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USP1 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 1)

Written2013-10Iraia García-Santisteban, Godefridus J Peters, Jose A Rodriguez, Elisa Giovannetti
Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology, Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain (IGS, JAR); Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (GJP, EG)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesubiquitin specific protease 1
Other aliasUBP
HGNC (Hugo) USP1
LocusID (NCBI) 7398
Atlas_Id 43072
Location 1p31.3  [Link to chromosome band 1p31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 62436304 and ends at 62451804 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping USP1.png]
Local_order Based on Mapviewer, genes flanking USP1 are:
- L1TD1 (LINE-1 type transposase domain containing 1); 1p31.3
- ANKRD38 (ankyrin repeat domain 38); 1p31.3
- USP1 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 1); 1p31.3
- DOCK7 (dedicator of cytokinesis 7); 1p31.3
- ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like 3); 1p31.1-p22.3.
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
USP1 (1p31.3) / ADAM9 (8p11.22)USP1 (1p31.3) / EFCAB7 (1p31.3)USP1 (1p31.3) / SGIP1 (1p31.3)
USP1 (1p31.3) / USP1 (1p31.3)

DNA/RNA

Note Structural organization of USP1 gene: USP1 gene is located on chromosome 1. 3 transcripts of this gene, encoding the same protein product, have been identified. The gene contains 14 distinct gt-ag introns.
Description Ubiquitin specific peptidase 1 is located at chromosome 1 in the region p31.3. USP1 was first cloned in 1998 as part of the Human Genome Project (Fujiwara et al., 1998).
Transcription USP1 transcription is controlled by different mechanisms. On one hand, USP1 mRNA levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, reaching a peak in S phase, and remaining low before and after it (Nijman et al., 2005). On the other hand, DNA damaging agents can repress USP1 transcription by a mechanism that involves p21 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (Rego et al., 2012).
Transcription produces 10 different mRNAs, 6 alternatively spliced variants and 4 unspliced forms. There are 5 probable alternative promotors, 2 non overlapping alternative last exons and 9 validated alternative polyadenylation sites. The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 5' end, overlapping exons with different boundaries. Efficacy of translation may be reduced by the presence of a shorter translated product (uORF) initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame.
Pseudogene No reported pseudogenes. Paralogs for USP1 gene include USP12, USP35, USP38, and USP46.

Protein

 
  Structural organization of USP1 protein. Cys and His boxes containing the catalytic residues (C90, H593, D751) are represented in green. The "degradation signal" (Degron) that mediates APC/CCdh1-mediated degradation of USP1 is shown in orange, also the location of the Serine 313 CDK phosphorylation site is highlighted. The diglycine motif (Gly-Gly) represented in purple constitutes the USP1 autocleavage site. Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) are illustrated in blue.
Description USP1 gene encodes a 785 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 88,2 kDa (Fujiwara et al., 1998). USP1 belongs to the ubiquitin specific protease (USP) family of human deubiquitinases (DUBs). Like other members of its family, it harbours a highly conserved USP domain organization comprising a N-terminal Cys box and a C-terminal His box, which contain the catalytic residues (C90, H593 and D751) (Fujiwara et al., 1998; Villamil et al., 2012a; Békés et al., 2013).
The enzymatic activity of USP1 alone is relatively low, but is enhanced upon binding to USP1 associated factor 1 (UAF1) (Cohn et al., 2007; Villamil et al., 2012a). The UAF1 binding region in USP1 is somewhat controversial, since two binding motifs have been proposed based on different experimental approaches. Villamil and co-workers proposed that the UAF1 binding region comprised residues 235-408 (Villamil et al., 2012b), but García-Santisteban et al. described that the binding motif was between amino acid residues 420-520 (García-Santisteban et al., 2012a). Further experimental evidence should clarify this controversy.
Expression USP1 protein levels can be regulated through different mechanisms that involve proteasome mediated degradation. On one hand, anaphase promoting complex/cyclosomeCdh1 (APC/CCdh1) recognizes the 295-342 amino acid region (Degron) in USP1, mediating its degradation by the proteasome (Cotto-Rios et al., 2011a). The serine 313 residue located in this region is phosphorylated by cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), which might prevent USP1 degradation in mitosis (Cotto-Rios et al., 2011b). On the other hand, UV damage causes USP1 autocleavage at an internal diglycine motif (Gly-Gly) located in the C-terminal end of the protein. The resulting USP1 fragments are subjected to proteasomal degradation (Huang et al., 2006; Piatkov et al., 2012).
Localisation The localization of USP1 is nuclear. USP1 bears two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) which mediate the import of the USP1/UAF1 complex to the cell nucleus, where it exerts its function (García-Santisteban et al., 2012b). USP1 also contains a nuclear export signal (NES, not indicated in the figure) that was shown to be functional in an export assay, but whose function in the context of the full length protein needs to be evaluated (García-Santisteban et al., 2012a).
Function USP1, together with UAF1, plays an important role in the DNA damage response, mainly in the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway and in the process of translesion synthesis (TLS). Deubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI by the USP1/UAF1 complex is an essential step for the correct function of the FA pathway (Nijman et al., 2005; Sims et al., 2007). In addition, the USP1/UAF1 complex mediates the deubiqutination of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), preventing the recruitment of low fidelity DNA polymerases in the absence of DNA damage (Huang et al., 2006).
In addition to its DNA damage-related functions, USP1 has also been reported to deubiquitinate and stabilize three members of the family of inhibitors of DNA binding (ID) proteins (ID1, ID2 and ID3), and thus contributing to preserve the undifferentiated state of osteosarcoma cells (Williams et al., 2011).
Homology The USP1 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish, fruit fly, and mosquito.

Mutations

Note A survey in the COSMIC mutation database (accession date: 16 September 2013) revealed a total of 40 mutations that lead to different modifications in different human tumors. Most of the modifications are missense mutations whose functional consequences need to be addressed.
 
  Cancer-associated mutations in USP1. Schematic representation of USP1 protein showing the position of cancer-associated USP1 mutations reported to date (September 2013) in the COSMIC mutation database. Missense amino acid substitutions are indicated in black, nonsense amino acid substitutions in red and frameshift insertion/deletions in blue. Synonymous amino acid substitutions have been omitted. The Table shows the detailed list of mutations, including the DNA modification (CDS Mutation), protein modification (AA Mutation), type of mutation and tissue.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Osteosarcoma
Note A recent study showed that USP1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in a subset of primary osteosarcoma tumors, and that increased USP1 levels correlated with increased levels of its substrate ID2. This observation is consistent with the finding that USP1 deubiquitinates and stabilizes ID proteins, contributing to preserve the undifferentiated state of osteosarcoma cells.
Cytogenetics Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses found that the USP1 locus 1p31.3 was amplified in 26%-57% of osteosarcoma tumors (Ozaki et al., 2003; Stock et al., 2000).
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Note One study reported lower USP1 mRNA and protein levels in lung cancer cells and tissues (Zhiqiang et al., 2012). However, most data support the view that USP1 is overexpressed in lung cancer. Thus, a survey in the Oncomine research edition database revealed that USP1 was overexpressed in 25% of the lung cancer microarray datasets available, while none of these studies reported significant downregulation of USP1 (García-Santisteban et al., 2013). In line with these data, immunohistochemical analysis on a NSCLC tissue microarray revealed USP1 overexpression (Liu et al., 2012). An association between USP1 overexpression with lung cancer was already demonstrated in a recent study on USP1 mRNA expression in NSCLC tissue and cell lines indicating that USP1 expression was higher in tumors and tumor-derived cells than in normal lung tissue (García-Santisteban et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Fanconi anemia (FA)
Note Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare hereditary disorder that results in congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, DNA crosslinker hypersensitivity, genomic instability and increased susceptibility to cancer (Kee and D'Andrea, 2012). The disorder is the result of mutations in any of at least 15 genes that regulate the DNA repair pathway that corrects interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). USP1 cannot be considered a bona fide FA gene, since mutations in USP1 have not been identified in FA patients yet. However, recent evicence supports the view that USP1 is crucial for the correct regulation of the FA pathway. Disruption of the USP1 gene in mice results in genomic instability and FA phenotype, and also leads to defects in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance (Kim et al., 2009; Parmar et al., 2010).
  

To be noted

This work was supported by the Basque Country Government Department of Industry (grant number ETORTEK BioGUNE2010 to JAR), the Spanish Government MICINN (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion) (grant number BFU2009-13245 to JAR), the University of the Basque Country (UFI11/20), Department of Education of the Basque Country Government Fellowship (to IG-S), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, Veni grant (to EG) and CCA Foundation (grant number 2012-5-07 to EG and GJP).

Bibliography

Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 1.
Bekes M, Huang T.
Handbook of proteolytic enzymes. Volume 1. 3rd edition. Edited by Rawlings ND, Salvesen G.; 2013: 2079-2085.
 
A UAF1-containing multisubunit protein complex regulates the Fanconi anemia pathway.
Cohn MA, Kowal P, Yang K, Haas W, Huang TT, Gygi SP, D'Andrea AD.
Mol Cell. 2007 Dec 14;28(5):786-97.
PMID 18082604
 
Insights into phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms regulating USP1 protein stability during the cell cycle.
Cotto-Rios XM, Jones MJ, Huang TT.
Cell Cycle. 2011b Dec 1;10(23):4009-16. doi: 10.4161/cc.10.23.18501. Epub 2011 Dec 1. (REVIEW)
PMID 22101265
 
Identification and chromosomal assignment of USP1, a novel gene encoding a human ubiquitin-specific protease.
Fujiwara T, Saito A, Suzuki M, Shinomiya H, Suzuki T, Takahashi E, Tanigami A, Ichiyama A, Chung CH, Nakamura Y, Tanaka K.
Genomics. 1998 Nov 15;54(1):155-8.
PMID 9806842
 
USP1 deubiquitinase: cellular functions, regulatory mechanisms and emerging potential as target in cancer therapy.
Garcia-Santisteban I, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E, Rodriguez JA.
Mol Cancer. 2013 Aug 10;12:91. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-12-91. (REVIEW)
PMID 23937906
 
Regulation of monoubiquitinated PCNA by DUB autocleavage.
Huang TT, Nijman SM, Mirchandani KD, Galardy PJ, Cohn MA, Haas W, Gygi SP, Ploegh HL, Bernards R, D'Andrea AD.
Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;8(4):339-47. Epub 2006 Mar 12.
PMID 16531995
 
Molecular pathogenesis and clinical management of Fanconi anemia.
Kee Y, D'Andrea AD.
J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov 1;122(11):3799-806. doi: 10.1172/JCI58321. Epub 2012 Nov 1. (REVIEW)
PMID 23114602
 
Inactivation of murine Usp1 results in genomic instability and a Fanconi anemia phenotype.
Kim JM, Parmar K, Huang M, Weinstock DM, Ruit CA, Kutok JL, D'Andrea AD.
Dev Cell. 2009 Feb;16(2):314-20. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.01.001.
PMID 19217432
 
Integrative proteomics and tissue microarray profiling indicate the association between overexpressed serum proteins and non-small cell lung cancer.
Liu Y, Luo X, Hu H, Wang R, Sun Y, Zeng R, Chen H.
PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51748. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051748. Epub 2012 Dec 19.
PMID 23284758
 
The deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 regulates the Fanconi anemia pathway.
Nijman SM, Huang TT, Dirac AM, Brummelkamp TR, Kerkhoven RM, D'Andrea AD, Bernards R.
Mol Cell. 2005 Feb 4;17(3):331-9.
PMID 15694335
 
Chromosomal alterations in osteosarcoma cell lines revealed by comparative genomic hybridization and multicolor karyotyping.
Ozaki T, Neumann T, Wai D, Schafer KL, van Valen F, Lindner N, Scheel C, Bocker W, Winkelmann W, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Horst J, Poremba C.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003 Jan 15;140(2):145-52.
PMID 12645653
 
Hematopoietic stem cell defects in mice with deficiency of Fancd2 or Usp1.
Parmar K, Kim J, Sykes SM, Shimamura A, Stuckert P, Zhu K, Hamilton A, Deloach MK, Kutok JL, Akashi K, Gilliland DG, D'andrea A.
Stem Cells. 2010 Jul;28(7):1186-95. doi: 10.1002/stem.437.
PMID 20506303
 
The auto-generated fragment of the Usp1 deubiquitylase is a physiological substrate of the N-end rule pathway.
Piatkov KI, Colnaghi L, Bekes M, Varshavsky A, Huang TT.
Mol Cell. 2012 Dec 28;48(6):926-33. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.10.012. Epub 2012 Nov 15.
PMID 23159736
 
Regulation of the activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway by the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.
Rego MA, Harney JA, Mauro M, Shen M, Howlett NG.
Oncogene. 2012 Jan 19;31(3):366-75. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.237. Epub 2011 Jun 20.
PMID 21685936
 
FANCI is a second monoubiquitinated member of the Fanconi anemia pathway.
Sims AE, Spiteri E, Sims RJ 3rd, Arita AG, Lach FP, Landers T, Wurm M, Freund M, Neveling K, Hanenberg H, Auerbach AD, Huang TT.
Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Jun;14(6):564-7. Epub 2007 Apr 25.
PMID 17460694
 
Chromosomal regions involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas.
Stock C, Kager L, Fink FM, Gadner H, Ambros PF.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Jul;28(3):329-36.
PMID 10862039
 
Serine phosphorylation is critical for the activation of ubiquitin-specific protease 1 and its interaction with WD40-repeat protein UAF1.
Villamil MA, Liang Q, Chen J, Choi YS, Hou S, Lee KH, Zhuang Z.
Biochemistry. 2012b Nov 13;51(45):9112-23. doi: 10.1021/bi300845s. Epub 2012 Nov 1.
PMID 23116119
 
USP1 deubiquitinates ID proteins to preserve a mesenchymal stem cell program in osteosarcoma.
Williams SA, Maecker HL, French DM, Liu J, Gregg A, Silverstein LB, Cao TC, Carano RA, Dixit VM.
Cell. 2011 Sep 16;146(6):918-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.07.040.
PMID 21925315
 
USP1 regulates AKT phosphorylation by modulating the stability of PHLPP1 in lung cancer cells.
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Garc_a-Santisteban, I ; Peters, GJ ; Rodriguez, JA ; Giovannetti, E
USP1 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(5):351-355.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/USP1ID43072ch1p31.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)USP1   12607
Cards
AtlasUSP1ID43072ch1p31
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)USP1  7398  ubiquitin specific peptidase 1
AliasesUBP
GeneCards (Weizmann)USP1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000162607 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000162607 [Gene_View]  chr1:62436304-62451804 [Contig_View]  USP1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000162607
TCGA cBioPortalUSP1
AceView (NCBI)USP1
Genatlas (Paris)USP1
WikiGenes7398
SOURCE (Princeton)USP1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)USP1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)USP1  -     chr1:62436304-62451804 +  1p31.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)USP1  -     1p31.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblUSP1 - 1p31.3 [CytoView hg19]  USP1 - 1p31.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIUSP1 [Mapview hg19]  USP1 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM603478   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB014458 AB208893 AF117386 AK096788 AK312423
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001017415 NM_001017416 NM_003368
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)USP1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.35086 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.35086
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000162607
Gene ExpressionUSP1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   USP1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   USP1 [ SEEK ]   USP1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)USP1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)7398
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)USP1
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtO94782   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtO94782  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProO94782
Splice isoforms : SwissVarO94782
PhosPhoSitePlusO94782
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)USP_1 (PS00972)    USP_2 (PS00973)    USP_3 (PS50235)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Peptidase_C19_UCH    USP1    USP_CS    USP_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)UCH (PF00443)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00443   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)USP1
DMDM Disease mutations7398
Blocks (Seattle)USP1
SuperfamilyO94782
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000162607
Peptide AtlasO94782
HPRD04593
IPIIPI00304379   IPI00645049   IPI00645595   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)O94782
IntAct (EBI)O94782
FunCoupENSG00000162607
BioGRIDUSP1
STRING (EMBL)USP1
ZODIACUSP1
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOO94782
Ontology : AmiGOskeletal system development  cysteine-type endopeptidase activity  thiol-dependent ubiquitin-specific protease activity  thiol-dependent ubiquitin-specific protease activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  regulation of DNA repair  ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process  peptidase activity  response to UV  protein deubiquitination  monoubiquitinated protein deubiquitination  interstrand cross-link repair  DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage  
Ontology : EGO-EBIskeletal system development  cysteine-type endopeptidase activity  thiol-dependent ubiquitin-specific protease activity  thiol-dependent ubiquitin-specific protease activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  regulation of DNA repair  ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process  peptidase activity  response to UV  protein deubiquitination  monoubiquitinated protein deubiquitination  interstrand cross-link repair  DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage  
Pathways : KEGGFanconi anemia pathway   
REACTOMEO94782 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-6783310 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkUSP1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkUSP1
Wikipedia pathwaysUSP1
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB7398
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000162607
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamUSP1
HOVERGENO94782
HOGENOMO94782
Homologs : HomoloGeneUSP1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)USP1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanUSP1/EFCAB7 [1p31.3/1p31.3]  
Fusion : MitelmanUSP1/SGIP1 [1p31.3/1p31.3]  [t(1;1)(p31;p31)]  
Fusion: TCGAUSP1 1p31.3 EFCAB7 1p31.3 PRAD
Fusion: TCGAUSP1 1p31.3 SGIP1 1p31.3 BRCA
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerUSP1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)USP1
dbVarUSP1
ClinVarUSP1
1000_GenomesUSP1 
Exome Variant ServerUSP1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)USP1 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP7398
Genomic Variants (DGV)USP1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERUSP1 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisUSP1 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalUSP1 
TCGA Data PortalUSP1 
Broad Tumor PortalUSP1
OASIS PortalUSP1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICUSP1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDUSP1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch USP1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)USP1
DoCM (Curated mutations)USP1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)USP1 (select a term)
intoGenUSP1
NCG5 (London)USP1
Cancer3DUSP1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM603478   
Orphanet
MedgenUSP1
Genetic Testing Registry USP1
NextProtO94782 [Medical]
TSGene7398
GENETestsUSP1
Target ValidationUSP1
Huge Navigator USP1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease7398
BioCentury BCIQUSP1
ClinGenUSP1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD7398
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA37233
Clinical trialUSP1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)USP1 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed50 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineUSP1
EVEXUSP1
GoPubMedUSP1
iHOPUSP1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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