLA2G4A
1000_GenomesPLA2G4A 
Exome Variant ServerPLA2G4A
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)PLA2G4A (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP5321
Genomic Variants (DGV)PLA2G4A [DGVbeta]
DECIPHER (Syndromes)1:186798032-186958113  ENSG00000116711
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPLA2G4A 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalPLA2G4A 
TCGA Data PortalPLA2G4A 
Broad Tumor PortalPLA2G4A
OASIS PortalPLA2G4A [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPLA2G4A  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPLA2G4A
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch PLA2G4A
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PLA2G4A
DoCM (Curated mutations)PLA2G4A (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PLA2G4A (select a term)
intoGenPLA2G4A
NCG5 (London)PLA2G4A
Cancer3DPLA2G4A(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM600522   
Orphanet
MedgenPLA2G4A
Genetic Testing Registry PLA2G4A
NextProtP47712 [Medical]
TSGene5321
GENETestsPLA2G4A
Huge Navigator PLA2G4A [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease5321
BioCentury BCIQPLA2G4A
ClinGenPLA2G4A
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD5321
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA271
Clinical trialPLA2G4A
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)PLA2G4A (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed181 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMinePLA2G4A
EVEXPLA2G4A
GoPubMedPLA2G4A
iHOPPLA2G4A
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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