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PAEP (progestagen-associated endometrial protein)

Written2010-11Hannu Koistinen, Markku Seppälä
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)GD
HGNC Alias symbPEP
HGNC Alias nameglycodelin-A
 progesterone-associated endometrial protein
 PP14 protein (placental protein 14)
 pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2-globulin
 alpha uterine protein
HGNC Previous nameprogestagen-associated endometrial protein
LocusID (NCBI) 5047
Atlas_Id 46067
Location 9q34.3  [Link to chromosome band 9q34]
Location_base_pair Starts at 135561756 and ends at 135566954 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping PAEP.png]
Local_order Several other lipocalin genes have been mapped on the same chromosomal region. From centromere to telomere (GeneLoc database): lipocalin 1 (tear prealbumin, LCN1) - ENSG00000221613 - odorant binding protein 2A (OBP2A) - progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) - ENSG00000237339 - LOC138159 - ENSG00000236543 - glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) - lipocalin 9 (LCN9).
  Chromosomal location and gene structure of PAEP. Promoter region shows some of the potential regulatory elements. After translation- initiating codon (ATG) exons of the major transcript are shown in black. Some splicing variants contain also parts outside of these exons. PRE: glucocorticoid/progesterone response element; CRE: cAMP responsive element; Sp1: Sp1 transcription factor binding site; AP-1: activator protein-1 element.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
PAEP (9q34.3) / FAR1 (11p15.2)PAEP (9q34.3) / FAR1 (11p15.3)


Note Many other lipocalin genes have similar exon/intron organization.
Description Maps to chromosome 9: 138453602-138458801 on forward (plus) strand (5200 bases). Gene consists of 7 exons. Promoter region contains, by sequence similarity, 2 forward and two reverse Sp1-like binding sites, four putative glucocorticoid/progesterone response elements (PREs), cAMP responsive element (CRE) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) element.
Transcription PAEP mRNA (NM_001018049) has 857 bp. Several alternatively spliced mRNA forms have been described, but for most of these evidence for the corresponding protein lacks. Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database (ASTD) reports 16 different transcripts.
Pseudogene Not known.


Note Some of the localization studies have employed antibodies, the specificity of which is questionable. Some of the biological studies have utilized short peptides derived from PAEP sequence. It is unclear whether such peptides are present in vivo. Glycosylation plays an important part in modulating/dictating the activity of PAEP. In the literature, PAEP is widely referred to as PP14 and glycodelin.
  Swiss model-deduced tertiary structure of the PAEP monomer. The S-S bridge is shown as cylinder and side chain nitrogen atoms of asparagines of potential glycosylation sites are shown as balls. Below are representative examples of the major complex-type glycans present at the N-glycosylation sites Asn 28 and Asn 63 of amniotic fluid glycodelin-isoform (glycodelin-A) and seminal plasma glycodelin-isoform (glycodelin-S). Some of the characteristic epitopes are marked by broken line.
Description PAEP (180 amino acids, of which 18 corresponds to signal sequence) is a 28 kDa secreted glycoprotein, belonging to the kernel lipocalin family. Most family members share three conserved sequence motifs. Although sequence similarity between the family members is low, their three dimensional structures are similar. Lipocalins are small extracellular proteins, many of which bind small hydrophobic molecules, such as retinol and steroids. There is no evidence that PAEP exhibits similar binding properties. PAEP is a glycoprotein with three potential glycosylation sites. Two of them are glycosylated. Many differentially glycosylated forms have been characterized in these sites. Glycosylation modulates/dictates the biological activity of PAEP. Some of the alternatively spliced mRNAs lack the sequences encoding glycosylation sites and/or the lipocalin signature sequence.
Expression The expression of PAEP is highly regulated in a spatiotemporal fashion. In the female, PAEP is mainly expressed in secretory/decidualized endometrial glands after progesterone exposure. In secretory endometrium, expression becomes detectable four days after ovulation and reaches maximum at the end of the menstrual cycle unless pregnancy ensues. PAEP is one of the major proteins in endometrial secretions. In the male, the highest expression has been reported in seminal vesicles. PAEP is also expressed in other epithelial cells of reproductive tissues, such as fallopian tubes, ovary and the breast. In addition, other secretory epithelia, such as eccrine sweat glands and the bronchus epithelium express PAEP. It is also expressed in differentiated areas of breast cancer, ovarian tumors, endometrial adenocarcinoma, and synovial sarcoma. In addition to epithelial tissues, PAEP has been found in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursor cells. Experimental evidence suggests that PAEP expression is regulated by progesterone/progestins, relaxin, and histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Localisation PAEP is mostly found in exocrine epithelial cells, from which it is secreted into the gland lumen. In breast cancer, PAEP has been found also in paranuclear vacuoles of lobular carcinoma cells.
Function PAEP/PP14/glycodelin regulates the functions of spermatozoa during fertilization in a glycosylation dependent manner. The various glycoforms of PAEP have different, sometimes even opposite, biological actions at different phases of the fertilization process. Seminal fluid glycodelin-S binds to the sperm head and inhibits premature capacitation. In the female reproductive tract, spermatozoa come into contact with various PAEP glycoforms, that modulate sperm function, e.g., by preventing premature, progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (glycodelin-F). Glycodelin-A inhibits binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida, whereas another glycoform (glycodelin-C) stimulates the same. All these actions are glycosylation-dependent.
PAEP also regulates immune cell functions, which too are, at least in part, regulated by glycosylation. Different PAEP glycoforms contain diverse bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary complex-type glycans with varying levels of fucose and sialic acid substitution. Glycodelin-A and -F are the most heavily sialylated and inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell death, and suppress interleukin-2 secretion of Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No such immunosuppressive effect has been observed for glycodelin-C and -S carrying less or no sialic acids, or for desialylated glycodelin-A and -F. By its immunosuppressive properties one of the PAEP glycoforms (glycodelin-A) may contribute to immunotolerance at the fetomaternal interface and prevent rejection of the fetal semi-allograft.
In early pregnancy, glycodelin-A restrains inappropriate invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts by suppressing activity of some key metalloproteinases. In breast and endometrial cancer cell lines, PAEP has been found to revert the malignant phenotype in vitro by inducing morphological differentiation and specific gene expression changes. In a preclinical mouse model, transgenic PAEP expression in breast cancer cells has reduced tumor growth.
Homology Most lipocalins do not share high sequence similarity, but they are likely to be homologous.
Functional PAEP gene has been found in higher primates. Beta-lactoglobulins represent orthologs of PAEP, but they are likely to be functionally different from human PAEP, not least because of their differences in glycosylation. No convincing evidence of a PAEP ortholog in mouse or rat has been reported.


Note NCBI SNP database reports 128 PAEP SNPs (Homo sapiens, 13 September 2010). Also HinfI restriction enzyme polymorphism has been reported in Finnish population with 5% frequency for allele A1 and 95% frequency for allele A2. No disease associations for mutations have been described.

Implicated in

Entity Ovarian carcinoma
Note PAEP is expressed in both normal and malignant ovarian tissue. PAEP has been localized to the cytoplasm of tumor cells and its staining is more frequent in well-differentiated than in poorly differentiated carcinomas. Nuclear progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB) are often coexpressed with cytoplasmic PAEP.
Disease In 2002, ovarian cancer was the 6th most common cancer in women, and 7th most common cause of cancer death. Most malignant neoplasms of the ovary originate from the coelomic epithelium.
Prognosis In ovarian serous carcinoma, PAEP expression is associated with a more favorable prognosis, even in patients with the same tumor grade and clinical stage.
Entity Breast cancer
Note In breast cancer tissue, PAEP staining has been found in both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative and positive cancers. PAEP is also present in normal breast tissue. Transfection of PAEP in MCF-7 breast cancer cells reverted the malignant phenotype of the cells by inducing morphological differentiation and specific gene expression changes. Furthermore, these cells showed reduced tumor growth in a preclinical xenograft tumor mouse model.
Disease Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Although the prognosis has improved following improved diagnosis and therapies, breast cancer remains an important cause of death among women. Most of the neoplasms of the breast originate from the ductal epithelium, while a minority originates from the lobular epithelium. Family history of breast cancer is associated with a 2-3-fold higher risk of the disease.
Prognosis In sporadic breast cancer, PAEP is associated with low proliferation rate and well-differentiated tumors, whereas in familial "non BRCA1/BRCA2" patients, PAEP expression is associated with a less favorable phenotype and increased risk of metastases.
Entity Reproductive failure
Note During the period of endometrial receptivity for implantation, reduced PAEP secretion/serum levels have been observed in reproductive failure, e.g. in unexplained infertility or recurrent early pregnancy loss.
Disease Unexplained infertility or recurrent miscarriage may result from inadequate implantation and/or placentation.
Entity Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Note Pregnant women with PCOS who subsequently miscarry show subnormal rise of PAEP serum concentration during the first trimester.
Disease PCOS is a common endocrine disorder in fertile-aged women. It is associated with ovulatory disturbance, insulin resistance and androgen excess, and is a frequent cause of menstrual disorders and infertility in women.


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This paper should be referenced as such :
Koistinen, H ; Seppè_lè_, M
PAEP (progestagen-associated endometrial protein)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2011;15(7):576-581.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links

HGNC (Hugo)PAEP   8573
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PAEP    progestagen associated endometrial protein
AliasesGD; GdA; GdF; GdS; 
GeneCards (Weizmann)PAEP
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000122133 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000122133 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000122133 [Sequence]  chr9:135561756-135566954 [Contig_View]  PAEP [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000122133
Genatlas (Paris)PAEP
SOURCE (Princeton)PAEP
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PAEP
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PAEP  -     chr9:135561756-135566954 +  9q34.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PAEP  -     9q34.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathPAEP - 9q34.3 [CytoView hg19]  PAEP - 9q34.3 [CytoView hg38]
genome Data Viewer NCBIPAEP [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK304657 AK309965 AK309983 AK311007 AK311730
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001018048 NM_001018049 NM_002571
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PAEP
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000122133
Gene ExpressionPAEP [ NCBI-GEO ]   PAEP [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PAEP [ SEEK ]   PAEP [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PAEP [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of PAEP in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)5047
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PAEP
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000122133-PAEP [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP09466   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP09466  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP09466
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP09466
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)LIPOCALIN (PS00213)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Blactoglobulin    Calycin    Lipocalin    Lipocalin_CS    Lipocln_cytosolic_FA-bd_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Lipocalin (PF00061)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00061   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PAEP
Blocks (Seattle)PAEP
PDB Europe4R0B   
PDB (PDBSum)4R0B   
PDB (IMB)4R0B   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase4R0B   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)4R0B   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)4R0B   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000122133-PAEP [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP09466
IPIIPI00014544   IPI00218735   IPI00218736   IPI01009026   IPI00643941   IPI00514756   IPI01025980   IPI00981955   IPI00640131   
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)P09466
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOprotein binding  extracellular region  extracellular space  apoptotic process  multicellular organism development  positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production  small molecule binding  negative regulation of sperm capacitation  regulation of binding of sperm to zona pellucida  
Ontology : EGO-EBIprotein binding  extracellular region  extracellular space  apoptotic process  multicellular organism development  positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production  small molecule binding  negative regulation of sperm capacitation  regulation of binding of sperm to zona pellucida  
NDEx NetworkPAEP
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPAEP
Wikipedia pathwaysPAEP
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000122133
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPAEP
Homologs : HomoloGenePAEP
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PAEP
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanPAEP/FAR1 [9q34.3/11p15.2]  
Fusion PortalPAEP 9q34.3 FAR1 11p15.2 KIRC
Fusion : Fusion_HubFN1--PAEP    PAEP--FAR1    PPP1R7--PAEP   
Fusion : QuiverPAEP
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPAEP [hg38]
Exome Variant ServerPAEP
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000122133
Varsome BrowserPAEP
Genomic Variants (DGV)PAEP [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERPAEP [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPAEP 
ICGC Data PortalPAEP 
TCGA Data PortalPAEP 
Broad Tumor PortalPAEP
OASIS PortalPAEP [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPAEP  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DPAEP
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPAEP
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch PAEP
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PAEP
DoCM (Curated mutations)PAEP (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PAEP (select a term)
NCG6 (London) select PAEP
Cancer3DPAEP(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry PAEP
NextProtP09466 [Medical]
Target ValidationPAEP
Huge Navigator PAEP [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTD
Pharm GKB GenePA32904
Clinical trialPAEP
canSAR (ICR)PAEP (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexPAEP
PubMed132 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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