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PYGO2 (pygopus family PHD finger 2)

Written2019-06Ilaria Esposito, Adriana Cassaro
Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, via A. Di Rudinò, 8 20142, Milan (Italy); ilaria.esposito@unimi.it, adriana.cassaro@ospedaleniguarda.it

Abstract PYGO2 is member of a conserved family of plant homeo domain (PHD)-containing proteins and takes part in a wide range of developmental and transcriptional processes. The most relevant role played by PYGO2 is in Wnt signaling pathway, where it is required for β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription, even if it has showed to have a crucial role also in absence of β-catenin in tissues such as eye and testis. PYGO2 is also known as a chromatin effector because of its implication in chromatin remodelling processes through regulation of histones methylation.

Keywords PYGO2, Pygopus, Wnt signaling pathway, transcription factor, chromatin remodelling

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namespygopus homolog 2 (Drosophila)
Other aliasPygopus Homolog 2 (Drosophila)
Pygopus Homolog 2
190004M21 Rik
Pygopus 2
HGNC (Hugo) PYGO2
LocusID (NCBI) 90780
Atlas_Id 45884
Location 1q21.3 [link to chromosomal band 1q21. [http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Bands/1q21.html ]  [Link to chromosome band 1q21]
Location_base_pair Starts at 154957026 and ends at 154961782 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping PYGO2.png]
Local_order Starts at 154957026 and ends at 154961782 from pter (according to hg38-Dec_2013)
 
  Figure 1: A) Location of PYGO2 gene on chr1. B) Schematic representation of PYGO2 gene, with its three exons.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)

DNA/RNA

Note The PYGO2 gene (6828 bp) contains a total of 3 exons and the PYGO2 transcript is 3146 bp.
 
  Figure 2: Schematic representation of PYGO2 gene.
Description Genomic size: 6828 bp. Exons count: 3. This gene has 3 transcript (splice variants), 112 orthologues and 1 paralogue
Transcription 3 transcript variants have been found for this gene (font. www.ensembl.org).
PYGO2-202 ENST00000368457.2 : mRNA 3146 bp, protein 406 aa
PYGO2-201 ENST00000368456.1 : mRNA 1306 bp, protein 369 aa
PYGO2-203 ENST00000483463.1 : mRNA 594 bp, no protein.

Protein

 
  Figure 3: Schematic illustration of domains of PYGO2 protein.
Description PYGO2 protein, composed by 406 aa with a molecular mass of 41244 Da, is one of mammalian homologs of Drosophila Pygopus, essential for early embryonic development, moreover is known to be co-activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway transcriptional complex.
PYGO2 has two conserved domains, an N-terminal homology domain (NHD) and a C-terminal PHD zinc finger motif. The NHD domain plays an important role in transcriptional activation, taking part in the recruitment of histone modification factors and being involved in histone methylation (Gu et al., 2009). Deletion of NHD domain has been associated with 50% reduction of transcriptional activity (Liang et al., 2018). Moreover, in the N-terminal region, there is its nuclear localization signal-NLS (from aa 41 to aa 47) and a NPF (asparagine-proline-phenylalanine) sequence, which takes part in interactions with several proteins involved in chromatin remodelling. PYGO2 contains a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger, from aa 327 to aa 385, composed by 60 aminoacids organized in C4HC3 motives, which is important for the PYGO2 PHD-BCL9-HD1 complex formation (Miller et al., 2010).
Expression The first molecular cloning and expression analysis of a mouse pygopus gene, mpygo2, were described by Li et al. (2004). Its transcripts were expressed in various adult mouse tissues, such as brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, skin, small intestine, spleen, stomach, testis tissue and thymus; at the same manner, mpygo2 transcripts were detected in all embryos stages examined. The majority of tissues in which mpygo2 is expressed requires Wnt signaling activation for development, morphogenesis and maintenance and this is in line with the involvement of this gene in the Wnt signaling. Interestingly, since the hair follicle development is a well-known system which involves Wnt signaling, mpygo2 expression was detected both in developing and adult hair follicle (Li et al; 2004). The homologous Drosophila pygo gene is necessary to the binding with Lgs (legless) and for this reason Drosophila embryos homozygous for a pygo mutation, with any Pygo activity, die with a severe segment polarity phenotype (Kramps et al., 2002); this lethality is not found in mice. Mammals have two Pygopus homologues, Pygo1 and Pygo2, and the latter seems to be dominant (Schwab et al., 2007). The hPygo is expressed in a Wnt-dependent manner, in tissues such as kidney (Schwab et al., 2007), pancreas (Jonckheere et al., 2008), brain (Lake and Kao, 2003) and mammary gland (Gu et al., 2012); while is expressed in a Wnt-independent fashion for eye development (Song et al., 2007), spermiogenesis (Nair et al., 2008) and embryonic brain patterning (Lake and Kao, 2003). hPYGO2 shows high expression levels also in several types of cancer, in particular in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (Popadiuk et al., 2006), in several breast malignant tumours (Andrews et al., 2007), in gliomas and glioblastoma cells (Wang et al., 2010 14; Chen et al., 2011); recently hPYGO2 has been associated also with adenomas and colon tumours (Brembeck et al., 2011) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (Moghbeli et al., 2013).
Localisation PYGO2 is localized in the nucleus (UniProt Pygo2)
Function PYGO2 protein is known to be implicated in chromatin remodelling and binding to methylated residues on lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me), relevant for active transcription (Aasland et al., 1995). Has also been demonstrated that PYGO2 is involved in promoting trimethylation of the same residue (H3K4) and acetylation of H3K9/K14 (Gu et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2010). In addition, PYGO2 seems to act as scaffold protein between CTNNB1 (β-catenin), HNMT, TMPRSS11D (HAT) and the chromatin (Chen et al., 2010). This protein is also involved in signal transduction through the Wnt pathway and it showed a role in nuclear retention of β-catenin. Several studies reported that the NHD domain of Pygo regulates the transactivation activity, instead the PHD domain is responsible for the binding, through adaptor proteins, to the N-terminal domain of β-catenin (Townsley et al., 2004; Stadeli and Basler, 2005). Several studies reported not only the association with β-catenin to act as co-activators of the β-catenin/ LEF1/TCF complex (Kramps et al., 2002, Stadeli and Basler, 2005), but also the β-catenin independent association with LEF/TCF target genes (de la Roche and Bienz, 2007). In two of the most extensively characterized PYGO2-requiring tissues, testis and eye, its function is β-catenin independent. In the developing kidney PYGO2 shows wide expression in the ureteric bud and PYGO2 mutant phenotype resulted in reduced branching morphogenesis of this (Schwab et al., 2007). Similarly, a mutant phenotype has been observed also in pancreas, where lack of PYGO2 results in pancreas hypoplasia and defective endocrine cell differentiation (Jonckheere et al., 2008). PYGO2 demonstrated to play a role in development also in lung morphogenesis, because mpygo2-/- showed lungs pale and smaller than the wild type and with airways defects (Boan et al., 2007). Concerning the tissues where PYGO2 is not linked to the Wnt signalling, it showed to play a role in lens development, because of its expression in tissues of early eye such as optic vesicle and presumptive lens (Song et al., 2007), and during spermatogenesis, as a matter of fact its block leads to spermiogenesis arrest and infertility (Nair et al., 2008).
Homology PYGO2 is conserved in human, mouse, rat, chimpanzee, cattle, dog and chicken.

Mutations

 
  Figure 4: Overview of the major types of mutations occurring in PYGO2.
Somatic Some somatic mutations have been identified and described by COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutation In Cancer) and they are listed mostly as substitutions and frameshift insertion or deletions; their role in disease has not yet been clarified.

Implicated in

  
Entity Metastatic prostate cancer
Note Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common malignancy in men. Since PYGO2 mRNA and protein show elevated levels in many androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PrCa cell lines (Kao et al., 2018), there could be evidences of his involvement in tumor progression. PYGO2 overexpression promotes prostate tumor growth and moreover regional lymph nodes invasion; instead its depletion results in cell cycle arrest, decreasing of cell proliferation and reduction of cell invasion (Lu et al., 2018).
  
  
Entity Glioma
Note Glioma is one of the most common type of tumor that occurs in brain and spinal cord. Zhou et al (2016) found PYGO2 mRNA expression in the majority of primary glioma tissue of patients and this was increased compared to control. Interestingly, this overexpression correlates with some clinic-pathological features, such as the age and the tumor grade: it is present in patients over 50 years and in advanced tumors. Knockdown of PYGO2, in human brain glioma cell lines, leads to decreased mRNA and protein levels of some Wnt/β-catenin pathway downstream targets, acting through regulation of H2K4me3 level on their promoters.
  
  
Entity Hepatic carcinoma
Note Hepatic carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver. There are evidences (Zhang et al., 2015) that in HCC tissues PYGO2 mRNA and protein are highly expressed and it could play a role in HCC development and progression, showing positive regulation on cell migration. This positive regulation could be explained considering the fact that PYGO2 can bind to the promoter of CDH1 (E-cadherin) regulating its expression. Zhang and colleagues demonstrated that down-modulation of PYGO2 increased E-cadherin expression, resulting in increased cellular adhesion; indeed, a weak presence of PYGO2, and a subsequently wider presence of E-cadherin, leads to decreased invasion capability and metastasis formation.
  
  
Entity Colon cancer
Note Colon cancer affects the large intestine and the primary source for the development of this type of cancer is the deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, resulting in an overactivation of the entire pathway. Brembeck and colleagues (2011) demonstrated a PYGO2 overexpression in human colon cancer and for this reason has been investigated his oncogenic role. There are evidences that PYGO2 deletion decelerates tumor formation in chemically induced colon cancer, decreasing in a significant manner tumor number and size. This delay is caused by inhibition of Wnt signaling, because of the capability of PYGO2 to reduce overexpression of some Wnt/β-catenin target genes (Talla and Brembeck, 2016).
  
  
Entity Non-small cell lung carcinoma
Note Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) represents about 80% to 85% of lung cancers. Liu et al. (2013) demonstrated PYGO2 nuclear accumulation in more than half of the lung cancer samples analysed and determined a correlation between PYGO2 expression and some NSCLC clinic-pathological features, such as stages of tumor and survival. Moreover, viability assays demonstrated that PYGO2 silencing results in inhibition of lung cancer cells proliferation, via regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
  
  
Entity Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Note Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a type of esophageal carcinoma that usually affects the upper or middle third part. For the first time Moghbeli et al. reported an association between the overexpression of PYGO2 and clinic-pathological features of ESCC, such as the grade of tumor differentiation, the tumor size and the age of patients. The exact role of PYGO2 in ESCC is unclear, but it has been demonstrated to have a significant correlation with EGFR, a type I transmembrane receptor which is broadly involved in various squamous cell carcinomas. Apparently, PYGO2 could act as transcriptional activator of EGFR, promoting the ESCC tumorigenesis
  
  
Entity Epithelial ovarian cancer
Note Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common type of ovarian cancer, almost 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial. PYGO2 shows overexpression in six malignant epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, compared to control. Interestingly it is overexpressed in both ovarian cancer tumors endometrioid and non-endometrioid, that differ from each other, respectively, for the activation and inactivation of Wnt pathway. Popadiuk et al. demonstrated that knockdown of Pygo2 results in reduction of mRNA and protein levels and it causes growth's inhibition.
  
  
Entity Breast cancer
Note Breast cancer is the leading malignant female disease with a high percentage of chemoresistance. Watanabe et al. (2014) demonstrated that PYGO2 plays an important role in mammary tumorigenesis and its loss leads to delays in mammary tumors formation in mice, acting via both Wnt-dependent and independent mechanism. PYGO2 seems to play a role also in the onset of chemoresistance, activating a drug efflux transporter, ABCB1 (MDR1). To confirm this hypothesis, Zhang et al. (2016) demonstrated that knockdown of PYGO2 results in restoring sensitivity for chemotherapeutic drug.
  
  
Entity Idiopathic azoospermia
Note Idiopathic azoospermia is a medical condition which implies the absence of sperm in semen. Two non-synonymous SNP mutations in PYGO2 have been reported to be implicated in this disease: rs61758740, M141I, has no effect on protein structure, and rs141722381, N240I, disrupts the protein structure and so it can be disease causing (Ge et al., 2015). These SNPs are reported in the National Center for Biotechnology Information SNP database (NCBI SNPdb).
  

Bibliography

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Requirement of Pygopus 2 in breast cancer.
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BCL9-2 promotes early stages of intestinal tumor progression.
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Pygo2 associates with MLL2 histone methyltransferase and GCN5 histone acetyltransferase complexes to augment Wnt target gene expression and breast cancer stem-like cell expansion.
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Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Pygo2 coding sequence with idiopathic oligospermia and azoospermia
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Pygo2 expands mammary progenitor cells by facilitating histone H3 K4 methylation.
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Analysis of mPygo2 mutant mice suggests a requirement for mesenchymal Wnt signaling in pancreatic growth and differentiation.
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PYGOPUS2 expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma is a potential risk stratification marker for PSA progression following radical prostatectomy.
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Wnt/wingless signaling requires BCL9/legless-mediated recruitment of pygopus to the nuclear β-catenin-TCF complex.
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PMID 11955446
 
Pygopus is required for embryonic brain patterning in Xenopus.
Lake BB, Kao KR
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PMID 12941625
 
Cloning and developmental expression of mouse pygopus 2, a putative Wnt signaling component.
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PMID 15234002
 
Developmental phenotypes and reduced Wnt signaling in mice deficient for pygopus 2.
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PMID 17458864
 
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Journal of cell communication and signaling (2018): 1-10.
PMID 29978348
 
Abnormal expression of Pygopus 2 correlates with a malignant phenotype in human lung cancer.
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PMID 23865714
 
An in vivo screen identifies PYGO2 as a driver for metastatic prostate cancer.
Lu X, Pan X, Wu CJ, Zhao D, Feng S, Zang Y, Lee R, Khadka S, Amin SB, Jin EJ, Shang X, Deng P, Luo Y, Morgenlander WR, Weinrich J, Lu X, Jiang S, Chang Q, Navone NM, Troncoso P, DePinho RA, Wang YA
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PMID 29769196
 
Allosteric remodelling of the histone H3 binding pocket in the Pygo2 PHD finger triggered by its binding to the B9L/BCL9 co-factor.
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Journal of molecular biology 401.5 (2010): 969-984.
PMID 20637214
 
Association of PYGO2 and EGFR in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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Medical Oncology 30.2 (2013): 516.
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Nuclear regulator Pygo2 controls spermiogenesis and histone H3 acetylation.
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Esposito I., Cassaro A.
PYGO2 (pygopus family PHD finger 2);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/PYGO2ID45884ch1q21.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)PYGO2   30257
Cards
AtlasPYGO2ID45884ch1q21
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PYGO2  90780  pygopus family PHD finger 2
Aliases1190004M21Rik
GeneCards (Weizmann)PYGO2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000163348 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000163348 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000163348 [Sequence]  chr1:154957026-154961782 [Contig_View]  PYGO2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000163348
TCGA cBioPortalPYGO2
AceView (NCBI)PYGO2
Genatlas (Paris)PYGO2
WikiGenes90780
SOURCE (Princeton)PYGO2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PYGO2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PYGO2  -     chr1:154957026-154961782 -  1q21.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PYGO2  -     1q21.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathPYGO2 - 1q21.3 [CytoView hg19]  PYGO2 - 1q21.3 [CytoView hg38]
ImmunoBaseENSG00000163348
Mapping of homologs : NCBIPYGO2 [Mapview hg19]  PYGO2 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM606903   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF289598 AF457208 AK090545 AK092389 AK095425
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_138300
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PYGO2
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.533597 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.533597
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000163348
Gene ExpressionPYGO2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   PYGO2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PYGO2 [ SEEK ]   PYGO2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PYGO2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)90780
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PYGO2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000163348-PYGO2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9BRQ0   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9BRQ0  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9BRQ0
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ9BRQ0
PhosPhoSitePlusQ9BRQ0
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)ZF_PHD_1 (PS01359)    ZF_PHD_2 (PS50016)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Zinc_finger_PHD-type_CS    Znf_FYVE_PHD    Znf_PHD    Znf_PHD-finger    Znf_RING/FYVE/PHD   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)PHD (PF00628)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00628   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)PHD (SM00249)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PYGO2
DMDM Disease mutations90780
Blocks (Seattle)PYGO2
PDB (RSDB)2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
PDB Europe2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
PDB (PDBSum)2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
PDB (IMB)2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)2XB1    4UP0    4UP5   
SuperfamilyQ9BRQ0
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000163348-PYGO2 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasQ9BRQ0
HPRD06065
IPIIPI00042099   IPI00642524   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q9BRQ0
IntAct (EBI)Q9BRQ0
FunCoupENSG00000163348
BioGRIDPYGO2
STRING (EMBL)PYGO2
ZODIACPYGO2
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ9BRQ0
Ontology : AmiGOin utero embryonic development  kidney development  lens development in camera-type eye  chromatin binding  protein binding  nucleoplasm  spermatid nucleus differentiation  brain development  post-embryonic development  mammary gland development  regulation of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation  histone acetyltransferase regulator activity  regulation of histone acetylation  positive regulation of chromatin binding  histone binding  metal ion binding  developmental growth  regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation  roof of mouth development  canonical Wnt signaling pathway  beta-catenin-TCF complex assembly  beta-catenin-TCF complex  
Ontology : EGO-EBIin utero embryonic development  kidney development  lens development in camera-type eye  chromatin binding  protein binding  nucleoplasm  spermatid nucleus differentiation  brain development  post-embryonic development  mammary gland development  regulation of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation  histone acetyltransferase regulator activity  regulation of histone acetylation  positive regulation of chromatin binding  histone binding  metal ion binding  developmental growth  regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation  roof of mouth development  canonical Wnt signaling pathway  beta-catenin-TCF complex assembly  beta-catenin-TCF complex  
REACTOMEQ9BRQ0 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3769402 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkPYGO2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPYGO2
Wikipedia pathwaysPYGO2
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB90780
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000163348
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPYGO2
HOGENOMQ9BRQ0
Homologs : HomoloGenePYGO2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PYGO2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : FusionGDB27819    29785    5250   
Fusion : Fusion_HubPMVK--PYGO2    PYGO2--ANKRD10    PYGO2--FTH1    PYGO2--PBXIP1    SHC1--PYGO2   
Fusion : QuiverPYGO2
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPYGO2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PYGO2
dbVarPYGO2
ClinVarPYGO2
1000_GenomesPYGO2 
Exome Variant ServerPYGO2
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000163348
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000163348
Varsome BrowserPYGO2
Genetic variants : HAPMAP90780
Genomic Variants (DGV)PYGO2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERPYGO2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPYGO2 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalPYGO2 
TCGA Data PortalPYGO2 
Broad Tumor PortalPYGO2
OASIS PortalPYGO2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPYGO2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DPYGO2
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPYGO2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch PYGO2
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PYGO2
DoCM (Curated mutations)PYGO2 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PYGO2 (select a term)
intoGenPYGO2
NCG5 (London)PYGO2
Cancer3DPYGO2(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM606903   
Orphanet
DisGeNETPYGO2
MedgenPYGO2
Genetic Testing Registry PYGO2
NextProtQ9BRQ0 [Medical]
TSGene90780
GENETestsPYGO2
Target ValidationPYGO2
Huge Navigator PYGO2 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease90780
BioCentury BCIQPYGO2
ClinGenPYGO2
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD90780
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA134881185
Clinical trialPYGO2
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)PYGO2 (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexPYGO2
Probes
Litterature
PubMed42 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMinePYGO2
EVEXPYGO2
GoPubMedPYGO2
iHOPPYGO2
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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