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Bladder: Squamous cell carcinoma

Written1999-10Jean-Loup Huret, Claude Léonard
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers France

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ICD-Morpho 8070/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, NOS
Atlas_Id 5062
Phylum Urinary system: Bladder::Squamous cell carcinoma
WHO/OMS Classification Urinary system


    existence of different histologic types of bladder cancer:
  • sqamous cell carcinoma, herein described
  • transitional cell carcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma, rare
  • poorly differenciated carcinoma/small cell carcinoma, exceptional
  • Clinics and Pathology

    Disease cancer of the urothelium
    Etiology most often secondary to bilharzial infection (schistosoma haematobium), may be associated with other types of long term irritations: chronic infections, calculi, treatment with cyclophosphamid
    Epidemiology geographic areas of high incidence: represents 70 to 80% of the cases of badder cancer in the Middle East and in Africa, in particular in Egypt, were it is the most common adult cancer; only 5% in Europe and in the USA, where the transitional cell carcinoma represents 90-95 % of cases
    Pathology grading and staging: tumours are:
  • graded by the degree of cellular atypia (G0->G3), and
  • staged: pTIS carcinoma in situ (but high grade), and pTa papillary carcinoma, both mucosally confined; pT1 lamina propria invasive; pT2 infiltrates the superficial muscle, and pT3a, the deep mucle; pT3b invasion into perivesical fat; pT4 extends into neighbouring structures and organs
    Prognosis considered to have a poorer prognosis than the transitional cell carcinoma


    highly complex karyotypes, yet poorly known
  • allelic losses are frequent; the most frequent regions involved in loss of heterozygocity (LOH) are 3p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 17p; the karyotype is more complex in advanced grades/stages, as in transitional cell carcinoma
  • Chromosome 7: trisomy 7 seems to be more frequent than in transitional cell carcinoma, and is found more often in advanced stages; unknown significance as +7 may also be found in normal tissues
  • Chromosome 9: monosomy 9 is an early event and might even occur at dysplastic stages; allelic losses are frequent, mainly in 9p (65%), more often than for transitional cell carcinoma; LOH are found in particular in the locus where CDKN2/P16 sits; homozygous deletion of P16 is frequent (50%) and may also be found in squamous metaplasias from cancerous patients (but not in squamous metaplasias from non cancerous patients); trisomy 9, on the other hand, would be frequent in advance diseases
  • Chromosome 17: P53 is often implicated, especially in high grades/stages; the profile of mutations of P53 is different from what is found in transitional cell carcinoma
  • Cytogenetics Molecular comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multi-FISH (M-FISH) are complementary tools to determine respectively unbalanced segments and structural rearrangements in these complex karyotypes

    Genes involved and Proteins

    Note multistep process; largely unknown


    Expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 in bladder cancer: relation to schistosomiasis.
    Eissa S, Swelam M, Shaker Y, Abdel-Fattah M, Khalifa A
    IUBMB life. 1999 ; 48 (1) : 115-119.
    PMID 10791925
    DNA copy number changes in Schistosoma-associated and non-Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer.
    El-Rifai W, Kamel D, Larramendy ML, Shoman S, Gad Y, Baithun S, El-Awady M, Eissa S, Khaled H, Soloneski S, Sheaff M, Knuutila S
    The American journal of pathology. 2000 ; 156 (3) : 871-878.
    PMID 10702404
    Chromosomal abnormalities in two bladder carcinomas with secondary squamous cell differentiation.
    Fadl-Elmula I, Gorunova L, Lundgren R, Mandahl N, Forsby N, Mitelman F, Heim S
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1998 ; 102 (2) : 125-130.
    PMID 9546064
    Aberrations of chromosomes 9 and 17 in bilharzial bladder cancer as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
    Ghaleb AH, Pizzolo JG, Melamed MR
    American journal of clinical pathology. 1996 ; 106 (2) : 234-241.
    PMID 8712180
    High frequency of chromosome 9p allelic loss and CDKN2 tumor suppressor gene alterations in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.
    Gonzalez-Zulueta M, Shibata A, Ohneseit PF, Spruck CH 3rd, Busch C, Shamaa M, El-Baz M, Nichols PW, Gonzalgo ML, Elbaz M [corrected to El-Baz M
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1995 ; 87 (18) : 1383-1393.
    PMID 7658499
    Numerical aberrations of chromosomes 7, 9 and 17 in squamous cell and transitional cell cancer of the bladder: a comparative study performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
    Pycha A, Mian C, Posch B, Haitel A, El-Baz M, Ghoneim MA, Marberger M
    The Journal of urology. 1998 ; 160 (3 Pt 1) : 737-740.
    PMID 9720535
    Partial allelotype of schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer.
    Shaw ME, Elder PA, Abbas A, Knowles MA
    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 1999 ; 80 (5) : 656-661.
    PMID 10048962
    Early acquisition of homozygous deletions of p16/p19 during squamous cell carcinogenesis and genetic mosaicism in bladder cancer.
    Tsutsumi M, Tsai YC, Gonzalgo ML, Nichols PW, Jones PA
    Oncogene. 1998 ; 17 (23) : 3021-3027.
    PMID 9881704
    Bladder irrigation specimens assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to interphase nuclei.
    Wheeless LL, Reeder JE, Han R, O'Connell MJ, Frank IN, Cockett AT, Hopman AH
    Cytometry. 1994 ; 17 (4) : 319-326.
    PMID 7875039


    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Huret, JL ; Lonard, C
    Bladder: Squamous cell carcinoma
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(4):205-206.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version :

    Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 4 ]

    Genes ANG BCL2L1 BIRC7 S100A7

    External links

    arrayMap Topo ( C67) arrayMap ((UZH-SIB Zurich)   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    Other databaseTumor Portal - Broad Institute
    Other databaseICGC Data Portal - [BLCA-CN] Bladder Cancer - CN
    Other databasecBioPortal: Bladder Cancer (MSKCC, JCO 2013)
    Disease databaseBladder: Squamous cell carcinoma
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed

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    indexed on : Tue Oct 12 14:40:10 CEST 2021

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