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TMSB10 (thymosin beta 10)

Written2014-12Xueshan Qiu, Yumei Gu
Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
This article is an update of :
2010-03Xueshan Qiu
Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Abstract TMSB10 (thymosin beta 10) is a member of the beta-thymosin family, which is an actin-sequestering protein involved in cell motility. The expression of TMSB10 is associated with the development of several tissues. In many kind of human cancers, TMSB10 expression is aberrant. TMSB10 may be correlated with tumor cells proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis, and predict poor prognosis of some tumors.

Keywords TMSB 10, development, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cancer

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)MIG12
HGNC (Hugo) TMSB10
HGNC Alias symbTB10
LocusID (NCBI) 9168
Atlas_Id 42595
Location 2p11.2  [Link to chromosome band 2p11]
Location_base_pair Starts at 84905656 and ends at 84906671 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping TMSB10.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ICAM1 (19p13.2)::TMSB10 (2p11.2)TMSB10 (2p11.2)::AGAP1 (2q37.2)TMSB10 (2p11.2)::CD63 (12q13.2)
TMSB10 (2p11.2)::RPS16 (19q13.2)
Note TMSB10 is a member of the beta-thymosin family, which is an actin-sequestering protein involved in cell motility. TMSB10 may be correlated with tumor cells proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis.


Description The cDNA sequence for human TMSB10 is 482 nucleotides long comprising 3 exons. The open reading frame of the coding region is 135 bp.


Description Protein length (NP_066926.1): 44 amino acids. (madkpdmgeiasfdkaklkktetqekntlptketieqekrseis)
Molecular weight: 4.9 kDa.
TMSB10 is a small G-actin binding protein, and it induces depolymerization of intracellular F-actin pools by sequestering actin monomers.
Expression TMSB10 is found in human, rat, mouse, cat, and rabbit. TMSB10 is one of the most abundant beta-thymosins.
Localisation TMSB10 is expressed in cytoplasm.
Function Overview: TMSB10 is a highly conserved small acid protein. It is present in many tissues and cell types. It can sequester actin monomers and bind to G-actin in a 1:1 complex.

Actin monomer sequestering protein: TMSB10 is one of G-actin binding proteins, being expressed in all mammalian species. It can sequester monomeric actin and inhibit actin polymerization. It participates in the regulation of cancer cell motility (Erickson-Viitanen S et al., 1983; Abiko T et al., 1986; Goodall GJ et al., 1987; McCreary V et al.,1988; Nachmias VT,1993; Yu FX et al.,1993; Yu FX et al.,1994; Huff T et al.,1997; Vassiliadou I,1999; Liu CR et al.,2004; Mu H et al.,2006).

Development: The expression of TMSB10 is associated with the development of several tissues. It is involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes and developing salivary gland and kidney. TMSB10 may be have multiple functions in the developmental course from initiation to root formation of the tooth germ.. TMSB10 plays an important role in early neuroembryogenesis. It is present in the developing nervous, and has a specific physiological function during cerebellum development. TMSB10 is only present at very low levels in a very small subpopulation of glia in the adult cerebellum. In young animals, most of the TMSB10 is localized in granule cells, Golgi neurons and Purkinje cells. In old animals, TMSB10 signal is detected faintly in a few Purkinje cells(Hall AK et al.,1990; Lin SC et al.,1990; Hall AK,1991; Hall AK et al.,1991; Lin SC et al.,1991; Lugo DI et al., Condon MR et al.,1992; Border BG et al., 1993; Voisin PJ et al., 1995; Carpintero P et al.,1996 ;Carpintero P et al.,1999; Anadon R et al.,2001; Bani-Yaghoub M et al.,2001; Gomez-Marquez J et al.,2002;T okuriki M et al.,2003; Nemolato S et al.,2009; Gerosa C et al.,2010; Fanni D et al.,2011; Shiotsuka M et al.,2013).

Apoptosis: TMSB10 regulates apoptosis. For example, upregulation of TMSB10 in M. bovis-infected macrophages is linked with increased cell death due to apoptosis. TMSB10 can disrupt F-actin stress fibers, markedly decrease ovarian cancer cells growth, and a high rate of apoptosis. TMSB10 plays a significant role in cell apoptosis possibly by acting as an actin-mediated tumor suppressor, perhaps functions as a neoapoptotic influence during embryogenesis, and may mediate some of the pro-apoptotic anticancer actions of retinoids(Hall AK,1995; Gutierrez-Pabello JA et al.,2002; Rho SB et al.,2004; Lee SH et al.,2005; Rho SB et al.,2005)..

Angiogenesis: TMSB10 may be an effective inhibitor of angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial migration, tube formation, VEGF, VEGFR-1 and integrin alphaV expression in HCAECs. TMSB10 is not only a cytoskeletal regulator, it also acts as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth by interaction with Ras (Koutrafouri V et al.,2001; Vasile E et al.,2001; Zhang Y et al.,2009).

Cancers: Elevated expression of TMSB10 is associated with invasion and metastasis of several kinds of tumors. It may be considered a potential tool for the diagnosis of several human neoplasias. TMSB10 is detected mainly in the malignant tissue, particularly in the cancerous cells, whereas the normal cell population around the lesions showed very weak staining. Also, the intensity of staining in the cancerous cells is proportionally increased with the increasing grade of the lesions(Santelli G et al.,1999; Sribenja S et al., 2009; Sribenja S et al.,2013).

Homology Homolog to thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 15.

Implicated in

Entity Pancreatic cancer
Note TSMB10 is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. It is a promising marker and a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. Exogenous TMSB10 causes the phosphorylation of JNK and increases the secretion of cytokines interleukin and IL-8 in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells (Alldinger I et al., 2005; Li M et al.,2009).
Entity Non-small cell lung cancer
Note TMSB10 might induce microvascular and lymphatic vessel formation by up-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in lung cancer tissues, thus promoting the distant and lymph node metastases and being implicated in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer. TMSB10 hypomethylation may be frequently in NSCLCs, but it may not be a common mechanism of TMSB10 overexpression (Gu Y et al., 2009; Lee SM et al., 2011).
Entity Breast cancer
Note TMSB10 plays a key role in sequestration of G-actin as well as in breast cancer cell motility (Verghese-Nikolakaki S et al., 1996; Otto AM et al., 2002; Maelan AE et al., 2007).
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note TMSB10 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth by interfering Ras signal transduction and expression of VEGF. TMSB10 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of human ovarian cancer cells. Also these findings indicate that upregulation of ROS production due to TMSB10 overexpression increases ovarian cancer cells apoptosis (Lee SH et al., 2001; Kim YC et al., 2012).
Entity Thyroid neoplasias
Note TMSB10 overexpression is a general event of thyroid cell neoplastic transformation. An increased expression of TMSB10 mRNA in thyroid carcinomas is found. The evaluation of TMSB10 gene expression may be considered a promising means of human thyroid hyperproliferative diagnosis. By decreasing TMSB10 expression, the thyroid cancer cells growth in soft agar is inhibited. . In papillary thyroid neoplasias, high expressions of TMSB10 mRNA and protein are more common in patients with cervical lymph node metastases (LNM) and central neck LNM (Califano D et al., 1998; Viglietto G et al., 1999; Santelli G et al., 2002; Takano T et al., 2002; Chiappetta G et al., 2004; Feher LZ et al., 2012; Zhang XJ et al., 2014).
Entity Renal cell carcinoma
Note The TMSB10 gene is deregulated in renal cell carcinoma and it may be a new molecular marker for renal-cell carcinoma (Ren Fail, 1994).
Entity Cutaneous melanoma
Note TMSB10 can be considered as a new progression marker for human cutaneous melanoma (Weterman MA et al., 1993).
Entity Hepato cellular carcinoma
Note The expression levels of TMSB10 mRNA and protein are significantly higher in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than those in matched non-tumorous tissues. High expression of TMSB10 is significantly associated with advanced TNM stage and poorer survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients (Wang H et al., 2014).
Entity Cholangiocarcinoma
Note Low expression of TMSB10 is associated with metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. TMSB10 expression may be mediated by the activation of Ras, ERK1/2. TMSB10 can upregulates Snail andmatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expressions (Sribenja S et al., 2013).
Entity Cervical cancer
Note TMSB10 gene can predict pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) in patients with early cervical carcinoma (Huang L et al., 2011).


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This paper should be referenced as such :
Qiu X, Gu Y
TMSB10 (thymosin beta 10);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
History of this paper:
Qiu, X. TMSB10 (thymosin beta 10). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(12):1166-1169.

External links


HGNC (Hugo)TMSB10   11879
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TMSB10    thymosin beta 10
AliasesMIG12; TB10
GeneCards (Weizmann)TMSB10
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000034510 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000034510 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000034510 [Sequence]  chr2:84905656-84906671 [Contig_View]  TMSB10 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000034510
TCGA cBioPortalTMSB10
AceView (NCBI)TMSB10
Genatlas (Paris)TMSB10
SOURCE (Princeton)TMSB10
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)TMSB10
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)TMSB10  -     chr2:84905656-84906671 +  2p11.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)TMSB10  -     2p11.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathTMSB10 - 2p11.2 [CytoView hg19]  TMSB10 - 2p11.2 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBITMSB10 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF090913 AK130949 AK311952 AY453400 BC016025
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_021103
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TMSB10
Gene ExpressionTMSB10 [ NCBI-GEO ]   TMSB10 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   TMSB10 [ SEEK ]   TMSB10 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)TMSB10 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of TMSB10 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)9168
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)TMSB10
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000034510-TMSB10 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP63313   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP63313  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP63313
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)THYMOSIN_B4 (PS00500)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Beta-thymosin    Beta-thymosin_sf   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Thymosin (PF01290)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam01290   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)THY (SM00152)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)TMSB10
AlphaFold pdb e-kbP63313   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000034510-TMSB10 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)P63313
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOactin monomer binding  protein binding  cytoplasm  cytoskeleton  actin filament organization  regulation of cell migration  sequestering of actin monomers  
Ontology : EGO-EBIactin monomer binding  protein binding  cytoplasm  cytoskeleton  actin filament organization  regulation of cell migration  sequestering of actin monomers  
NDEx NetworkTMSB10
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkTMSB10
Wikipedia pathwaysTMSB10
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000034510
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTMSB10
Homologs : HomoloGeneTMSB10
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TMSB10
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanTMSB10::CD63 [2p11.2/12q13.2]  
Fusion : MitelmanTMSB10::RPS16 [2p11.2/19q13.2]  
Fusion Cancer (Beijing)TMSB10 [2p11.2]  -  AGAP1 [2q37.2]  [FUSC000396]  [FUSC000396]
Fusion : QuiverTMSB10
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerTMSB10 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TMSB10
Exome Variant ServerTMSB10
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000034510
Varsome BrowserTMSB10
ACMGTMSB10 variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)TMSB10 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERTMSB10 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTMSB10 
ICGC Data PortalTMSB10 
TCGA Data PortalTMSB10 
Broad Tumor PortalTMSB10
OASIS PortalTMSB10 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTMSB10  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DTMSB10
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTMSB10
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)TMSB10
DoCM (Curated mutations)TMSB10
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)TMSB10
NCG (London)TMSB10
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry TMSB10
NextProtP63313 [Medical]
Target ValidationTMSB10
Huge Navigator TMSB10 [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDTMSB10
Pharm GKB GenePA36580
Clinical trialTMSB10
DataMed IndexTMSB10
PubMed50 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:29:41 CEST 2021

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