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MXI1 (MAX interactor 1)

Written1999-12Niels B Atkin
Department of Cancer Research, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias_namesMAX interacting protein 1
MAX interactor 1
Alias_symbol (synonym)MXD2
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) MXI1
LocusID (NCBI) 4601
Atlas_Id 209
Location 10q25.2  [Link to chromosome band 10q25]
Location_base_pair Starts at 110210231 and ends at 110287365 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping MXI1.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
FAM107B (10p13) / MXI1 (10q25.2)MPG (16p13.3) / MXI1 (10q25.2)MXI1 (10q25.2) / HIF1A (14q23.2)
MXI1 (10q25.2) / MXI1 (10q25.2)MXI1 (10q25.2) / PEPD (19q13.11)PMEL (12q13.2) / MXI1 (10q25.2)
WDR6 (3p21.31) / MXI1 (10q25.2)


Description the gene spans approximately 60 kb; 6 exons
Transcription 2.6 kb mRNA; two transcription initiation sites


Description 228 amino acids; 26 kDa; contains a basic region/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (B-HLH-LZ) motif that is similar to that found in Myc family
Expression tissue specific; induced during cells terminal differentiation
Localisation nuclear
Function Mxil, discovered in 1993, is, with Mad, one of the proteins that can regulate Max, a human protein containing a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-zip) that allows the formation of cMyc-Max heterodimers and that activates transcription; Mad and Mxil may be involved in tumour suppression since they can compete with Myc proteins for the interaction with Max; Mxil normally functions to suppress cell growth: experimental induction of the gene resulted in the accumulation of cells in G2-M phase
Homology belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) family of transcription factors


Somatic mutations have been described in some sporadic prostate cancers but no germline mutations were found in a study of 38 families with possible predisposition to this disease; a correlation between a polymorphic repeat in the 3' untranslated region in Mxil mRNA and regulation of its transcription and degradation has been suggested

Implicated in

Entity implicated in some sporadic cases of prostate cancer and glioblastoma as a tumour suppressor gene


Redefinition of the coding sequence of the MXI1 gene and identification of a polymorphic repeat in the 3' non-coding region that allows the detection of loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 10q25 in glioblastomas.
Albarosa R, DiDonato S, Finocchiaro G
Human genetics. 1995 ; 95 (6) : 709-711.
PMID 7789959
Expression of MXI1, a Myc antagonist, is regulated by Sp1 and AP2.
Benson LQ, Coon MR, Krueger LM, Han GC, Sarnaik AA, Wechsler DS
The Journal of biological chemistry. 1999 ; 274 (40) : 28794-28802.
PMID 10497252
Mutation of the MXI1 gene in prostate cancer.
Eagle LR, Yin X, Brothman AR, Williams BJ, Atkin NB, Prochownik EV
Nature genetics. 1995 ; 9 (3) : 249-255.
PMID 7773287
No germline mutations in the dimerization domain of MXI1 in prostate cancer clusters. The CRC/BPG UK Familial Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators. Cancer Research Campaign/British Prostate Group.
Edwards SM, Dearnaley DP, Ardern-Jones A, Hamoudi RA, Easton DF, Ford D, Shearer R, Dowe A, Eeles RA
British journal of cancer. 1997 ; 76 (8) : 992-1000.
PMID 9376279
Two MAD tails: what the recent knockouts of Mad1 and Mxi1 tell us about the MYC/MAX/MAD network.
Foley KP, Eisenman RN
Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1999 ; 1423 (3) : M37-M47.
PMID 10382539
Point mutations of the Mxil gene are rare in prostate cancers.
Kawamata N, Park D, Wilczynski S, Yokota J, Koeffler HP
The Prostate. 1996 ; 29 (3) : 191-193.
PMID 8827088
Microsatellite instability and deletion analysis of chromosome 10 in human prostate cancer.
Lacombe L, Orlow I, Reuter VE, Fair WR, Dalbagni G, Zhang ZF, Cordon-Cardo C
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 1996 ; 69 (2) : 110-113.
PMID 8608977
Mxi1 is a repressor of the c-Myc promoter and reverses activation by USF.
Lee TC, Ziff EB
The Journal of biological chemistry. 1999 ; 274 (2) : 595-606.
PMID 9872993
Repression by the Mad(Mxi1)-Sin3 complex.
Schreiber-Agus N, DePinho RA
BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology. 1998 ; 20 (10) : 808-818.
PMID 9819568
Expression, regulation and polymorphism of the mxi1 genes.
Shimizu E, Shirasawa H, Kodama K, Sato T, Simizu B
Gene. 1996 ; 176 (1-2) : 45-48.
PMID 8918230
MXI1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, suppresses growth of human glioblastoma cells.
Wechsler DS, Shelly CA, Petroff CA, Dang CV
Cancer research. 1997 ; 57 (21) : 4905-4912.
PMID 9354456
Mxi1, a protein that specifically interacts with Max to bind Myc-Max recognition sites.
Zervos AS, Gyuris J, Brent R
Cell. 1993 ; 72 (2) : 223-232.
PMID 8425219


This paper should be referenced as such :
Atkin, NB
MXI1 (MAX interactor 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(4):185-186.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors

External links

HGNC (Hugo)MXI1   7534
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MXI1  4601  MAX interactor 1, dimerization protein
AliasesMAD2; MXD2; MXI; bHLHc11
GeneCards (Weizmann)MXI1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000119950 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000119950 [Gene_View]  chr10:110210231-110287365 [Contig_View]  MXI1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000119950
TCGA cBioPortalMXI1
AceView (NCBI)MXI1
Genatlas (Paris)MXI1
SOURCE (Princeton)MXI1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)MXI1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MXI1  -     chr10:110210231-110287365 +  10q25.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MXI1  -     10q25.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblMXI1 - 10q25.2 [CytoView hg19]  MXI1 - 10q25.2 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIMXI1 [Mapview hg19]  MXI1 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM176807   600020   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA640393 AA854855 AI373426 AI580132 AK303949
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001008541 NM_005962 NM_130439
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MXI1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.728542 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.728542
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000119950
Gene ExpressionMXI1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   MXI1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   MXI1 [ SEEK ]   MXI1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)MXI1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)4601
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)MXI1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000119950-MXI1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP50539   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP50539  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP50539
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP50539
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)BHLH (PS50888)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)bHLH_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)HLH (PF00010)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00010   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HLH (SM00353)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)MXI1
DMDM Disease mutations4601
Blocks (Seattle)MXI1
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000119950-MXI1 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP50539
IPIIPI00301031   IPI00552166   IPI00107617   IPI00646509   IPI00643660   IPI00412717   IPI00642612   
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)P50539
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGODNA binding  transcription corepressor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytosol  transcription, DNA-templated  regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  negative regulation of cell proliferation  cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor  protein dimerization activity  negative regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription  
Ontology : EGO-EBIDNA binding  transcription corepressor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytosol  transcription, DNA-templated  regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  negative regulation of cell proliferation  cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor  protein dimerization activity  negative regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription  
NDEx NetworkMXI1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkMXI1
Wikipedia pathwaysMXI1
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000119950
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamMXI1
Homologs : HomoloGeneMXI1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)MXI1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Tumor Fusion PortalMXI1
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerMXI1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)MXI1
Exome Variant ServerMXI1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000119950
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000119950
Genetic variants : HAPMAP4601
Genomic Variants (DGV)MXI1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERMXI1 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisMXI1 
ICGC Data PortalMXI1 
TCGA Data PortalMXI1 
Broad Tumor PortalMXI1
OASIS PortalMXI1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICMXI1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDMXI1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch MXI1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)MXI1
DoCM (Curated mutations)MXI1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)MXI1 (select a term)
NCG5 (London)MXI1
Cancer3DMXI1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
OMIM176807    600020   
Genetic Testing Registry MXI1
NextProtP50539 [Medical]
Target ValidationMXI1
Huge Navigator MXI1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease4601
BioCentury BCIQMXI1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD4601
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA31335
Clinical trialMXI1
canSAR (ICR)MXI1 (select the gene name)
PubMed56 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

Search in all EBI   NCBI

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indexed on : Tue Nov 21 14:56:59 CET 2017

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