Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

t(7;12)(q36;p13) MNX1/ETV6

Written2000-04Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France
Updated2001-06Sabrina Tosi
MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
Updated2003-12Anne RM von Bergh, H. Berna Beverloo
Afdeling Klinische Genetica, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Updated2016-08Adriana Zamecnikova, Soad Al Bahar
Kuwait Cancer Control Center, Department of Hematology, Kuwait;

Abstract Review on t(7;12)(q36;p13), with data on clinics, and the genes involved.

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


ICD-Morpho 9811/3 B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma, NOS
ICD-Morpho 9861/3 AML with mutated NPM1; AML with mutated CEBPA; Acute myeloid leukaemia, NOS
Atlas_Id 1177

Clinics and Pathology

Phenotype / cell stem origin Almost exclusively present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ) of various subtypes: 13 AML not specified cases (Hagemeijer et al., 1979; Wlodarska et al., 1998; Tosi et al., 2000; Slater et al., 2001; Simmons et al., 2002; Tosi et al., 2003; Ballabio et al., 2009; Wildenhain et al., 2010), 8 M0 (Tosi et al., 2000; Tosi et al., 2003; von Bergh et al., 2006; Ballabio et al., 2009; Park et al., 2009; Wildenhain et al., 2010), 2 M1 (Tosi et al., 2000; Slater et al., 2001), 7 M2 (Raimondi et al., 1999; Satake et al., 1999; von Bergh et al., 2006; Hauer et al., 2008), 1 M3 (Slater et al., 2001; Wildenhain et al., 2010; ), 3 M4 (Hagemeijer et al., 1981; Tosi et al., 2000; Naiel et al., 2013), 3 M5 (Tosi et al.;1998; Park et al., 2009; von Bergh et al., 2006), 1 M6 (Satake et al., 1999) and 2 M7 (Taketani et al., 2008; Naiel et al., 2013). Four cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (Andreasson et al., 2000; Tosi et al., 2000; von Bergh et al., 2006) as well as 2 acute biphenotypic leukaemia patients were reported (Park et al., 2009; Naiel et al., 2013) (Data from Naiel et al., 2013). The case that was reported previously as myelodysplastic syndrome (Tosi et al.; 1998), revealed a revised diagnosis as AML (Ballabio et al., 2009).
Epidemiology At least 47 reported cases with chromosomal translocation and/or the fusion transcript (sex ratio 19M/28F; the incidence is low (3%) in overall paediatric AML, but significant in infant AML (Neil et al., 2013; Tosi et al., 2015); extremely rare in infant ALL and older children. The translocation may be overlooked, and therefore underestimated; the estimated incidence of this translocation is approximately one third of AML paediatric patients with age between 0-2 years (von Bergh et al., 2006; Tosi et al.,2015).
Clinics WBC range 8-230 x 109/L, median 12 x10 9/L; organomegaly, central nervous system involvement in 7 of 12 cases (Tosi et al., 2015).
Prognosis Inferior outcome with the standard induction therapy with probabilities of 3 years event free survival of 0-14 % and overall survival of 0-28 % (von Berg et al., 2006; Tosi et al., 2015). From the recently published data on the clinical outcome: only 5 patients are alive (1 after 22 months post BMT (Slater et al., 2001); 1 relapsed twice, but alive after 2 years after BMT (Simons et al., 2002); 1 after chemotherapy and 1 after BMT. It appears to be that the only long time survival is a paediatric patient with acute megakaryocytic leukaemia alive after 5 years, treated with chemotherapy (Taketani et al., 2008). The remaining 18 patients died during induction chemotherapy, infection or relapse (Data from Tosi et al., 2015).


Cytogenetics Morphological Not always visible by chromosome banding techniques alone; may also be misdiagnosed as del(12)(p13) and/or del(7q), thus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis has to be done for its identification.
Cytogenetics Molecular Detectable by dual colour FISH. A cosmid cocktail or YAC 964c10 shows a split signal on the der(12) and der(7). Also the commercial probe LSI TEL/AML1 (ES) for the detection of the t(12;21) shows a split signal on the der(7) and the der(12) in the t(7;12) cases since the breakpoint in these cases falls within the first three exons, which are contained in this probe. FISH using the PAC clone RP5-1121A15 mapping to 7q36 shows a split signal on the der(7) and der(12).
  Top Left: example of FISH performed on bone marrow metaphase from a patient with t(7;12)(q36;p13). Dual colour FISH using whole chromosome paint specific for chromosome 7 (in green) and chromosome 12 (in red) shows the reciprocal translocation. The arrow indicates the der(7) and the arrowhead indicates the der(12) - Sabrina Tosi; Right: Example of double colour FISH performed on bone marrow metaphase from a patient with t(7;12)(q36;p13). The PAC clone 1121A15 for the breakpoint region at chromosome band 7q36 (in green) and a cosmid cocktail for ETV6 at chromosome band 12p13 (in red) show one green signal for the normal chromosome 7, one red signal for the normal chromosome 12 and two fusion signals at both the derivative chromosomes 7 and 12 - Anne RM von Bergh and H. Berna Beverloo.
Bottom FISH using commercially available LSI TEL (12p13) Break-apart (Vysis, Abott, USA) probe showing juxtaposition of telomeric sequences (split red signal) to der(7) chromosome and a 2 fusion (one of them smaller appearing), 1 red signal pattern on interphase cells (A). The juxtaposition of disrupted TEL sequences to 7q36.3 may be visualized by Vysis LSI ETV6 (TEL)/RUNX1 (AML1) dual color translocation probe and SureFISH 7q36.3SHH probe (red signal) (Agilent Technologies, US) revealing the fusion signal on der(7) chromosome and the remaining TEL sequences (green) on der(12) chromosome (visualisation of 7q36.3 on derivative chromosome 12 might be impaired due to the small size of the translocated fragments) (B). To screen for t(7;12)(q36;p13) in infants with MLL-negative AML, commercially available Vysis LSI ETV6 (TEL) break-apart probe can be used to confirm the breakage of the ETV6 gene on 12p13, showing the split signal on der(7) chromosome and the truncated fusion signal on der(12) (Figure 1A). Visualization of 7q36.3 sequences may be done by SureFISH 7q36.3SHH probe (Agilent Technologies, US) alone or with combination of Vysis LSI ETV6 (TEL)/RUNX1 (AML1) dual color translocation probe (Figure 1B) - Adriana Zamecnikova, Soad Al Bahar.
Additional anomalies Accompanied by the presence of an extra chromosome in the majority of cases: +19 mostly, occurring in 38 out of 47 cases (+19 alone in 22 cases, in association with +8 in 8, +13 in 2, +22 in 3 and with +X,+8 in 3), while +8 as a sole numerical anomaly was found in 2 patients (Data from Naiel et al., 2013).
Variants To date, three-way complex translocations were found in 3 patients, characterized as: t(5;7;12)(q31;q36;p13), t(1;7;12)(q25;q36;p13) (Park et al., 2009) and t(7;12;16)(q36;p13;q12) (Naiel et al., 2013).

Genes involved and Proteins

Gene Name MNX1
Location 7q36
Note HLXB9 mutation are found in patients with Currarino syndrome
Dna / Rna 3 exons, 2061 bp mRNA
Protein 403 AA; Homeobox protein HB9; Highly expressed in CD34+ bone marrow cells; Possibly involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of progenitor cells.
Gene Name ETV6
Location 12p13
Dna / Rna 9 exons; alternate splicing
Protein contains a Helix-Loop-Helix and ETS DNA binding domains; wide expression; nuclear localisation; ETS-related transcription factor

Result of the chromosomal anomaly

Hybrid gene
Description 5' HLXB9 - 3' ETV6. The breakpoints on chromosome 12 disrupting the ETV6 gene are consistently at the 5? end of ETV6, between exons 1 and 3, however chromosome 7 breakpoints are scattered in regions proximal to the HLXB9 (Homeobox HB9, MNX1) gene, suggesting that HLXB9 gene is translocated to the der(12) without its disruption (Tosi et al., 2015).
Fusion Protein
Note The t(7;12) is heterogeneous at the molecular level. The presence of an HLXB9/ETV6 fusion transcript has been identified only in approximately 50 % of described patients (Beverloo et al., 2001; Simmons et al., 2002; Von Bergh et al., 2006; Taketani et al., 2008; Ballabio et al., 2009; Wildenhain et al., 2010).
Description N-terminal HLXB9, including its polyalanine repeat region, is fused to a large C-terminal part of the ETV6 protein including its HLH domain and ETS domain; the homeobox domain of HLXB9 is not retained in the fusion protein; the reciprocal transcript is not expressed.
Oncogenesis The pathogenic mechanisms arising from t(7;12)(q36;p13) are not fully understood. As the presence of an HLXB9/ETV6 fusion transcript has been shown only in approximately 50% of patients and the reciprocal ETV6/HLXB9 transcript has never been observed, it is unclear if generation of a fusion gene is involved in leukemogenesis, at least in some cases. In addition, the presence of a HLXB9/ETV6 protein has not been confirmed to date, thus the production of a fusion protein is still debatable (Tosi et al., 2915). While the role of a chimeric protein as an oncogenic trigger is unclear, the observation of highly increased HLXB9 expression in t(7;12)-positive patients suggests that ectopic expression of HLXB9 might promote oncogenesis (Von Bergh et al., 2006; Ballabio et al., 2009). Alternatively, it is possible that ETV6 is the only contributor to leukaemogenesis and its disruption alone might activate oncogenesis. Furthermore, as the t(7;12) has been found associated with deletions of 12p and/or a gene(s) at 7q36, it is likely that inactivation of ETV6 and/or a gene(s) at 7q36 might contribute to the malignant phenotype (Neiel., et al. 2013).


Bone marrow karyotypes of children with nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Hagemeijer A, van Zanen GE, Smit EM, Hählen K.
Pediatr Res 1979 Nov;13(11):1247-54.
PMID 292969
Cytogenetic and FISH studies of a single center consecutive series of 152 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
Andreasson P, Höglund M, Békássy AN, Garwicz S, Heldrup J, Mitelman F, Johansson B.
Eur J Haematol 2000 Jul;65(1):40-51.
PMID 10914938
Ectopic expression of the HLXB9 gene is associated with an altered nuclear position in t(7;12) leukaemias.
Ballabio E, Cantarella CD, Federico C, Di Mare P, Hall G, Harbott J, Hughes J, Saccone S, Tosi S.
Leukemia 2009 Jun;23(6):1179-82.
PMID 19212340
Fusion of the homeobox gene HLXB9 and the ETV6 gene in infant acute myeloid leukemias with the t(7;12)(q36;p13).
Beverloo HB, Panagopoulos I, Isaksson M, van Wering E, van Drunen E, de Klein A, Johansson B, Slater R
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (14) : 5374-5377.
PMID 11454678
Cytogenetic follow-up of patients with nonlymphocytic leukemia. II. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Hagemeijer A, Hählen K, Abels J.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1981 Mar;3(2):109-24.
PMID 6944153
Graft versus leukemia effect after haploidentical HSCT in a MLL-negative infant AML with HLXB9/ETV6 rearrangement.
Hauer J, Tosi S, Schuster FR, Harbott J, Kolb HJ, Borkhardt A.
Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008 Apr;50(4):921-3.
PMID 17960638
A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16).
Naiel A, Vetter M, Plekhanova O, Fleischman E, Sokova O, Tsaur G, Harbott J, Tosi S.
Cancers (Basel). 2013 Mar 11;5(1):281-95.
PMID 24216708
Three-way complex translocations in infant acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;12)(q36;p13): the incidence and correlation of a HLXB9 overexpression.
Park J, Kim M, Lim J, Kim Y, Han K, Lee J, Chung NG, Cho B, Kim HK.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2009;191(2):102-105.
PMID 19446746
Chromosomal abnormalities in 478 children with acute myeloid leukemia: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in a cooperative pediatric oncology group study-POG 8821.
Raimondi SC, Chang MN, Ravindranath Y, Behm FG, Gresik MV, Steuber CP, Weinstein HJ, Carroll AJ.
Blood 1999 Dec 1;94(11):3707-16.
PMID 10572083
Chromosome abnormalities and MLL rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia of infants.
Satake N, Maseki N, Nishiyama M, Kobayashi H, Sakurai M, Inaba H, Katano N, Horikoshi Y, Eguchi H, Miyake M, Seto M, Kaneko Y
Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 1999 ; 13 (7) : 1013-1017.
PMID 10400416
Cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of 7q36/12p13 rearrangements in childhood AML.
Simmons HM, Oseth L, Nguyen P, O'Leary M, Conklin KF, Hirsch B.
Leukemia 2002 Dec;16(12):2408-16.
PMID 12454746
t(7;12)(q36;p13) and t(7;12)(q32;p13)--translocations involving ETV6 in children 18 months of age or younger with myeloid disorders.
Slater RM, von Drunen E, Kroes WG, Weghuis DO, van den Berg E, Smit EM, van der Does-van den Berg A, van Wering E, Hählen K, Carroll AJ, Raimondi SC, Beverloo HB
Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2001 ; 15 (6) : 915-920.
PMID 11417477
MNX1-ETV6 fusion gene in an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and expression of the MNX1 gene in leukemia and normal B cell lines.
Taketani T, Taki T, Sako M, Ishii T, Yamaguchi S, Hayashi Y.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2008 Oct 15;186(2):115-9.
PMID 18940475
Identification of new partner chromosomes involved in fusions with the ETV6 (TEL) gene in hematologic malignancies.
Tosi S, Giudici G, Mosna G, Harbott J, Specchia G, Grosveld G, Privitera E, Kearney L, Biondi A, Cazzaniga G
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1998 ; 21 (3) : 223-229.
PMID 9523197
t(7;12)(q36;p13), a new recurrent translocation involving ETV6 in infant leukemia.
Tosi S, Harbott J, Teigler-Schlegel A, Haas OA, Pirc-Danoewinata H, Harrison CJ, Biondi A, Cazzaniga G, Kempski H, Scherer SW, Kearney L
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 2000 ; 29 (4) : 325-332.
PMID 11066076
Heterogeneity of the 7q36 breakpoints in the t(7;12) involving ETV6 in infant leukemia.
Tosi S, Hughes J, Scherer SW, Nakabayashi K, Harbott J, Haas OA, Cazzaniga G, Biondi A, Kempski H, Kearney L
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 2003 ; 38 (2) : 191-200.
PMID 12939747
Paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia with the t(7;12)(q36;p13) rearrangement: a review of the biological and clinical management aspects.
Tosi S, Mostafa Kamel Y, Owoka T, Federico C, Truong TH, Saccone S.
Biomark Res 2015 Oct 5;3:21.
PMID 26605042
Expression of cell-cell interacting genes distinguishes HLXB9/TEL from MLL-positive childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
Wildenhain S, Ruckert C, Röttgers S, Harbott J, Ludwig WD, Schuster FR, Beldjord K, Binder V, Slany R, Hauer J, Borkhardt A.
Leukemia 2010 Sep;24(9):1657-60.
PMID 20596032
Fluorescence in situ hybridization characterization of new translocations involving TEL (ETV6) in a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies.
Wlodarska I, La Starza R, Baens M, Dierlamm J, Uyttebroeck A, Selleslag D, Francine A, Mecucci C, Hagemeijer A, Van den Berghe H, Marynen P
Blood. 1998 ; 91 (4) : 1399-1406.
PMID 9454771
High incidence of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in infant AML but not in infant ALL, with a dismal outcome and ectopic expression of HLXB9.
von Bergh AR, van Drunen E, van Wering ER, van Zutven LJ, Hainmann I, Lönnerholm G, Meijerink JP, Pieters R, Beverloo HB.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2006 Aug;45(8):731-9.
PMID 16646086


This paper should be referenced as such :
Zamecnikova A, al Bahar S
t(7;12)(q36;p13) MNX1/ETV6;
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version :
History of this paper:
Huret, JL. t(7;12)(q36;p13). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2000;4(2):80-80.
Tosi, S. t(7;12)(q36;p13). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2001;5(3):198-199.
von Bergh, ARM ; Beverloo, HB. t(7;12)(q36;p13). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2004;8(2):85-87.

Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 2 ]

Genes ETV6 MNX1

Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 t(7;12)(q36;p13) MNX1/ETV6

External links

MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)

MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)

MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)

Mitelman databaset(7;12)(q36;p13) [Case List]    t(7;12)(q36;p13) [Association List] Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)
arrayMapTopo ( C42) Morph ( 9811/3) - arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)  [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
arrayMapTopo ( C42) Morph ( 9861/3) - arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)  [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
Mitelman databaseMNX1/ETV6 [MCList]  MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)
Mitelman databaseMNX1/ETV6 [MCList]  MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)
TICdbMNX1/ETV6  MNX1 (7q36.3) ETV6 (12p13.2)
Disease databaset(7;12)(q36;p13) MNX1/ETV6
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed
All articlesautomatic search in PubMed

© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
indexed on : Thu Jan 12 11:18:39 CET 2017

Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us