ETV6 (ets variant 6)

2014-03-01   Etienne De Braekeleer , Nathalie Douet-Guilbert , Marc De Braekeleer 

Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brest, France

Identity

HGNC
LOCATION
12p13.2
IMAGE
Atlas Image
LEGEND
ETV6 (12p13.2) in normal cells: clone dJ852F10 - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics.
LEGEND
ETV6 (ets variant 6) Hybridization with Vysis ETV6 break apart rearrangement probe (Abbott Molecular, US) showing the gene on 12p13.2 (red-green or a fused yellow signal) - Courtesy Adriana Zamecnikova.
LOCUSID
ALIAS
TEL,TEL/ABL,THC5
FUSION GENES

Abstract

The ETV6 gene located at band 12p13 encodes a protein containing two major domains, the HLH (helix-loop-helix) domain, encoded by exons 3 and 4, and the ETS domain, encoded by exons 6 through 8, with in between the internal domain encoded by exon 5. ETV6 is a strong transcriptional repressor, acting through its HLH and internal domains. Five potential mechanisms of ETV6-mediated carcinogenesis have been identified: constitutive activation of the kinase activity of the partner protein, modification of the original functions of a transcription factor, loss of function of the fusion gene, affecting ETV6 and the partner gene, activation of a proto-oncogene in the vicinity of a chromosomal translocation and dominant negative effect of the fusion protein over transcriptional repression mediated by wild-type ETV6. Thirty-three ETV6 partner genes have been identified.

DNA/RNA

Atlas Image
Schematic diagram of the ETV6 gene showing the 8 exons. Exon 1b is an alternative exon located in intron 2. Reprinted from Leukemia Research, vol 36, De Braekeleer E et al. ETV6 fusion genes in hematological malignancies: A review. Pages 945-961, 2012. With permission from Elsevier.

Description

A member of the ets (E-26 transforming specific) family of transcription factors; the gene spans a region of 240 kb and consists of 8 exons. There are two start codons, one (exon 1a starting at codon 1) located at the beginning of the gene and another alternative (exon 1b starting at codon 43) upstream of exon 3.

Transcription

Transcription is from telomere to centromere; there are three species of transcripts : 2400 kb, 4300 kb and 6200 kb; the gene encodes for a 1356 kb cDNA.

Proteins

Atlas Image
Schematic diagram of the ETV6 protein showing the major domains. Reprinted from Leukemia Research, vol 36, De Braekeleer E et al. ETV6 fusion genes in hematological malignancies: A review. Pages 945-961, 2012. With permission from Elsevier.

Description

The ETV6 protein is a 452 amino acid polypeptide that shares homology at the 5 and 3 ends with other ETS family members. ETS proteins form one of the largest families of signal-dependent transcriptional regulators, mediating cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. The ETV6 protein contains two major domains, the HLH (helix-loop-helix) and ETS domains. The HLH domain, also referred to as the pointed or sterile alpha motif domain, is encoded by exons 3 and 4 and is responsible for hetero- and homodimerization with other ETV6 proteins and possibly other ets family members. The ETS domain, encoded by exons 6 through 8, is responsible for sequence specific DNA-binding and protein-protein interaction. A central domain, called internal domain, is encoded by exon 5 and is involved in the recruitment of a repression complex including N-Cor, mSin3 and SMRT.

Expression

Expression arrays and Northern analysis have shown ubiquitous expression with greater expression in bone marrow, spleen and thymus.

Localisation

Immunofluorescence has shown a nuclear localization.

Function

The ETV6 protein plays a crucial role in the embryonic development and hematopoietic regulation. ETV6 is essential for normal development and is specifically required for maintaining blood vessel integrity within the developing yolk sac and survival of different cell types in the developing embryo. ETV6 is essential for the establishment of hematopoiesis of all lineages in the bone marrow.
ETV6 is a strong transcriptional repressor. Repression is mediated by the HLH domain and the internal domain. Repression by the HLH domain is mediated through interaction with the HLH domain of L3MBTL1, a member of the polycomb group of chromatin-associated proteins, that can maintain long term repression of genes through a histone deacetylase-independent mechanism. Repression by the internal domain is mediated through interaction with corepressors such as N-Cor, mSin3 and SMRT, which in turn can recruit histone deacetylases.

Mutations

Note

ETV6 is implicated in leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and sarcoma.
Deletions: ETV6 is frequently deleted in hematological malignancies. The deletion of the normal (untranslocated) ETV6 allele in the presence of a translocation affecting ETV6 is quite frequent, notably in patients with ETV6-RUNX1, ETV6-NTRK3, ETV6-ABL1, ETV6-ACSL6 and ETV6-STL fusion. Deletion of an ETV6 allele has also been observed in the absence of rearrangement of the second allele.

Implicated in

Entity name
Disease
One CML with t(9;22) (no molecular analysis) and one refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation.
Fusion protein
Truncated ETV6 protein lacking critical functional domains and suggesting a loss of function of ETV6.
Oncogenesis
Loss of function of ETV6? Expression of RPL11, centromeric to MDS2 (63.5 kb) much higher in the patient than in controls.
Entity name
Disease
Hybrid gene
The ETV6-ARNT transcript contains the first 4 exons of ETV6 fused in frame with exon 1 or 2 of ARNT.
Fusion protein
The ETV6-ARNT protein contains the oligomerization domain of ETV6 and almost all of the ARNT protein, including its major domains.
Oncogenesis
Given the presence of the oligomerization domain of ETV6 in the ETV6-ARNT protein, it is expected that the HLH domain of ETV6 convert ARNT from a transcriptional activator into a repressor. Furthermore, the ETV6-ARNT fusion protein retaining the HLH domain of ETV6 could interact with the other ETV6 protein.
Entity name
Disease
AML-M3, AML-M4, T-cell ALL, B-cell ALL.
Hybrid gene
Breakpoint in intron 5 of ETV6 in all three cases.
Fusion protein
Fusion protein contains the HLH oligomerization domain of ETV6 and the SH2, SH3, and protein tyrosine kinase domains of ABL2.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive activation of the kinase activity of ABL2.
Entity name
t(3;12)(q26;p13) MDS1-EVI1 (MECOM)/ETV6
Note
Rare, but recurrent, chromosomal aberration (more than 30 cases). Few patients studied on a molecular level.
Disease
Myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myelogenous leukemia.
Hybrid gene
Two different mechanisms for generating the fusion gene.
First mechanism: in-frame chimeric transcript consisting of the first two exons of ETV6 fused to MDS1 sequences, which in turn is fused to the second exon of the EVI1 gene.
Second mechanism: direct fusion between ETV6 and EVI1, in which case an out-of-frame fusion between exon 2 of ETV6 and exon 2 of EVI1 is generated but the open reading frame of EVI1 is not disrupted.
Fusion protein
In both fusion types, ETV6 contributes no known functional domain to the predicted chimeric protein.
Oncogenesis
Oncogenic potential of the translocation could be the result of the ETV6 promoter driving the transcription of EVI1, resulting in activation of the transcription factor EVI1, which is not normally expressed in hematopoietic cells.
Entity name
Hybrid gene
Fusion of exon 5 of ETV6 to exon 10 of FGFR3.
Fusion protein
Protein consists of the HLH domain of ETV6 and the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR3.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive activation of the kinase activity of FGFR3.
Entity name
t(4;12)(q11;p13) CHIC2 (BTL)/ETV6
Note
Rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality. Ten cases with molecular analysis showed a CHIC2/ETV6 fusion gene.
Disease
AML (FAB type M0, M1, M2, therapy-related), RAEB.
Hybrid gene
At least two different mechanisms.
First mechanism: In-frame fusion between CHIC2 exons 1-3 and exons 2-8 of the ETV6 gene.
Second mechanism: Breakpoints located in introns 1 and 2 of ETV6 but outside the CHIC2 gene, with no detectable CHIC2-ETV6 fusion gene.
Fusion protein
Fusion protein contains both the HLH and ETS domains of ETV6 but no specific domain of CHIC2.
Oncogenesis
Ectopic expression of GSX2 detected in all cases studied, with or without the CHIC2-ETV6 fusion. GSX2 contains a homeobox domain very similar to the homeobox of the clustered HOX genes, which are involved in both normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. Overexpression of GSX2, but not CHIC2-ETV6 has transforming properties.
Entity name
t(5;12)(q31;p13) ACSL6/ETV6
Note
Recurrent translocation occurring in various myeloid malignancies, often associated with eosinophilia. Only seven cases with molecular analysis.
Disease
Myelodysplastic syndrome (RAEB), AML, AEL, atypical CML, Polycythemia Vera.
Hybrid gene
Different fusion genes are generated in four patients:
- in-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to the 3UTR of ACSL6
- out-of-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to exon 1 of ACSL6
- in-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to almost the complete ACSL6 (breakpoint at the 5 end of the ACSL6 gene).
Oncogenesis
Given the absence of a common in-frame fusion gene generated by the t(5;12)(q31;p13) and the heterogeneity in the localization of the ACSL6 breakpoints, no common fusion protein can explain the pathogenic character of the translocation. IL3, located near the breakpoint at 5q31, is ectopically expressed in the leukemic cells, leading to a proliferative defect.
Entity name
t(5;12)(q33;p13) PDGFRB/ETV6
Note
Recurrent chromosomal abnormality (dozens of cases).
Disease
Myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome (usually referred as atypical Philadelphia-negative CML and CMML) with eosinophilia.
Hybrid gene
Exon 4 of the ETV6 gene is generally fused in-frame to exon 11 of the PDGFRB gene.
Two cases showing a different fusion gene with the ETV6 breakpoint in intron 7.
Fusion protein
Protein includes the HLH domain of ETV6 and the tyrosine kinase domain of PDGFRB.
In both cases showing a different fusion gene, the fusion protein retains the internal domain of ETV6 which has the ability to bind to corepressors and induce the transcription-repressive activity of ETV6.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive activation of the kinase activity of PDGFRB.
In both cases showing a different fusion gene, it is likely that the fusion protein acts differently from that observed in the other cases.
Entity name
t(6;12)(q23;p13) STL/ETV6
Note
Only one case reported.
Disease
B-cell ALL.
Hybrid gene
Fusion gene only retains the first two exons of ETV6.
Fusion protein
Fusion protein contains no important domains (HLH or ETS) of ETV6.
Oncogenesis
It is likely that the truncated ETV6 contributes to leukemogenesis through ETV6 haploinsufficiency.
Entity name
t(7;12)(q36;p13) MNX1(HLXB9)/ETV6
Note
Recurrent translocation found in 20 to 30% of AML children less than 18 months of age. The 7q36 breakpoint heterogeneity suggests that this translocation does not lead to the formation of a unique fusion gene. Six cases with molecular analysis showing a MNX1/ETV6 fusion.
Disease
AML
Hybrid gene
5 MNX1-3 ETV6 resulting in a transcript in which MNX1 exon 1 is joined with ETV6 exon 3.
Fusion protein
Protein contains the HLH and ETS domains of ETV6 but not the homeobox domain of MNX1.
Oncogenesis
It is thought that the chimeric protein acts as an aberrant transcription factor, which could affect both MNX1 and ETV6 pathways of transcription modulation.
Entity name
dic(9;12)(p13;p13) PAX5/ETV6
Note
Nonrandom chromosome abnormality found in about 1% of childhood B-cell ALL.
Disease
ALL.
Hybrid gene
5PAX5-3ETV6 transcript with fusion of exon 4 of PAX5 to exon 3 of ETV6.
Fusion protein
The PAX5-ETV6 protein contains the "paired box" (DNA binding) domain of PAX5 fused to the HLH and ETS-binding domains of ETV6.
Oncogenesis
It is thought that the chimeric protein could act as an aberrant transcription factor, which could affect both PAX5 and ETV6 pathways of transcription modulation.
Entity name
Note
Only six cases described with ETV6/JAK2 fusion.
Disease
Pre-B ALL, atypical CML, T-cell ALL.
Hybrid gene
Breakpoint variability: introns 4 and 5 of ETV6 and introns 12 and 17 of JAK2.
Fusion protein
Protein retains the HLH domain of ETV6 but different domains of JAK2 (complete JH2 and JH1 in one case, only part of JH2 in the other).
Oncogenesis
Constitutive activation of the kinase activity of JAK2.
Entity name
Note
Only two cases reported.
Disease
MDS.
Hybrid gene
Chimeric gene fuses the first 5 exons of ETV6 with SYK starting with exon 5.
Fusion protein
Fusion protein contains the HLH domain of ETV6 with part of the C-terminal SH2 and the complete protein kinase domain of SYK.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive activation of SYK kinase activity.
Entity name
Note
26 cases described with different hemopathies but eosinophilia is a common feature.
Disease
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), T-cell ALL, MDS (RAEB), chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, Philadelphia chromosome-negative CML.
Hybrid gene
Two ETV6-ABL1 transcripts are usually identified: one joining exon 5 of ETV6 to exon 2 of ABL1 and one joining ETV6 exon 4 to ABL1 exon 2.
Fusion protein
The protein retains all three SH domains, including the tyrosine kinase domain, of ABL1 and the HLH domain of ETV6.
Oncogenesis
Tyrosine kinase activation of ABL1.
Entity name
Note
Two cases of MDS described.
Disease
MDS (RA and RAEB).
Hybrid gene
Transcript containing exon 2 to exon 9 of GOT1 and the first 2 or 3 exons of ETV6.
Fusion protein
Absence or truncation of the HLH domain of ETV6 in the protein.
Oncogenesis
Possibly inactivation of the wild type ETV6.
Entity name
Note
The t(12;13)(p13;q12-14) is a rare, but recurrent, translocation reported in a range of malignant hemopathies. However, it is evident from FISH studies that they are heterogeneous at the molecular level.
Disease
CML in transformation, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute non lymphocytic leukemia (AML), B and T- ALL. A sole case with ETV6/CDX2 fusion in a AML-M1.
Hybrid gene
One in-frame fusion between exon 2 of ETV6 and exon 2 of CDX2; one fusion introducing an in-frame stop codon.
Fusion protein
ETV6 contributes no functional domain to the fusion protein.
Oncogenesis
It is likely that the ETV6 promoter drives the transcription and ectopic activation of CDX2, which has leukemogenesis properties.
Entity name
t(12;13)(p13;q14) ETV6/TTL [not annotated gene in HGNC]
Note
Identified in several cases of ALL and less frequently in acute or chronic myeloid malignancies.
Disease
A sole case with TTL/ETV6 fusion in a ALL.
Hybrid gene
ETV6/TTL fusion transcript: 3 TTL sequence introduces an in-frame stop codon after the end of ETV6 exon 1.
TTL-ETV6 transcript is a direct in-frame fusion between TTL exon 5 and ETV6 exon 2.
Fusion protein
No ETV6 functional domains in the ETV6/TTL protein; HLH and ETS domains conserved in TTL-ETV6 protein.
Oncogenesis
Chimeric protein could act as an aberrant transcription factor, affecting the ETV6 pathway of transcription modulation, or there could be a loss of function of ETV6 and/or TTL.
Entity name
Disease
Congenital Fibrosarcoma, Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma (cellular and mixed variants), Secretory Ductal Carcinoma of Breast, rarely in AML (M0, M2) and chronic eosinophilia leukemia (1 case).
Hybrid gene
5 ETV6-3 NTRK3.
Fusion protein
Fusion protein retains the HLH domain of ETV6 and the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) domain of NTRK3.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive active tyrosine kinase.
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of AML evolving from CMML.
Hybrid gene
Fusion between exon 1 of the ETV6 gene and exon 22 and part of intron 21 of PER1.
Fusion protein
No protein as PER1 has an antisense orientation.
Oncogenesis
It is proposed that PER1 inactivation or deregulated expression of genes located close to the breakpoint, such as HES7 or STK12, could contribute to leukemogenesis.
Entity name
Note
Most common structural chromosomal abnormality in pediatric common or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, accounting for about 20-25% of the cases.
Disease
Childhood B-cell (ALL).
Hybrid gene
Fusion of the 5 region of ETV6 (from exon 1 to 5) with almost the entire coding region of RUNX1.
Fusion protein
The fusion protein retains the HLH domain and the central repression domain of ETV6 as well as the RHD (Runt homology domain) and the transcription activation domain of RUNX1.
Oncogenesis
The ETV6-RUNX1 fusion protein retains the ability to bind the RUNX1 target sequences and functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent repressor, causing deregulation of the RUNX1 target genes. ETV6-RUNX1 is also likely to disrupt normal ETV6 functions through HLH-mediated heterodimerization.
Entity name
Note
Rare anomaly in myeloid hemopathies (6 cases with molecular analysis).
Disease
Myeloproliferative disorder, myelodysplastic syndrome, AML.
Hybrid gene
Two different types of MN1/ETV6 fusion (types I and II).
Fusion protein
Type I fusion protein contains almost the entire MN1 fused to ETV6 at a position N terminal to the HLH domain whereas type II fusion protein has only part of the HLH domain, making it nonfunctional. Both fusion types retain the ETS domain.
Oncogenesis
Could act as an altered transcription factor by activating ETV6-responsive transcription and/or inhibiting RAR-mediated transcription and/or being a dominant-negative suppressor of MN1.
Entity name
t(4;12)(q23;p13) ETV6/PDGFRA
Note
PDGFRA is a gene found to be fused with several partners in chronic eosinophilic leukemia.
Disease
Only one case of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with hypereosinophilia and ETV6/PDGFRA fusion.
Hybrid gene
In-frame fusion gene between ETV6 exon 6 and PDGFRA exon 11.
Fusion protein
Protein retains most of ETV6, including the HLH domain and part of the ETS domain, fused to the WW-like domain and the kinase domain of PDGFRA.
Oncogenesis
Constitutive protein kinase activation.
Entity name
Note
FLT3 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in hematological malignancies, being found in about 30% of AML patients and rarely in ALL patients.
Disease
Three cases of myeloproliferative neoplasm with hypereosinophilia associated with ETV6/FLT3 fusion.
Hybrid gene
In-frame fusion gene between ETV6 exon 4 or exon 5 and FLT3 exon 14.
Fusion protein
Protein retains the HLH domain of ETV6 and the tyrosine kinase domains of FLT3.
Oncogenesis
Constitutively tyrosine kinase activation.
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of AML-M4.
Hybrid gene
ETV6 exon 4 fused in frame to exon 3 of FRK.
Fusion protein
Chimeric protein composed of the HLH domain of ETV6 and most of the SH2 (likely to be nonfunctional) and the kinase domains of FRK.
Oncogenesis
Dual action of constitutively tyrosine kinase activation and dominant-negative effect on ETV6-mediated transcriptional repression.
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of primary myelofibrosis associated with ETV6/LYN.
Hybrid gene
Chimeric gene consists of the 5 region of ETV6 (breakpoint in intron 5) and the 3 region of LYN.
Fusion protein
Protein retains the HLH domain of ETV6 and the tyrosine kinase domain of LYN.
Oncogenesis
Constitutively tyrosine kinase activation.
Entity name
inv(12)(p13q13) ETV6/PTPRR
Disease
Only one case of AML-M2 associated with ETV6/PTPRR.
Hybrid gene
ETV6 exon 4 is fused to exon 7 of the PTPRR; 10 isoforms through alternative splicing.
Fusion protein
A truncated ETV6 including the HLH domain but no functional domains of PTPRR due to frameshift and a chimeric ETV6-PTPRR protein that includes the HLH domain of ETV6 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase domain of PTPRR among others.
Oncogenesis
Dominant negative effect over transcriptional repression mediated by wild-type ETV6.
Entity name
t(8;12)(q13;p13) ETV6/NCOA2
Disease
Pediatric acute biphenotypic leukemia (6 cases with ETV6/NCOA2), adult T-ALL (1 case).
Hybrid gene
Two different in-frame fusions are known:
- one between ETV6 exon 5 and NCOA2 exon 14 (one case).
Fusion protein
Protein consists of the HLH domain of ETV6 and the CBP interaction and the AD2 (transactivation domain 2) acetyltransferase domains of NCOA2.
Oncogenesis
It is hypothesized that the ETV6-NCOA2 protein acts as a modulator of the transcriptional activity of CBP-dependent activators or can recruit CBP to ETV6 target genes resulting in their constitutive activation.
Entity name
Cryptic rearrangement shown by FISH between 12p13 and 12q24 ETV6/BAZ2A in a t(?1;12)(q42;p13)
Disease
Only one case of pre-B ALL.
Hybrid gene
Fusion of ETV6 and BAZ2A consisting of exons 1 and 2 of ETV6 and a sequence from intron 1 of BAZ2A.
Fusion protein
No chimeric protein expected to be produced, but, maybe, a truncated ETV6.
Oncogenesis
It is likely that the truncated ETV6 contributes to leukemogenesis through ETV6 haploinsufficiency.
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of AML-M1.
Hybrid gene
Transcript consisting of ETV6 exons 1 and 2 with sequences of FCHO2.
Fusion protein
No chimeric protein expected to be produced (genes in opposite orientations following the translocation), but, maybe, a truncated ETV6.
Oncogenesis
It is likely that the truncated ETV6 contributes to leukemogenesis through ETV6 haploinsufficiency.
Entity name
t(12;14)(p13;q32) ETV6/IGH co-localization
Disease
One case of pediatric pre-B ALL.
Cytogenetics
Co-localization of both ETV6 and IGH signals by FISH (no molecular analysis).
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of AML-M2.
Cytogenetics
Co-localization of both ETV6 and EMID1 signals by FISH (no molecular analysis).
Fusion protein
No chimeric protein expected to be produced (genes in opposite orientations following the translocation), but, maybe, a truncated ETV6.
Entity name
Disease
Only one case of myelofibrosis evolved in AML.
Cytogenetics
Co-localization of both ETV6 and RARA signals by FISH (no molecular analysis).
Fusion protein
No chimeric protein expected to be produced (genes in opposite orientations following the translocation), but, maybe, a truncated ETV6.
Entity name
t(5;12)(p13;p13) NIPBL/ETV6
Disease
Only one case of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML-M7).
Cytogenetics
Co-localization of both ETV6 and NIPBL signals by FISH (no molecular analysis).

Breakpoints

Atlas Image
Chromosomal distribution of the 33 ETV6 partners thus far identified.
Atlas Image
Physical map of the breakpoint distribution in the ETV6 gene. Yellow boxes: receptor tyrosine kinase genes; orange boxes: non-receptor tyrosine kinase genes; red boxes: transcription factor genes; green boxes: homeobox genes; blue boxes: other genes. Reprinted from Leukemia Research, vol 36, De Braekeleer E. et al. ETV6 fusion genes in hematological malignancies: A review. Pages 945-961, 2012. With permission from Elsevier.

Bibliography

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167574122006Fusion of ETV6 to GOT1 in a case with myelodysplastic syndrome and t(10;12)(q24;p13).Janssen H et al
178897162007Myelodysplastic syndrome accompanied by basophilia and eosinophilia with t(5;12)(q31;p13).Katsura Y et al
186156812008Chronic phase of ETV6-ABL1 positive CML responds to imatinib.Kawamata N et al
194809352009Insertion (12;9)(p13;q34q34): a cryptic rearrangement involving ABL1/ETV6 fusion in a patient with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloid leukemia.Kelly JC et al
125052592002Chronic myelocytic leukemia with eosinophilia, t(9;12)(q34;p13), and ETV6-ABL gene rearrangement: case report and review of the literature.Keung YK et al
98233071998ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusions and trisomy 11 establish a histogenetic link between mesoblastic nephroma and congenital fibrosarcoma.Knezevich SR et al
214019662011Characterization of a newly identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript in acute myeloid leukemia.Kralik JM et al
162244882005A rare case of acute myeloid leukemia with a CHIC2-ETV6 fusiongen and multiple other molecular aberrations.Kuchenbauer F et al
111595362001Constitutive kinase activation of the TEL-Syk fusion gene in myelodysplastic syndrome with t(9;12)(q22;p12).Kuno Y et al
121613532002Clonal eosinophils are a morphologic hallmark of ETV6/ABL1 positive acute myeloid leukemia.La Starza R et al
93609301997A TEL-JAK2 fusion protein with constitutive kinase activity in human leukemia.Lacronique V et al
206586122010Frequencies of ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and hyperdiploidy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia are lower in far east than west.Liang DC et al
118402982002Detection of dual TEL-ABL transcripts and a Tel-Abl protein containing phosphotyrosine in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient.Lin H et al
105145021999TEL is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor.Lopez RG et al
123999652002The utility of spectral karyotyping in the cytogenetic analysis of newly diagnosed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Lu XY et al
206183342010A doctor(s) dilemma: ETV6-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Malone A et al
111753682000Proteins of the ETS family with transcriptional repressor activity.Mavrothalassitis G et al
157890672005Broad molecular screening of an unclassifiable myeloproliferative disorder reveals an unexpected ETV6/ABL1 fusion transcript.Meyer-Monard S et al
173665482007A fifteen-year cytogenetic remission following interferon treatment in a patient with an indolent ETV6-ABL positive myeloproliferative syndrome.Mozziconacci MJ et al
165722022006t(5;12)(q23-31;p13) with ETV6-ACSL6 gene fusion in polycythemia vera.Murati A et al
126610082003A novel cryptic translocation t(12;17)(p13;p12-p13) in a secondary acute myeloid leukemia results in a fusion of the ETV6 gene and the antisense strand of the PER1 gene.Murga Penas EM et al
160616412005Cloning and characterization of the novel chimeric gene TEL/PTPRR in acute myelogenous leukemia with inv(12)(p13q13).Nakamura F et al
118353392002Expression of the TEL/EVI1 fusion transcript in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia with t(3;12)(q26;p13).Nakamura Y et al
114425092001TEL/MN1 fusion in a de novo acute myeloid leukaemia-M2 patient who showed strong resistance to treatment.Nakazato H et al
193946932009Myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia and ETV6-ABL gene rearrangement: efficacy of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.Nand R et al
109792192000Detection of ETV6/MDS1/Evi-1 chimeric transcripts in a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia and t(3;12)(q26;p13)Nishimura Y et al
216006512011MN1-ETV6 fusion gene arising from MDS with 5q-.Nofrini V et al
119643202002Transient response to imatinib mesylate (STI571) in a patient with the ETV6-ABL t(9;12) translocation.O'Brien SG et al
122037852002A novel gene, MDS2, is fused to ETV6/TEL in a t(1;12)(p36.1;p13) in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.Odero MD et al
208049162010ETV6-ARNT fusion in a patient with childhood T lymphoblastic leukemia.Otsubo K et al
166434282006Fusion of ETV6 with an intronic sequence of the BAZ2A gene in a paediatric pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a cryptic chromosome 12 rearrangement.Panagopoulos I et al
78050371995The novel activation of ABL by fusion to an ets-related gene, TEL.Papadopoulos P et al
194467462009Three-way complex translocations in infant acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;12)(q36;p13): the incidence and correlation of a HLXB9 overexpression.Park J et al
113437842001Low incidence of TEL/AML1 fusion and TEL deletion in Korean childhood acute leukemia by extra-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization.Park KU et al
93262181997Fusion of TEL, the ETS-variant gene 6 (ETV6), to the receptor-associated kinase JAK2 as a result of t(9;12) in a lymphoid and t(9;15;12) in a myeloid leukemia.Peeters P et al
90448251997Fusion of ETV6 to MDS1/EVI1 as a result of t(3;12)(q26;p13) in myeloproliferative disorders.Peeters P et al
211934232011ETV6-ABL1-positive "chronic myeloid leukemia": clinical and molecular response to tyrosine kinase inhibition.Perna F et al
127643772003Identification of a novel fusion gene, TTL, fused to ETV6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(12;13)(p13;q14), and its implication in leukemogenesis.Qiao Y et al
147186722004Ectopic expression of the homeobox gene Cdx2 is the transforming event in a mouse model of t(12;13)(p13;q12) acute myeloid leukemia.Rawat VP et al
86958161996Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of t(3; 12)(q26; p13): a recurring chromosomal abnormality involving the TEL gene (ETV6) in myelodysplastic syndromes.Raynaud SD et al
77801501995The t(12;21) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia results in a tel-AML1 gene fusion.Romana SP et al
74927861995High frequency of t(12;21) in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Romana SP et al
100490611999The role of TEL fusion genes in pediatric leukemias.Rubnitz JE et al
108290782000The t(1;12)(q21;p13) translocation of human acute myeloblastic leukemia results in a TEL-ARNT fusion.Salomon-Nguyen F et al
76329601995TEL and KIP1 define the smallest region of deletions on 12p13 in hematopoietic malignancies.Sato Y et al
183055572008ETV6 mutations and loss in AML-M0.Silva FP et al
124547462002Cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of 7q36/12p13 rearrangements in childhood AML.Simmons HM et al
114174772001t(7;12)(q36;p13) and t(7;12)(q32;p13)--translocations involving ETV6 in children 18 months of age or younger with myeloid disorders.Slater RM et al
31828401988A gene amplified in a transformed mouse cell line undergoes complex transcriptional processing and encodes a nuclear protein.Snyder LC et al
127643782003PAX5/ETV6 fusion defines cytogenetic entity dic(9;12)(p13;p13).Strehl S et al
182815292008ETV6-NCOA2: a novel fusion gene in acute leukemia associated with coexpression of T-lymphoid and myeloid markers and frequent NOTCH1 mutations.Strehl S et al
183105412008ETV6/GOT1 fusion in a case of t(10;12)(q24;p13)-positive myelodysplastic syndrome.Struski S et al
90875651997A t(6;12)(q23;p13) results in the fusion of ETV6 to a novel gene, STL, in a B-cell ALL cell line.Suto Y et al
214921252011Direct activation of STAT5 by ETV6-LYN fusion protein promotes induction of myeloproliferative neoplasm with myelofibrosis.Takeda Y et al
189404752008MNX1-ETV6 fusion gene in an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and expression of the MNX1 gene in leukemia and normal B cell lines.Taketani T et al
92643731997TEL is one of the targets for deletion on 12p in many cases of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Takeuchi S et al
197107032010Identification of a novel TEL-Lyn fusion gene in primary myelofibrosis.Tanaka H et al
156761522005Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a novel rearrangement involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 17 resulting in ETV6 (TEL) and ABL fusion.Tirado CA et al
124507922002Expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion as a primary event in human secretory breast carcinoma.Tognon C et al
171228662007Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis expressing a novel type of TEL-PDGFRB chimaera responded to imatinib mesylate therapy.Tokita K et al
95231971998Identification of new partner chromosomes involved in fusions with the ETV6 (TEL) gene in hematologic malignancies.Tosi S et al
110660762000t(7;12)(q36;p13), a new recurrent translocation involving ETV6 in infant leukemia.Tosi S et al
129397472003Heterogeneity of the 7q36 breakpoints in the t(7;12) involving ETV6 in infant leukemia.Tosi S et al
151558992004Modeling first-hit functions of the t(12;21) TEL-AML1 translocation in mice.Tsuzuki S et al
156599572005Pediatric malignancies provide unique cancer therapy targets.Uren A et al
111702852001Molecular cytogenetic and clinical findings in ETV6/ABL1-positive leukemia.Van Limbergen H et al
167610192006FLT3 is fused to ETV6 in a myeloproliferative disorder with hypereosinophilia and a t(12;13)(p13;q12) translocation.Vu HA et al
217055012011Response of ETV6-FLT3-positive myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with eosinophilia to inhibitors of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3.Walz C et al
92506811997Yolk sac angiogenic defect and intra-embryonic apoptosis in mice lacking the Ets-related factor TEL.Wang LC et al
96948031998The TEL/ETV6 gene is required specifically for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow.Wang LC et al
84319181993t(5;12)(q31;p12). A clinical entity with features of both myeloid leukemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.Wessels JW et al
94547711998Fluorescence in situ hybridization characterization of new translocations involving TEL (ETV6) in a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies.Wlodarska I et al
117314102001Fusion of ETV6 to fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a t(4;12)(p16;p13) chromosomal translocation.Yagasaki F et al
211578922011TEL/AML1-positive patients lacking TEL exon 5 resemble canonical TEL/AML1 cases.Zaliova M et al
151561842004Role of the TEL-AML1 fusion gene in the molecular pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Zelent A et al
205899322010Acute leukemias with ETV6/ABL1 (TEL/ABL) fusion: poor prognosis and prenatal origin.Zuna J et al
166460862006High incidence of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in infant AML but not in infant ALL, with a dismal outcome and ectopic expression of HLXB9.von Bergh AR et al

Other Information

Locus ID:

NCBI: 2120
MIM: 600618
HGNC: 3495
Ensembl: ENSG00000139083

Variants:

dbSNP: 2120
ClinVar: 2120
TCGA: ENSG00000139083
COSMIC: ETV6

RNA/Proteins

Gene IDTranscript IDUniprot
ENSG00000139083ENST00000266427J3KN52
ENSG00000139083ENST00000396373P41212
ENSG00000139083ENST00000396373A0A0S2Z3C9
ENSG00000139083ENST00000545027H0YG25

Expression (GTEx)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

Pathways

PathwaySourceExternal ID
Dorso-ventral axis formationKEGGko04320
Dorso-ventral axis formationKEGGhsa04320
Transcriptional misregulation in cancerKEGGko05202
Transcriptional misregulation in cancerKEGGhsa05202

Protein levels (Protein atlas)

Not detected
Low
Medium
High

PharmGKB

Entity IDNameTypeEvidenceAssociationPKPDPMIDs
PA446155Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-LymphomaDiseaseMultilinkAnnotationassociated26522332

References

Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
124507922002Expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion as a primary event in human secretory breast carcinoma.201
182022912008Initiating and cancer-propagating cells in TEL-AML1-associated childhood leukemia.115
194756672009SNCA variants are associated with increased risk for multiple system atrophy.110
199131212009Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.85
255814302015Germline ETV6 mutations in familial thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancy.85
170158282006TEL-AML1 transgenic zebrafish model of precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.68
221628312011ETV6 mutations in early immature human T cell leukemias.68
203796142010Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.62
258072842015Germline mutations in ETV6 are associated with thrombocytopenia, red cell macrocytosis and predisposition to lymphoblastic leukemia.62
243273982014ETV6-NTRK3 is a common chromosomal rearrangement in radiation-associated thyroid cancer.58

Citation

Etienne De Braekeleer ; Nathalie Douet-Guilbert ; Marc De Braekeleer

ETV6 (ets variant 6)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014-03-01

Online version: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/gene/38/etv6-(ets-variant-6)

Historical Card

2005-06-01 ETV6 (ets variant 6) by  Stevan Knezevich 

BC Cancer Research Centre (BCCRC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

1999-12-01 ETV6 (ets variant 6) by  Serge Pierrick Romana 

Service de Cytogenetique (Unite de Cytogenetique Moleculaire), Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 149, rue de Sevres, 75015 Paris, France