|Note||Renal cell cancer (RCC) constitutes a group of epithelial tumors that are highly heterogeneous with respect to morphology and clinical behaviour.|
| The major morphological classifications (WHO/AFIP; modified Mainz classification, and the Heidelberg classification) discriminate eight subtypes of renal cell tumors related to the basic cell types of the nephron from which they are derived, and in line with the genetic facts as presently understood:
Malignant parenchymal neoplasms are:
|Clinics and Pathology|
|Note||Although common RCC and papillary RCC both are derived from the same part of the renal tubule and have a similar antigenic phenotype, they differ in genetic changes. This might be explained by the fact that common RCC arises from mature renal tubular cells, whereas papillary tumors are from embryonal origin.|
|Embryonic origin||In former times it was believed that certain clear cell epithelial renal tumors are derived from ectopic adreno-cortical elements as expressed by Virchow and advocated by Grawitz. This has led to the term "hypernephroma" or Grawitz tumor. Nowadays, there is evidence that the usual (nonembryonic) RCC in all its variants derives, in principle, from the mature uriniferous tubule (nephron). This evidence is corroborated by animal experiments and observation of pre-stages and early stages of epithelial renal tumors in human kidneys.|
|Etiology||A specific factor in the etiology of RCC is not known at the moment, although a number of dietary, environmental factors, hormonal, celllular and genetic factors associated with increased risk. RCC consists of a number histologically defined entities which may occur either non-hereditary or hereditary, e.g. the influence of genetic factors in VHL disease, in hereditary papillary RCC and familial RCC.|
|Epidemiology||RCC is the most common malignant tumor arising in the kidney and accounts for 2% of all new cancers diagnosed, representing 85% all primary renal neoplasms in adults. RCC affects males twice as often as females and shows a peak in the sixth decade. Although rarely, RCC can occur in children and adolescents. There is no clear geographical or ethnic preference. An increased incidence of RCC has been associated with end-stage renal disease and with acquired cystic kidney disease. RCCs are often large at detection and frequently already have metastasized.|
|Pathology|| The present classification is primarily based on cytologic appearance and the cell type of origin in combination with growth pattern and genetic alterations.|
For both common and papillary RCC, hereditary as well as sporadic cases of papillary RCC have been found. Hereditary RCC is characterized by the appearance of multiple and bilateral tumors and an early age of onset.
Variants can be assigned to all these basic types which are characterized by augmentation of mitochondria leading to a stronger eosinophilia or granularity, respectively, of the cytoplasm. Spindle-shaped/pleomorphic variants as a result of sarcomatoid transformation can also be deduced from all the basic types.
|Treatment||The standard treatment for RCC is surgery by radical or partial nephrectomy. At present there is no effective therapy for metastatic RCC and patients with irresectable disease have a poor prognosis.|
|Evolution||About 50% of patients with localized disease progress with distant metastasis.|
|Prognosis||The anatomic extent of the disease represented by stage of disease is the single most important indicator of prognosis in RCC.|
|Note|| Cytogenetically, no differences are observed between hereditary tumors (usually presenting as multiple/bilateral tumors at an early age of onset) and sporadic papillary tumors.|
Increasing evidence exists on the presence of clonal, mostly numerical, chromosomal changes in apparantly normal kidney tissue from patients with a normal constitutional karyotype like trisomy 7, 5, 8, 10, 18 and loss of the Y chromosome. These changes are not an in vitro artefact and are independent of the length of cell culture. The presence of clonal and non clonal aberrations in apparantly normal kidney tissue merely indicates a chromosome instability pattern or mosaicism, and this condition should not be considered as strictly neoplastic.
| The most frequently encountered RCC subtype is common or conventional type renal cell cancer characterized by loss of (part of) the short arm of chromosome 3 due to (a) deletion(s) or unbalanced translocation(s). Regions frequently lost are are 3p12-14, 3p21 and 3p25. Loss of at least two of these regions are necessary for kidney cells to develop into common type renal cell carcinoma, and loss of 3p21 is obligatory. Therefore, if a tumor shows only one deletion at 3p, either 3p14 or 3p25, it should be designated common type renal cell adenomas.|
Other aberrations frequently found incommon RCC are (partial) trisomy of chromosome 5, especially the 5q22-qter segment. Trisomy 12, and 20, and loss of chromosomes 8, 9, 13q, 14q, and structural abnormalities of the long arm of chromosomes 6 and 10 are also found and correlated with progression.
Most papillary renal adenomas and carcinomas are characterized by a unique combination of autosomal trisomies with trisomy 17. Papillary adenomas specifically show a -Y,+7,+17 chromosomal pattern as well as trisomy 3 or gain of the long arm of chromosome 3, probably reflecting malignant transformation. Trisomy of chromosomes 12, 16, 20 as well as loss of the extra copy of chromosome 17 or loss of 17p are associated with progression from the adenoma into the carcinoma stage, i.e. papillary renal cell carcinomas. The high incidence of loss of the Y chromosome combined with the strong male preponderance suggests that loss of specific sequences harboured on the Y chromosome probably is important for developing this subtype.
A small subset of papillary RCC is characterized by X; autosome translocations. The t(X;1)(p11.2;q21), resulting in a fusion of the transcription factor TFE3 on the X chromosome, with a novel gene, designated PRCC, on chromosome 1, appears to be a specific primary anomaly characterizing a distinct subgroup of papillary RCC with common RCC like features as clear cytoplasma. These tumors occur preferentially in young (male) adults and children.
Metanephric adenoma or adenofibroma shows gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 with Y chromosome loss suggesting a relationship with papillary renal cell adenomas and carcinomas.
In renal oncocytoma several genetic subsets can be distinghuished: one with mixed populations of normal and abnormal karyotypes without any cytogenetic similarity (yet), a group defined by (variant) translocations involving 11q13, and one with specifically defined numerical anomalies, in particular loss of chromosomes 1, and Y/X.
The finding of mitochondrial DNA changes and the loss of Y/X in both renal oncocytoma and chromophobe carcinoma might indicate progression from renal oncocytoma to chromophobe renal cell carcinomas through additional chromosome losses, also explaining the occasionally malignant behavior of renal oncocytomas.
Chromophobe renal carcinomas show multiple losses of entire chromosomes, i.e. loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, 21, and the Y or X chromosome, leading to a low chromosome number.
Collecting duct carcinomas do not show consistent chromosomal abnormalities as yet: probably involvement of the short arm of chromosome 8 related to poor prognosis and loss of the long arm of chromosome 13 as well as loss of part of the long arm of chromosome 1q32.
Sarcomatoid transformation in RCC represents the highest form of dedifferentiation and can in principle be derived from all the basic cell types. Cytogenetic data on sarcomatoid RCC is scarce: some show structural abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 16, and 19 and losses of 3p, 4(q), 6q, 8p, 9, 13, 14, 17p, and gain of 5, 12, and 20 as well as TP53 mutations.
|Genes involved and Proteins|
|Note|| The most frequent occurring RCC is common RCC characterized by loss of (part) of the short arm of chromosome 3 due to a deletion or unbalanced translocation and restricted to this type. Until today no tumor suppressor gene responsible for, or at least contributing to, cRCC has been identified -except for VHL-, in the different regions, although many candidate genes have been suggested such as FHIT(fragile histidine triad); TTRC1 (two-three-renal-cancer-1); DUTT1 (deleted in U-twenty twenty); locus NCR-1 (nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma 1) and RASSF1A (RAS association family 1).|
In papillary RCC, the TP53 gene most likely does not play an important role, since no mutations of TP53 have been observed in this subtype. Microsatellite analysis revealed allelic duplications a.o. at 20q11.2 and 20q13.2 suggesting new tumor genes in papillary renal carcinoma. The MET proto oncogene, assigned to 7q31 and encoding the hepatocyte growth factor receptor/scatter factor implicated in the proliferation and invasiveness, has been found mutated in germline and somatic mutations in papillary renal tumors.
Loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 8p or 9p provide prognostic significance in patients with locally advanced cRCC.
PTEN/MMAC1 (chromosome 10) inactivation may play a role in the progression of cRCC.
|To be noted|
|Animal model Eker rats with a germline inactivation of the TSC-2 tumor suppressor gene, develop RCC. Using this model, it was found that overexpression of transforming growth factor a is an early event in the development of RCC as it is seen in dysplasia and adenomas.|
|Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)|
|Tumors of the kidney, bladder, and related urinary structures.|
|Murphy WM, Beckwith JB, Farrow GM|
|Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC. 1994.|
|Motzer RJ, Bander NH, Nanus DM|
|The New England journal of medicine. 1996 ; 335 (12) : 865-875.|
|The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours.|
|Kovacs G, Akhtar M, Beckwith BJ, Bugert P, Cooper CS, Delahunt B, Eble JN, Fleming S, Ljungberg B, Medeiros LJ, Moch H, Reuter VE, Ritz E, Roos G, Schmidt D, Srigley JR, Strkel S, van den Berg E, Zbar B|
|The Journal of pathology. 1997 ; 183 (2) : 131-133.|
|Classification of renal cell carcinoma: Workgroup No. 1. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC).|
|Strkel S, Eble JN, Adlakha K, Amin M, Blute ML, Bostwick DG, Darson M, Delahunt B, Iczkowski K|
|Cancer. 1997 ; 80 (5) : 987-989.|
|Involvement of multiple loci on chromosome 3 in renal cell cancer development.|
|van den Berg A, Buys CH|
|Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1997 ; 19 (2) : 59-76.|
|Normal FHIT transcripts in renal cell cancer- and lung cancer-derived cell lines, including a cell line with a homozygous deletion in the FRA3B region.|
|van den Berg A, Draaijers TG, Kok K, Timmer T, Van der Veen AY, Veldhuis PM, de Leij L, Gerhartz CD, Naylor SL, Smith DI, Buys CH|
|Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1997 ; 19 (4) : 220-227.|
|Cytogenetic classification of renal cell cancer.|
|van den Berg E, Dijkhuizen T, Oosterhuis JW, Geurts van Kessel A, de Jong B, Strkel S|
|Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1997 ; 95 (1) : 103-107.|
|Classification of renal cell cancer based on (cyto)genetic analysis.|
|van den Berg E, Dijkhuizen T|
|Contributions to nephrology. 1999 ; 128 : 51-61.|
|Combined LOH/CGH analysis proves the existence of interstitial 3p deletions in renal cell carcinoma.|
|Alimov A, Kost-Alimova M, Liu J, Li C, Bergerheim U, Imreh S, Klein G, Zabarovsky ER|
|Oncogene. 2000 ; 19 (11) : 1392-1399.|
|Precancerous lesions in the kidney.|
|Van Poppel H, Nilsson S, Algaba F, Bergerheim U, Dal Cin P, Fleming S, Hellsten S, Kirkali Z, Klotz L, Lindblad P, Ljungberg B, Mulders P, Roskams T, Ross RK, Walker C, Wers§ll P|
|Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. Supplementum. 2000 : 136-165.|
|Identification and classification of differentially expressed genes in renal cell carcinoma by expression profiling on a global human 31,500-element cDNA array.|
|Boer JM, Huber WK, Sºltmann H, Wilmer F, von Heydebreck A, Haas S, Korn B, Gunawan B, Vente A, Fºzesi L, Vingron M, Poustka A|
|Genome research. 2001 ; 11 (11) : 1861-1870.|
|The candidate tumor suppressor gene, RASSF1A, from human chromosome 3p21.3 is involved in kidney tumorigenesis.|
|Dreijerink K, Braga E, Kuzmin I, Geil L, Duh FM, Angeloni D, Zbar B, Lerman MI, Stanbridge EJ, Minna JD, Protopopov A, Li J, Kashuba V, Klein G, Zabarovsky ER|
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 ; 98 (13) : 7504-7509.|
|The genetic basis of renal epithelial tumors: advances in research and its impact on prognosis and therapy.|
|Phillips JL, Pavlovich CP, Walther M, Ried T, Linehan WM|
|Current opinion in urology. 2001 ; 11 (5) : 463-469.|
|Gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: gene identification and prognostic classification.|
|Takahashi M, Rhodes DR, Furge KA, Kanayama H, Kagawa S, Haab BB, Teh BT|
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 ; 98 (17) : 9754-9759.|
|Expression profiling of renal epithelial neoplasms: a method for tumor classification and discovery of diagnostic molecular markers.|
|Young AN, Amin MB, Moreno CS, Lim SD, Cohen C, Petros JA, Marshall FF, Neish AS|
|The American journal of pathology. 2001 ; 158 (5) : 1639-1651.|
|Renal cancer: cytogenetic and molecular genetic aspects.|
|American journal of medical genetics. 2002 ; 115 (3) : 164-172.|
|Genetic progression of renal cell carcinoma.|
|Moch H, Mihatsch MJ|
|Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 2002 ; 441 (4) : 320-327.|
|Molecular genetics and histopathologic features of adult distal nephron tumors.|
|Polascik TJ, Bostwick DG, Cairns P|
|Urology. 2002 ; 60 (6) : 941-946.|
|Allelic loss on chromosomes 8 and 9 correlates with clinical outcome in locally advanced clear cell carcinoma of the kidney.|
|Presti JC Jr, Wilhelm M, Reuter V, Russo P, Motzer R, Waldman F|
|The Journal of urology. 2002 ; 167 (3) : 1464-1468.|
|Intragenic PTEN/MMAC1 loss of heterozygosity in conventional (clear-cell) renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor patient prognosis.|
|Velickovic M, Delahunt B, McIver B, Grebe SK|
|Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc. 2002 ; 15 (5) : 479-485.|
|Hereditary renal cancers.|
|Choyke PL, Glenn GM, Walther MM, Zbar B, Linehan WM|
|Radiology. 2003 ; 226 (1) : 33-46.|
|REVIEW articles||automatic search in PubMed|
|Last year publications||automatic se arch in PubMed|
|Written||06-2003||Eva van den Berg, Stephan Storkel|
|This paper should be referenced as such :|
|van den Berg E, Storkel S . Kidney: Renal cell carcino. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. June 2003 .|
|URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/RenalCellCarcinID5021.html|
The various updated versions of this paper are referenced and archived by INIST as such :
|http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/2042/37998/1/06-2003-RenalCellCarcinID5021.pdf [ Bibliographic record ]|
|© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology||indexed on : Mon Dec 2 18:01:18 CET 2013|
For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us