MIR22 (microRNA 22)

2012-04-01   Juanjuan Zhu , Yongge Wu , Xiaofei Zheng 

Jiling university,Changchun 130012, PR China (JZ, YW); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, PR China (JZ, XZ)




Atlas Image
Figure1. A. Stem-loop structure of miR-22. B. Genomic localization of miR-22 (MIRN22), miR-22HG (MIRN22HG) on chromosomal band 17p13.3.


Mir-22 was originally identified in HeLa cells (an immortal cell line derived from cervical cancer cells), but was later found to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. The gene encoding miR-22 is found on the short arm of chromosome 17, in a minimal loss of heterozygosity region.


In general,the microRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II, whereas RNA polymerase III is also responsible for transcription of some other microRNAs.
Pre-microRNA 22 (Precursor microRNA)
- Accession: MI0000078.
- Length: 85 bp.
- Sequence:
Mature miR-22
Accession: MIMAT0000077.
Length: 22 nucleotides.


No pseudogenes were reported for mir-22.



MicroRNAs are not translated into amino acids.

Implicated in

Entity name
Breast carcinoma
Recently, researchers have found that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play important roles in cancer development. After verification in many clinical samples, among all the miRNAs, there is a significantly inverse association between the miR-22 level and ERα protein expression. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are composed of a group of ligand-activated nuclear receptors that regulate diverse gene expression and are implicated in cancers by stimulating cell proliferation and tumor growth. All experimental data demonstrate that ERα is a direct target of miR-22. Taken together, it indicates that miR-22 is frequently downregulated in ERα-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Because ERα expression level is routinely detected in breast cancer samples as a prognostic marker, that miR-22 is directly involved in the regulation of ERα may be one of the mechanisms through which miR-22 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The expression of the tumor suppressor miR-22 is consistently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cells. Oncogenes ERBB3, CDC25C and EVI-1 are abundant in metastatic breast cells. Introduction of miR-22 reduces the level of ERBB3 and EVI-1 as well as phosphor-AKT, an EVI-1 downstream target. It suggests that metastatic cancer cells increase specific oncogenic signaling factors through downregulating of miRNA.
Entity name
Ovarian cancer
miR-22 level is decreased in ovarian cancer cells which have high invasiveness. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function study display a negative effect of miR-22 on cell invasion and migration in vitro. Bioinformatics analyses show that miR-22 may regulate multiple pro-metastatic genes. Particularly, Tiam1 is a direct target of miR-22. Alteration of miR-22 expression level has a negative regulatory effect on Tiam1 protein level and mRNA level. Taken together, all findings suggest that miR-22 might be involved in inhibiting ovarian cancer metastasis, probably by targeting Tiam1.
Entity name
Hepatocellular carcinoma
In present study, a functional role of miR-22 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has been identified. It exists in a large proportion of HCC tissues that miR-22 level is downregulated. Epigenetic alternations in cancer often mediate the deregulation of tumor suppressors or oncogenes, and HDAC4 expression targeted by miR-22 may further aggravate the epigenetic changes in HCC. In vivo and in vitro, the anti-tumor effect of miR-22 in HCC is validated. Restoration of miR-22 expression suppresses cell proliferation and tumourigenicity. In addition to HDAC4, miR-22 can also repress Max expression and cell cycle progression regulated by Myc-Max complex. Thus, accumulation of all targets of miR-22 constitutes the phenotype of miR-22 restoration in HCC. Furthermore, miR-22 may have considerable potential in identification of HCC and therapy for HCC.
Entity name
Tumor suppressor
Oncogenic c-Myc can modulate the expression of a subset of miRNAs, including miR-22, conversely, miR-22 represses the c-Myc-binding protein MYCBP, a positive regulator of c-Myc. MYCBP is a direct target of miR-22. Moreover, repression of MYCBP by miR-22 downregulates a subset of E-box-containing c-Myc target genes.
Entity name
Cellular senescence
Generally, it is believed that microRNA is associated with cell proliferation, cell differentiation and other biological phenomena. MicroRNA will increase when the aged normal cells stop dividing. Aging extent of cancer cell is suppressed when miR22 is added into cultured breast and cervical cancer cells. It is also found that metastasis of breast cancer is controlled in mouse experiments. Cell aging is a self-defense mechanism which prevents development of cancer in organism. Cell aging will be interfered when microRNA decreases, thus, it promoting cancer cytogenesis. However, aging process in organism restores after addition of miR22, and then proliferation of cancer cell is inhibited.


Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
223280832012MicroRNA-22 is induced by vitamin D and contributes to its antiproliferative, antimigratory and gene regulatory effects in colon cancer cells.Alvarez-Díaz S et al
217502002011miR-22 promotes HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma development in males.Jiang R et al
222131902013Role of epigenetic and miR-22 and miR-29b alterations in the downregulation of Mat1a and Mthfr genes in early preneoplastic livers in rats induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene.Koturbash I et al
211681262011Human microRNAs miR-22, miR-138-2, miR-148a, and miR-488 are associated with panic disorder and regulate several anxiety candidate genes and related pathways.Muiños-Gimeno M et al
222319062012Circulating microRNAs involved in multiple sclerosis.Siegel SR et al
219139902012Profiling of immune-related microRNA expression in human cord blood and adult peripheral blood cells upon proinflammatory stimulation.Takahashi N et al
221662142012MicroRNA-22 promotes cell survival upon UV radiation by repressing PTEN.Tan G et al
215659792011Tumor suppressor miR-22 determines p53-dependent cellular fate through post-transcriptional regulation of p21.Tsuchiya N et al
205629182010Tumor-suppressive microRNA-22 inhibits the transcription of E-box-containing c-Myc target genes by silencing c-Myc binding protein.Xiong J et al
201808432010An estrogen receptor alpha suppressor, microRNA-22, is downregulated in estrogen receptor alpha-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples.Xiong J et al
223001382012Emerging roles of microRNA-22 in human disease and normal physiology.Xiong J et al
216185272012Attenuation of microRNA-22 derepressed PTEN to effectively protect rat cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy.Xu XD et al
216297732011MicroRNA-22 regulates hypoxia signaling in colon cancer cells.Yamakuchi M et al
208421132010microRNA-22, downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlated with prognosis, suppresses cell proliferation and tumourigenicity.Zhang J et al
215671362012Identification of suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of circulating microRNAs in hepatitis B virus-infected patients.Zhu HT et al
219200432011Overexpression of members of the microRNA-183 family is a risk factor for lung cancer: a case control study.Zhu W et al

Other Information

Locus ID:

NCBI: 407004
MIM: 612077
HGNC: 31599
Ensembl: ENSG00000283824


dbSNP: 407004
ClinVar: 407004
TCGA: ENSG00000283824



Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
238277112013The oncogenic microRNA miR-22 targets the TET2 tumor suppressor to promote hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and transformation.120
194145982009miR-22 inhibits estrogen signaling by directly targeting the estrogen receptor alpha mRNA.80
223759432012Upregulation of miR-22 promotes osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by repressing HDAC6 protein expression.71
201808432010An estrogen receptor alpha suppressor, microRNA-22, is downregulated in estrogen receptor alpha-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples.62
205629182010Tumor-suppressive microRNA-22 inhibits the transcription of E-box-containing c-Myc target genes by silencing c-Myc binding protein.58
205237232010miR-22 forms a regulatory loop in PTEN/AKT pathway and modulates signaling kinetics.55
206335282010miR-122-induced down-regulation of HO-1 negatively affects miR-122-mediated suppression of HBV.52
215659792011Tumor suppressor miR-22 determines p53-dependent cellular fate through post-transcriptional regulation of p21.51
249066242014A regulatory loop involving miR-22, Sp1, and c-Myc modulates CD147 expression in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.51
210575392011Control of EVI-1 oncogene expression in metastatic breast cancer cells through microRNA miR-22.48


Juanjuan Zhu ; Yongge Wu ; Xiaofei Zheng

MIR22 (microRNA 22)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012-04-01

Online version: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/gene/51495/mir22-(microrna-22)