Refractory anemia (RA)

2003-11-01   Antonio Cuneo , Gianluigi Castoldi 

1.Hematology Section, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Corso Giovecca 203, Ferrara, Italy

Clinics and Pathology

Phenotype stem cell origin

RA is a clonal disorder originating from a totipotent stem cell or from a multipotent myeloid progenitor cell, characterized by ineffective hemopoiesis and diserythropoiesis.


There are few data on the epidemiology of RA, which may account for 30-40% of all MDS cases. MDS is predominantly diagnosed in the elderly population. The global incidence of all MDS was comprised between 3,5 and 12,6 new cases / year / per 100,000 in some studies. The incidence may rise from 0,5 MDS cases per year in the 40 years age-group to 89 cases per year in the >80 age-group.


RA usually presents with hypercellular bone marrow (BM) and anemia. There may be leukopenia and/or and thrombocytopenia, but these features do not represent a diagnostic requirement.
In the WHO classification RA shows anemia, no or rare blasts in the peripheral blood, isolated erythoid dysplasia with <5% blasts and <15% ringed sideroblasts in the BM. RCMD shows cytopenias (bicytopenia or pancytopenia) in the peripheral blood plus dysplasia in more than 10% of the cells in 2 or more myeloid lineages.


Criteria for the recognition of dysplastic features of BM cells were published by the FAB group. Dyserythropoiesis includes megaloblastoid changes of erythroid precursors, multinuclearity, nuclear fragmentation, unstained area in the cytoplasm (dysemoglobinization).


The bone biopsy may be useful in some cases of MDS with BM fibrosis and allows for the demonstration of the so called "abnormal localization of immature precursors" (ALIP) which may represent a prognostic factor.


Treatment of this condition is largely supportive, including blood transfusion in patients with symptomatic anemia. Anemic patients with low serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels may benefit of the administration of rHu-EPO.


This is a preleukemic condition, carrying a 10-20% probability of evolving into leukemia. The probability of RA to transform into AML may be lower when including the 5q- syndrome and excluding RCMD, but prospective studies are lacking. In a study 25% of the patient developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within 5 years.


Median survival of RA may fall in the 27-50 month range. As noted above, heterogeneity of patient population may account for inter-study variability in median survival. The best outcome is usually observed in RA with isolated 5q- (5q- syndrome of the WHO classification) and in those patients without multilineage dysplasia, corresponding to the RA category in the WHO classification.
Chromosomal abnormalities have independent prognostic significance and are to be included in risk assessment at diagnosis. Favourable cytogenetic features are normal karyotype, 5q- or 20q- isolated; unfavourable features are complex karyotype (i.e. 3 or more clonal anomalies) and abnormalities of chromosome 7q; other abnormalities identify patients in the intermediate cytogenetic-risk group.

Highly cited references

Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
357367292022Preceding Phenological Events Rather than Climate Drive the Variations in Fruiting Phenology in the Desert Shrub Nitraria tangutorum.0
357363162022Effect of Electrode Type on Electrospun Membrane Morphology Using Low-Concentration PVA Solutions.0
357354522022Web-Based Peer Navigation for Men with Prostate Cancer and Their Family Caregivers: A Pilot Feasibility Study.0
357344732022Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2 Autoantibodies Are Linked to Less Severe Disease in Multiple Sclerosis and Post-treatment Lyme Disease.0
357335272022Effect of the Innovative Running Shoes With the Special Midsole Structure on the Female Runners' Lower Limb Biomechanics.0
357331992022Dose-response association between maternal pre-pregnancy bodyweight and gestational diabetes mellitus following ART treatment: a population-based cohort study.0
357315402022Corneal Lenticule Creation Using a New Solid-State Femtosecond Laser Measured by Spectral Domain OCT in a Porcine Eye Model.0
357301622022Persistent Dissociation and Its Neural Correlates in Predicting Outcomes After Trauma Exposure.0
357301102022Neonatal palliative care practices: an Indian perspective.0
357294622022Circ_0060077 Knockdown Alleviates High-Glucose-Induced Cell Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Fibrosis in HK-2 Cells via miR-145-5p/VASN Pathway.0
357277412022Differences in carcass chilling rate underlie differences in sensory traits of pork chops from pigs with heavier carcass weights.0
357235892022Attachment Injury Severity, Injury-related Stress, Forgiveness, and Sexual Satisfaction in Injured Adult Partners.0
357179442022Left Ventricular Dysfunction Persists in the First Week after Re-Warming following Therapeutic Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy.0
357173312022Molecular evidence on the presence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in snails along the Yangtze River, 2015-2019.0
357163622022Employment and ability to work after kidney transplantation in the Netherlands: the impact of preemptive versus non-preemptive kidney transplantation.0
357147842022Chemical synthesis, NMR characterization, and anticancer activity of androstene derivatives with a C17-side chain.0
357127592022Defining and identifying early-onset lung disease in cystic fibrosis with cumulative clinical characteristics.0
357125432022The complete chloroplast genomes of two Pedicularis species (Orobanchaceae) from Southwest China.0
357105332022Performance of the first commercial dual resistance assay, AmpliSens Mycoplasma genitalium-ML/FQ-Resist-FL, for detection of potential macrolide and quinolone resistance-associated mutations and prevalence of M. genitalium resistance mutations in St. Petersburg, Russia.0
357103732022Optimization of a protocol for the evaluation of antibody responses to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in low-resource settings.0
357095632022Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Social Safeness and Pleasure Scale in adolescents from community and residential youth care.0
357092882022A photonic integrated circuit-based erbium-doped amplifier.0
357091932022Comparative assessment of cognitive impairment and oxidative stress markers among vitamin D insufficient elderly patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).0
357061012022Efficacy and safety of endoscopic primary prophylaxis of bleeding in children with high-risk gastroesophageal varices.0
357037342022Can platelet indices be of value in pregnant women with malaria?0
356979072022Development of a nanocopper-decorated laser-scribed sensor for organophosphorus pesticide monitoring in aqueous samples.0
356976972022Gene expression signatures of individual ductal carcinoma in situ lesions identify processes and biomarkers associated with progression towards invasive ductal carcinoma.0
356929652022Knowledge and Awareness of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy among Patients Seeking Eye Care Services in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.0
356925942022Levels and Significance of Tumor Markers and Cytokines in Serum and Peritoneal Lavage Fluid of Patients with Peritoneal Metastasis of Gastric Cancer.0
356906432022Application of a water jet for cleaning grease and improving the surface adhesion properties of galvanized steel wire ropes.0
356896412022Comparative Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Antivirals for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in VA Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.0
356887712022"Triple low" free-breathing CTPA protocol for patients with dyspnoea.0
356871822022Pre-operative radiotherapy is associated with superior local relapse-free survival in advanced synovial sarcoma.0
356869462022Flexible lead-free piezoelectric arrays for high-efficiency wireless ultrasonic energy transfer and communication.0
356864222022Biotin-responsive Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency (MCD).0
356837602022Moss-like Hierarchical Architecture Self-Assembled by Ultrathin Na2Ti3O7 Nanotubes: Synthesis, Electrical Conductivity, and Electrochemical Performance in Sodium-Ion Batteries.0
356836022022Observational Study of the Association between Hyponatremia and Rhabdomyolysis in Patients Presenting to Hospital.0
356829722022Effect of Hypoxia-Induced Micro-RNAs Expression on Oncogenesis.0
356806662022eTEP-RS for incisional hernias in a non-robotic center. Is laparoscopy enough to perform a durable MIS repair of the abdominal wall defect?0
356794312022Levels of abdominal adipose tissue and metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in middle age according to average fast-food intake over the preceding 25 years: the CARDIA Study.0
356791842022A Novel Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy System for the Diagnosis of Peripheral Pulmonary Nodules: A Randomized Trial.0
356780452022Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase is a promising metabolic drug target for primary and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.0
356768052022Modeling reciprocal relations between emotion dysregulation and alcohol use using dynamic structural equation modeling: A micro-longitudinal study.0
356765512022Texture analysis of SPECT myocardial perfusion provides prognostic value for dilated cardiomyopathy.0
356763292022Factors influencing attraction and retention of frontline health workers in remote and rural areas in Nigeria: a discrete choice experiment.0
356751352022Fully Automatic Quantitative Measurement of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Thymic Epithelial Tumors Using a Convolutional Neural Network.0
356750652022Association Between Implementation of a Geriatric Trauma Clinical Pathway and Changes in Rates of Delirium in Older Adults With Traumatic Injury.0
356750272022Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) and inpatient treatment strategies for emergency department patients with cellulitis: a cost analysis.0
356749772022Heavy metal contamination in river water, sediment, groundwater and human blood, from Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.0
356724032022An approach to cellular tropism of SARS-CoV-2 through protein-protein interaction and enrichment analysis.0
356679732022Change in exercise capacity measured by Cardio-pulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) in Danish people with cystic fibrosis after initiation of treatment with Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor.0
356678372022Long-term Treatment With Ponesimod in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Results from Randomized Phase 2b Core and Extension Studies.0
356670852022Prophylactic tranexamic acid in patients with hematologic malignancy: a placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial.0
356670752022In nonischemic systolic HF, prophylactic ICDs did not reduce all-cause mortality vs. usual care at 10 y.0
356597722022Evaluation of emergency department visits prior to an HIV diagnosis: Missed opportunities.0
356595432022Effectiveness of oral aciclovir in preventing maternal chickenpox: A comparison with VZIG.0
356588902022GC-MS identification and quantification of the synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-4en-PINACA in cannabis-derived material seized in the Turin Metropolitan Area (Italy).0
356585942022Symptom Profiles, But Not Prefrontal Neurochemistry, Differentiate ADHD Youth With and Without a Family History of Bipolar I Disorder.0
356583482022[Safety and efficacy evaluation of laparoscopic and open hepatectomy for hepatolithiasis: a propensity score matched analysis].0
356581042022Efficacy and safety of direct peroral cholangioscopy using a new multibending ultra-slim endoscope for the management of biliary diseases.0
356577182022First detection of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) in a major potato production region of China.0
356566992022Clustered Mendelian randomization analyses identify distinct and opposing pathways in the association between genetically influenced insulin-like growth factor-1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.0
356548712022Superior adsorption performance of citrate modified graphene oxide as nano material for removal organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solution.0
356548252022Lower number of modifiable risk factors was associated with reduced atrial fibrillation incidence in an 18-year prospective cohort study.0
356545712022Three-site screening for STIs in men who have sex with men using online self-testing in an English sexual health service.0
356538372022Reproductive cycle and in vitro maturation of canine oocyte: A meta-analysis approach.0
356523812022Integration of Trinuclear Triangle Copper(II) Secondary Building Units in Octacyanidometallates(IV)-Based Frameworks.0
356523412022Insights From a Large-Scale Whole-Genome Sequencing Study of Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, and Hypertension.0
356429292022Ultrafast branching in intersystem crossing dynamics revealed by coherent vibrational wavepacket motions in a bimetallic Pt(II) complex.0
356413782022Corrigendum to 'miR-145 inhibits invasion of bladder cancer cells by targeting PAK1'.0
356407662022Comparison of pathogenicity of different subgenotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated in China.0
356403552022Longitudinal effects of cannabis use on attentional processes in patients with first episode of psychosis.0
356389712022The Impact of Sprint Interval Exercise in Acute Severe Hypoxia on Executive Function.0
356363812022Low profile visualized intraluminal support stent-assisted Hydrocoil embolization for acutely ruptured wide-necked intracranial aneurysms: A propensity score-matched cohort study.0
356186172022Retraction notice to " LncRNA NEAT1 acts as a key regulator of cell apoptosis and inflammatory response by the miR-944/TRIM37 axis in acute lung injury'" [J. Pharmacol. Sci. 145 (2021) 202-212].0
356057392022Immune priming with Candida albicans induces a shift in cellular immunity and gene expression of Musca domestica.0
355892912022Differences between managers' and safety professionals' perceptions of upwards influence attempts within safety practice.0
355803042022Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 Core-Shell Heterojunction Nanostructures.0
355794702022Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker for infection in sickle cell disease.0
355731312022The impact of the ban on elective surgery in New York City during the coronavirus outbreak on gynecologic oncology patient care.0
355618202022Anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge under calcium hypochlorite stress: Performance stability and microbial communities.0
355615722022First-trimester maternal serum betatrophin levels are decreased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.0
355602822022Prognostic value of dysnatremia for survival in neuroendocrine neoplasm patients.0
355450092022Comprehensive screening of polar emerging organic contaminants including PFASs and evaluation of the trophic transfer behavior in a freshwater food web.0
355334132022Applications of natural language processing in radiology: A systematic review.0
355331102022A meta-analysis of experienced incivility and its correlates: Exploring the dual path model of experienced workplace incivility.0
355014632022A novel HSP90 inhibitor SL-145 suppresses metastatic triple-negative breast cancer without triggering the heat shock response.0
355003292022Extracting phosphorus and other elements from lake water: Chemical processes in a hypolimnetic withdrawal and treatment system.0
354887672022Determining optimal donor heart ischemic times in adult cardiac transplantation.0
354836272022Assessing the post-treatment therapeutic effect of tongxie in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.0
354832752022Mediators of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies for anxiety and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.0
354684682022MiR-145 participates in the development of lupus nephritis by targeting CSF1 to regulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.0
354620012022Socially assistive robots for people with dementia: Systematic review and meta-analysis of feasibility, acceptability and the effect on cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life.0
354609442022A Computational approach to screen, predict and annotate human and chimpanzee PHEX intronic miRNAs, their gene targets, and regulatory interaction networks.0
354528062022Predicting brain age from functional connectivity in symptomatic and preclinical Alzheimer disease.0
354432082022Characterising the tear bacterial microbiome in young adults.0
354396692022Corrigendum to "Electronic to ionic transduction of the electric field applied to PEDOT:PSS substrates to the cell cultures on top" [Bioelectrochemistry 145 (2022) 108099].0
354354872022Treatment optimization for recurrent hepatoblastoma: retrospective study from a hepatoblastoma cohort in Southern China.0
354292632022The effect of additional acarbose on metformin-associated artificially high 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography/computed tomography.0
354119392022Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone for metastatic patients starting hormone therapy: 5-year follow-up results from the STAMPEDE randomised trial (NCT00268476).0
357386282022The Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Patients With Esophageal Cancer Who Receive Curative Treatment.0
357385962022Nanomicelle-generating Microneedles Loaded With Tranilast for Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars in a Rabbit Model.0
357380702022The influence of childhood abuse and prenatal intimate partner violence on childbirth experiences and breastfeeding outcomes.0
357378582022Cost-effectiveness analysis of semaglutide 2.4 mg for the treatment of adult patients with overweight and obesity in the United States.0
357377352022Physiologically based cord clamping for infants ≥32+0 weeks gestation: A randomised clinical trial and reference percentiles for heart rate and oxygen saturation for infants ≥35+0 weeks gestation.0
357376992022Clinical effects of laser-based cavity preparation on class V resin-composite fillings.0
357374432022Remotely Delivered Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Using an Ad Libitum Plant-Based Diet: Pilot Acceptability, Feasibility, and Preliminary Results.0
357369182022Copper Monitoring in Vineyard Soils of Central Italy Subjected to Three Antifungal Treatments, and Effects of Sub-Lethal Copper Doses on the Earthworm Eisenia fetida.0
357367122022Foliar Application of Nano-Silicon Improves the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of 'Kalamata' Olive Subjected to Deficit Irrigation in a Semi-Arid Climate.0
357367102022Molecular Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. in Scarce Populations in Some Regions of Western Saudi Arabia.0
357364012022Dance for chronic pain conditions: A Systematic Review.0
357354512022Prognostic and Predictive Relevance of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Squamous Cell Head-Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Radiotherapy/Chemo-Radiotherapy.0
357352112022Cardiac Morbidity and Mortality Associated with the Use of Lamotrigine.0
357350892022Validation of reduced volume VeriFilerâ„¢ Express PCR Amplification Kit for buccal swab samples extracted using Prep-n-Goâ„¢ Buffer.0
357349002022Potential and promising marker for serious bacterial infections in children: Delta neutrophil index.0
357347522022Comparison of Gastric Emptying Time after the Ingestion of Whisky with Isocalorically Adjusted Glucose Solution.0
357343622022Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Perimenopausal and Menopausal Women.0
357341222022Effect of maltodextrin with different dextrose equivalents on the physicochemical properties of spray-dried barberry juice (Berberis vulgaris L.).0
357341082022Development and validation of a reverse phase HPLC-DAD method for separation, detection & quantification of rutin and quercetin in buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.).0
357341042022Effect of extrusion on the modification of wheat flour proteins related to celiac disease.0
357331982022Tailoring limb length based on total small bowel length in one anastomosis gastric bypass surgery (TAILOR study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.0
357328202022Predictive role of node-rads score in patients with prostate cancer candidates for radical prostatectomy with extended lymph node dissection: comparative analysis with validated nomograms.0
357325062022Modulating Fingolimod (FTY720) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity Using a PLGA-Based Drug Delivery System.0
357324602022NOD/RIPK2 signalling pathway contributes to osteoarthritis susceptibility.0
357323462022Low-dose CT hounsfield units: a reliable methodology for assessing vertebral bone density in radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.0
357320362022The impact of thyroid diseases on patients' work functioning: a pilot study.0
357319942022Constructing Unique Mesoporous Carbon Superstructures via Monomicelle Interface Confined Assembly.0
357317142022Effects of moisture content on the enolization products formation in glucose-proline Maillard reaction models.0
357308712022Factors associated with frailty in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.0
357307692022Differences in Electromygraphic Activity of the Middle and the Lower Serratus Anterior Fibers During Open and Closed Kinematics Exercises.0
357306512022Rheumatic Heart Disease Is a Neglected Disease Relative to Its Burden Worldwide: Findings From Global Burden of Disease 2019.0
357304792022Review of Tralokinumab in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis.0
357303472022Non obvious diagnosis and breast development in pure gonadal dysgenesis.0
357302052022Immunosuppression Profile of CFZ533 (Iscalimab), a Non-Depleting Anti-CD40 Antibody, and the Presence of Opportunistic Infections in a Rhesus Monkey Toxicology Study.0
357295572022Influences of different referral modes on clinical outcomes after endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.0
357293832022Ni-alginate hydrogel beads for establishing breakthrough curves of lead ions removal from aqueous solutions.0
357293052022COVIDiSTRESS diverse dataset on psychological and behavioural outcomes one year into the COVID-19 pandemic.0
357289792022Evaluation of Stent Apposition in the LVIS Blue Stent-Assisted Coiling of Distal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms : Correlation with Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes.0
357288752022Spartalizumab or placebo in combination with dabrafenib and trametinib in patients with BRAF V600-mutant melanoma: exploratory biomarker analyses from a randomized phase 3 trial (COMBI-i).0
357279162022Tixagevimab/cilgavimab pre-exposure prophylaxis is associated with lower breakthrough infection risk in vaccinated solid organ transplant recipients during the Omicron wave.0
357275802022Efficacy and Safety of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.0
357274762022Cost-Effectiveness of KTE-X19 for Adults with Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the United States.0
357271062022Manipulation under anesthesia after total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective study of 145 patients.0
357263352022Effects of Outdoor Walking on Positive and Negative Affect: Nature Contact Makes a Big Difference.0
357263022022Serum IMA and LP-PLA2 Levels in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Their Correlation with the Degree of Myocardial Ischaemia and Their Diagnostic Value.0
357259072022Appraisal of growth inhibitory, biochemical and genotoxic effects of Allyl Isothiocyanate on different developmental stages of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae).0
357157572022Loudness affects motion: asymmetric volume of auditory feedback results in asymmetric gait in healthy young adults.0
357255572022Penetrating renal injuries: an observational study of non-operative management and the impact of opening Gerota's fascia.0
357252072022Effect of molecular weight of chitosan on the formation and properties of zein-nisin-chitosan nanocomplexes.0
357252012022Production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides from industrial-derived xylan residue by organic acid treatment.0
357242682022Changes in the Co-Expression of Innate Immunity Genes During Persistent Islet Autoimmunity are Associated with Progression of Islet Autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).0
357239372022Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological effects of Croton tiglium Linn.: a comprehensive review.0
357238262022Dissipation and risk assessment of fluopyram and trifloxystrobin on onion by GC-MS/MS.0
357237382022Association of polygenic risk for schizophrenia with fast sleep spindle density depends on pro-cognitive variants.0
357236882022Partial nephrectomy in solitary kidneys: comparison between open surgery and robotic-assisted laparoscopy on perioperative and functional outcomes (UroCCR-54 study).0
357232562022Factors influencing mental health nurses in providing person-centered care.0
357216762022Application of response surface methodology for COD and ammonia removal from municipal wastewater treatment plant using acclimatized mixed culture.0
357210692022Non-invasive Tear Film Assessment in Normal Population: Effect of Age, Sex, and Interparametric Relationship.0
357208702022Response Time in the Transport of Pediatric Patients to a Tertiary Critical Care Unit.0
357207302022Texture Analysis Based on Vascular Ultrasound to Identify the Vulnerable Carotid Plaques.0
357206182022Effectiveness of the "Essential Coaching for Every Mother" postpartum text message program on maternal psychosocial outcomes: A randomized controlled trial.0
357205122022The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Type I Collagen Production, VEGF Expression, and Neovascularization after Femoral Bone Implants: A Study on Rat Models.0
357201192022Membrane Lipids in the Thyroid Comparing to Those in Non-Endocrine Tissues Are Less Sensitive to Pro-Oxidative Effects of Fenton Reaction Substrates.0
357200332022Integrating Network Pharmacology and Experimental Validation to Explore the Key Mechanism of Gubitong Recipe in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis.0
357195382022Describing Patterns of Known Domestic Abuse Among Different Ethnic Groups.0
357193752022Transcriptome Analysis of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Provides Insight Into Heat Stress Responses.0
357191562022Four-Week Supplementation of Water-Soluble Tomato Extract Attenuates Platelet Function in Chinese Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Individuals: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Crossover Clinical Trial.0
357187692022Initiation and elongation factor co-expression correlates with recurrence and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.0
357180272022Laccase immobilization in polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for 17α-ethynylestradiol removal: Biocatalytic approach for pharmaceuticals degradation.0
357176772022Tensile-Strained RuO2 Loaded on Antimony-Tin Oxide by Fast Quenching for Proton-Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer.0
357175922022A Novel Synthetized sulfonylhydrazone coumarin (E)-4-methyl-N'-(1-(3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2- yl)ethylidene)benzenesulfonohydrazide Protect against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats by attenuating Oxidative damage, Biological Changes, and Electrocardiogram.0
357175522022Astilbin Attenuates Cadmium-Induced Adipose Tissue Damage by Inhibiting NF-κB Pathways and Regulating the Expression of HSPs in Chicken.0
357174482022Tralesinidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy prevents disease manifestations in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB.0
357168002022Association of empathy with clinical symptoms and cognitive function in Chinese chronic schizophrenia patients with and without deficit syndrome.0
357165542022Exposure models for particulate matter elemental concentrations in Southern California.0
357164062022Prenatal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure induced myocardial cytotoxicity via the regulation of the NRG1-dependent ErbB2/ErbB4-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in fetal mice.0
357163632022Characterization of 17 unknown ketamine manufacturing by-product impurities by UHPLC-QTOF-MS.0
357162712022Validation of Plasma and CSF Neurofilament Light Chain as an Early Marker for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.0
357147932022Night melatonin levels affect cognition in diurnal animals: Molecular insights from a corvid exposed to an illuminated night environment.0
357147152022Prevention of radial artery occlusion by simultaneous ulnar and radial compression (PRO-SURC). A randomized duplex ultrasound follow-up study.0
357145352022Computer-aided directed evolution ofl-threonine aldolase for asymmetric biocatalytic synthesis of a chloramphenicol intermediate.0
357142772022Safety of 4-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in males: a large observational post-marketing study.0
357142732022Clinical evaluation of the lot-to-lot consistency of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in a commercial-scale phase IV clinical trial.0
357139842022Breakthrough COVID-19 cases despite prophylaxis with 150 mg of tixagevimab and 150 mg of cilgavimab in kidney transplant recipients.0
357137012022Fracture resistance and biomechanical behavior of different access cavities of maxillary central incisors restored with different composite resins.0
357134102022Covid-19 vaccination BNT162b2 temporarily impairs semen concentration and total motile count among semen donors.0
357129222022[Clinical study on real-time three-dimensional CT navigation-guided full-endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion].0
357128502022The psychometric properties of the of the Persian version of the Screen for adult anxiety related disorders (SCAARED) in patients with anxiety disorders.0
357119672022Effects of Ketoconazole on the Clinical Recovery in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.0
357056672022Elevated light intensity compensates for nitrogen deficiency during chrysanthemum growth by improving water and nitrogen use efficiency.0
357056352022Case-control study of neuropsychiatric symptoms in electronic health records following COVID-19 hospitalization in 2 academic health systems.0
357055972022Remineralization of early enamel lesions with a novel prepared tricalcium silicate paste.0
357105602022Fluconazole in hypercalciuric patients with increased 1,25(OH)2D levels: the prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind FLUCOLITH trial.0
357104562022Reanalysis of exome negative patients with rare disease: a pragmatic workflow for diagnostic applications.0
357102742022Exercise in the Genetic Arrhythmia Syndromes - A Review.0
357093922022Development and Application of Feature-Based Molecular Networking for Phospholipidomics Analysis.0
357092202022Point-prevalence survey of antibiotic use at three public referral hospitals in Kenya.0
357091902022Impact of the suboptimal communication network environment on telerobotic surgery performance and surgeon fatigue.0
357086652022Changes in Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Morphology During Spaceflight and Acute Fluid Shift Reversal.0
357083632022Ex vivo comparison of electrocautery-enhanced delivery of lumen-apposing metal stents matching electrosurgical workstations during EUS-guided gallbladder drainage.0


Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
116944002001Myelodysplastic syndromes: recent advances.Alessandrino EP et al
69529201982Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes.Bennett JM et al
23106961990Two types of acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia (AISA)Gattermann N et al
23198061990Prognostic factors of myelodysplastic syndromes--a simplified 3-D scoring system.Goasguen JE et al
90587301997International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes.Greenberg P et al
78137081994Life expectancy in primary myelodysplastic syndromes: a prognostic score based upon histopathology from bone marrow biopsies of 569 patients.Maschek H et al
117536032001Clinical importance of interphase cytogenetics detecting occult chromosome lesions in myelodysplastic syndromes with normal karyotype.Rigolin GM et al
84642271993Clinical implications of chromosomal abnormalities in 401 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: a multicentric study in Japan.Toyama K et al
122391372002The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms.Vardiman JW et al



This disorder is part of the heterogeneous category of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). According to the FAB classification of MDS, RA includes those patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), the latter category having been recognised as a distinct entity by the WHO classification (vide infra). Also, the 5q- syndrome is part of the RA in the FAB classification.
In this card, the FAB classification will be used, because the majority of available data on cytogenetic anomalies was derived from studies published before WHO classification.


Antonio Cuneo ; Gianluigi Castoldi

Refractory anemia (RA)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2003-11-01

Online version:

External Links