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OOEP (Oocyte expressed protein)

Written2019-03Luigi Cristiano
Aesthetic and medical biotechnologies research unit, Prestige, Terranuova Bracciolini, Italy; prestige.infomed@gmail.com; luigicristiano@libero.it

Abstract Oocyte expressed protein, alias OOEP, is a component of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that play its roles in oocytes and in early stages of embryogenesis. In this review it is done an insight on its DNA, its RNA, its protein encoded and on the diseases where OOEP is involved.

Keywords OOEP; Oocyte expressed protein; subcortical maternal complex, SCMC, embryogenesis, zygote

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesC6orf156
chromosome 6 open reading frame 156
oocyte expressed protein homolog (dog)
Alias_symbol (synonym)Em:AC019205.2
KHDC2
Other aliasFactor Located in Oocytes Permitting Embryonic Development
FLOPED
HOEP19
KH homology domain containing 2
KH homology domain-containing protein 2
KH Homology Domain Containing 2
oocyte and embryo protein 19
oocyte- and embryo-specific protein 19
oocyte-expressed protein homolog
MOEP19
OEP19
HGNC (Hugo) OOEP
LocusID (NCBI) 441161
Atlas_Id 71121
Location 6q13  [Link to chromosome band 6q13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 73368557 and ends at 73369792 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping OOEP.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
EEF1G/OOEP

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure. 1. OOEP gene, transcript and splicing variants/isoforms. The figure shows the locus on chromosome 6 of the OOEP gene, its transcript and its alternative splicing/isoforms (blue). The primary transcript is OOEP-201 mRNA (orange), but also EEF1G-202/203 variants seem be able to codify a protein (reworked from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1937; http://grch37.ensembl.org; www.genecards.org)
Description OOEP, alias oocyte expressed protein, is a protein coding gene that starts at 73,368,555 nt and ends at 73,369,792nnt from qter and with a length of 1238 bp. The current reference sequence is NC_000006.12 and contain 3 exons. It is proximal to KHDC3L (KH domain containing 3 like, subcortical maternal complex member) gene and to RPL39P3 (ribosomal protein L39 pseudogene 3) gene. Around the genomic locus of OOEP take place different promoter or enhancer transcriptional elements. Two strong elements are closer to the sequence of OOEP gene and are located at +0.3 kb and at -27.3 kb respectively.
Transcription OOEP transcript is 689 bp long with a reference sequence reported in GeneBank as NM_001080507. It lacks the 5' UTR, the CDS is extended from 1 to 450 nt and the 3' UTR is extended in the remaining part of the sequence, i.e. from 451 to 689 nt.
Splice variants for OOEP was observed: the main reference variant is OOEP (OOEP-201) and the others are OOEP-202 and OOEP-203 (Figure.1). OOEP-202, 1007 nt long, is formed by a fragment of exon 3, by the entire exon 2, it lacks the first exon and gains a forth distant element. OOEP-203, 964 nt long, lacks exons 3 and 1, maintains the entire exon2 and gains another distant element. All three transcript variants encode a protein.
Pseudogene For OOEP are known some pseudogenes that are classified as processed pseudogenes and are listed in Table 1.
GeneGene  nameRefSeqLocusLocationStartEndLenght (nt)
AL499605.1-201  OOEP pseudogene  ENST00000604628.1  1p21.1  Chrom. 1106544342  106544744  403
AL355333.1OOEP pseudogeneENSG00000270234  10p14Chrom. 10  87240108724288279

Table.1 OOEP pseudogenes (reworked from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1937)

Protein

 
  Figure.2 OOEP protein structure. (1) Primary structure of OOEP with emphasis on its main domain; (2) protein-protein interactions in the SCMC complex (reworked from Babbere et al., 2016).
Description The canonical sequence for OOEP protein (RefSeq NP_001073976) counts 149 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 17.17 kDa and a theoretical pI of 6.59. Contains a KH-domain, a typical domain of the type I superfamily of RNA binding proteins (Herr et al., 2008), that could mediate RNA transcript regulation during the oogenesis and early embryogenesis stages.
There are known other two isoforms produced by alternative splicing: the isoform OOEP-202 (UniRef, F2Z364) is formed by 94 residues and has a molecular weight of 10.72 kDa, while the isoform OOEP-203 (UniRef, C9J915) counts 67 amino acids and has 7.70 kDa of molecular weight.
Expression OOEP, as the others factors of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC), is uniquely expressed in mammalian oocytes and in early embryo (Bebbere et al., 2016). However, some authors found mouse OOEP transcripts also in ovary and thymus, although the protein could not be detected. This may suggest that the transcript remains untranslated (Herr et al., 2008) and perhaps plays a regulatory function. The human OOEP mRNA was found in pituitary gland (Herr et al., 2008; Carninci and Hayashizaki, 1999), placenta (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) and testis, where it was overexpressed (https://www.gtexportal.org/home/gene/ENSG00000203907; https://genevisible.com/ tissues/HS/UniProt/A6NGQ2). It was also found in traces in ovary, endometrium, prostate, salivary gland, adrenal, appendix, brain, digestive system and related organs (esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, colon, gall bladder, liver, pancreas), lung, fat cells, heart, spleen, thyroid and urinary bladder (from https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/gene).
Localisation OOEP is located in the cytoplasm.
Function OOEP is a component of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that includes at least other three proteins, i.e. KHDC3L (also known as KH domain containing protein 3, FILIA), NLRP5 (also called Maternal Antigen That Embryo Requires, MATER) and TLE6 (also known as Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 6). These proteins are expressed by maternal effect genes (MEGs) exclusively in oocytes and early embryos and are physically bound together in the SCMC complex. Also only a mutation on one of them, such as TLE6, induces instability of the complex and may be a cause of human female infertility and earliest human embryonic lethality (Bebbere et al., 2016; Alazami et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2015; Bebbere et al., 2014).
OOEP plays an essential role for zygote progression beyond the first embryonic cell divisions (Bebbere et al., 2014) and it is hypotized that it could play a role in the formation/stabilization of the oocyte cytoskeleton, called oocyte cytoplasmic lattices (CPLs) and also it could be involved in the organization and regulation of the translational machinery through the interaction between SCMC complex with other protein and/or protein complexes (Bebbere et al., 2016; Tashiro et al., 2010). In addition, OOEP could be involved in RNA degradation during oocyte maturation and in the early stages of embryogenesis (Wang et al., 2012) and it could be directly or indirectly involved in the binding of the mRNAs and in their correct subcellular localization (Bebbere et al., 2016). In mouse oocytes was found that OOEP may participate in the regulation of genome stability (He et al., 2018), but it is not confirmed in humans yet.
Homology OOEP is highly and abundant conserved in many species and its homology between the species is reported in Table.2
OrganismSpeciesSymbol DNA Similarity (%)  PROT Similarity (%)
HumanH.sapiensOOEP100100
Chimpanzee  P.troglodytes  OOEP 99.3 99.3
MacacoM.mulattaOOEP96.095.3
WolfC.lupusOOEP78.771.8
CattleB.taurusOOEP77.468.6
Mouse M.musculusOOEP68.254.6

Table.2 OOEP homology (reworked from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene?)

Mutations

Note The genomic alterations observed include the formation of novel fusion genes as EEF1G/OOEP (acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma), EXOC2/OOEP (bladder transitional cell carcinoma), FAM19A2/OOEP (breast adenocarcinoma), KHDC1/OOEP, OOEP/ EIF3A, RERE/OOEP (prostate adenocarcinoma) and SENP6/OOEP (prostate adenocarcinoma) (http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org// Bands/6q13.html), however there are no experimental data yet to understand the impact on cellular behaviour and so the implications in cancer of these fusion genes.

Implicated in

Note OOEP is a maternal-effect gene that is expressed in zygote and in early stages of embryo development. It is linked with female infertility, however there is some evidence of its involvement in cancers. We review the diseases in which OOEP gene showed overexpression, upregulation or aberrant fusion with other genes. Anyhow some authors found a downregulation of OOEP in ovarian cancer patient samples (Veskimäe et al., 2018), in colon cancer (Penrose et al., 2019) and in prostate cancer cells (Lu et al., 2015).
  
Entity t(6;11)(q13;q12) EEF1G/OOEP
Disease Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma (Atak et al, 2013)
Hybrid/Mutated Gene T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) affects about 15% of pediatric patients and 25% of adult patients of total ALL cases. It is an agressive tumor characterized by the accumulation of multiple genomic mutations and chromosomal aberrations, such as frequently chromosomal translocations, that bring to the formation of many in-frame fusion genes encoding the respective chimeric and oncogenic proteins (Atak et al., 2013). Among all these chromosomal aberrations it was found also the fusion gene 5' EEF1G / 3' OOEP deriving by the genomic translocation and fusion of a part of OOEP gene, situated on chromosome 6, with a portion of EEF1G gene, located on chromosome 11. This leads to the know but not still well-characterized translocation t(6;11)(q13;q12) EEF1G/OOEP.
  
  
Entity Human female infertility/ early embryo lethality
Disease Aberrant expression of SCMC members, such as OOEP, could compromise the fertility in women but also could be linked to abnormalities in preimplantation embryo development and in early lethality of the human embryos and so cover a significant role both in female inability to get pregnant and in failure of the development of implanted embryo after in vitro reproductive assistance procedures (Bebbere et al., 2016; Alazami et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2008).
To effort these considerations, an experiment in mouse demonstrated that a lack of OOEP gene (OOEP -/- knockout mice) causes complete infertility and disorganization/abnormalities in oocyte cytoplasmic lattices (CPLs). However, Ooep-null mice females grew to adulthood and showed no apparent abnormalities except the infertility (Tashiro et al., 2010).
  
  
Entity Osteosarcoma
Note Some authors found OOEP gene upregulated in osteosarcoma cells (Li et al., 2017).
  
  
Entity Small cell lung carcinoma
Note The expression of OOEP is increased in small cell lung carcinoma (Jiang et al., 2016).
  
  
Entity Testis cancer
Note Some databases reported that the expression of OOEP is increased in testis cancer (https://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000203907-OOEP/pathology; https://genevisible.com/cancers/ HS/UniProt/A6NGQ2) but is not clear if also protein can be displayed.
  
  
Entity Thyroid cancer
Note One database reported high levels for the presence of OOEP protein in thyroid cancer although its expression level in this cancer type was reported to be lower (https://www.proteinatlas.org/ ENSG00000203907-OOEP/pathology).
  

Bibliography

TLE6 mutation causes the earliest known human embryonic lethality
Alazami AM, Awad SM, Coskun S, Al-Hassan S, Hijazi H, Abdulwahab FM, Poizat C, Alkuraya FS
Genome Biol 2015 Nov 5;16:240
PMID 26537248
 
Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome variation uncovers known and novel driver events in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Atak ZK, Gianfelici V, Hulselmans G, De Keersmaecker K, Devasia AG, Geerdens E, Mentens N, Chiaretti S, Durinck K, Uyttebroeck A, Vandenberghe P, Wlodarska I, Cloos J, Foà R, Speleman F, Cools J, Aerts S
PLoS Genet 2013;9(12):e1003997
PMID 24367274
 
Expression of maternally derived KHDC3, NLRP5, OOEP and TLE6 is associated with oocyte developmental competence in the ovine species
Bebbere D, Ariu F, Bogliolo L, Masala L, Murrone O, Fattorini M, Falchi L, Ledda S
BMC Dev Biol 2014 Nov 25;14:40
PMID 25420964
 
The subcortical maternal complex: multiple functions for one biological structure? J Assist Reprod Genet
Bebbere D, Masala L, Albertini DF, Ledda S
2016 Nov;33(11):1431-1438 Epub 2016 Aug 15
PMID 27525657
 
High-efficiency full-length cDNA cloning
Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y
Methods Enzymol 1999;303:19-44
PMID 10349636
 
Maternal gene Ooep may participate in homologous recombination-mediated DNA double-strand break repair in mouse oocytes
He DJ, Wang L, Zhang ZB, Guo K, Li JZ, He XC, Cui QH, Zheng P
Zool Res 2018 Nov 18;39(6):387-395
PMID 29955025
 
Distribution of RNA binding protein MOEP19 in the oocyte cortex and early embryo indicates pre-patterning related to blastomere polarity and trophectoderm specification
Herr JC, Chertihin O, Digilio L, Jha KN, Vemuganti S, Flickinger CJ
Dev Biol 2008 Feb 15;314(2):300-16
PMID 18191828
 
Genomic Landscape Survey Identifies SRSF1 as a Key Oncodriver in Small Cell Lung Cancer
Jiang L, Huang J, Higgs BW, Hu Z, Xiao Z, Yao X, Conley S, Zhong H, Liu Z, Brohawn P, Shen D, Wu S, Ge X, Jiang Y, Zhao Y, Lou Y, Morehouse C, Zhu W, Sebastian Y, Czapiga M, Oganesyan V, Fu H, Niu Y, Zhang W, Streicher K, Tice D, Zhao H, Zhu M, Xu L, Herbst R, Su X, Gu Y, Li S, Huang L, Gu J, Han B, Jallal B, Shen H, Yao Y
PLoS Genet 2016 Apr 19;12(4):e1005895
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Transcriptomic analyses reveal the underlying pro-malignant functions of PTHR1 for osteosarcoma via activation of Wnt and angiogenesis pathways
Li S, Dong Y, Wang K, Wang Z, Zhang X
J Orthop Surg Res 2017 Nov 9;12(1):168
PMID 29121993
 
Messenger RNA profile analysis deciphers new Esrrb responsive genes in prostate cancer cells
Lu Y, Li J, Cheng J, Lubahn DB
BMC Mol Biol 2015 Dec 1;16:21
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Loss of Forkhead Box O3 Facilitates Inflammatory Colon Cancer: Transcriptome Profiling of the Immune Landscape and Novel Targets
Penrose HM, Cable C, Heller S, Ungerleider N, Nakhoul H, Baddoo M, Hartono AB, Lee SB, Burow ME, Flemington EF, Crawford SE, Savkovic SD
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;7(2):391-408
PMID 30718226
 
Maternal-effect gene Ces5/Ooep/Moep19/Floped is essential for oocyte cytoplasmic lattice formation and embryonic development at the maternal-zygotic stage transition
Tashiro F, Kanai-Azuma M, Miyazaki S, Kato M, Tanaka T, Toyoda S, Yamato E, Kawakami H, Miyazaki T, Miyazaki J
Genes Cells 2010 Aug;15(8):813-28
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Expression Analysis of Platinum Sensitive and Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patient Samples Reveals New Candidates for Targeted Therapies
Veskimäe K, Scaravilli M, Niininen W, Karvonen H, Jaatinen S, Nykter M, Visakorpi T, Mäenpæ J, Ungureanu D, Staff S
Transl Oncol 2018 Oct;11(5):1160-1170
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The N-terminus of FILIA forms an atypical KH domain with a unique extension involved in interaction with RNA
Wang J, Xu M, Zhu K, Li L, Liu X
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Expression analysis of the NLRP gene family suggests a role in human preimplantation development
Zhang P, Dixon M, Zucchelli M, Hambiliki F, Levkov L, Hovatta O, Kere J
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Cristiano L
OOEP (Oocyte expressed protein);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/OOEPID71121ch6q13.html


Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  t(6;11)(q13;q12) EEF1G/OOEP


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)OOEP   21382
Cards
AtlasOOEPID71121ch6q13
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)OOEP  441161  oocyte expressed protein
AliasesC6orf156; FLOPED; HOEP19; KHDC2
GeneCards (Weizmann)OOEP
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000203907 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000203907 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000203907 [Sequence]  chr6:73368557-73369792 [Contig_View]  OOEP [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000203907
TCGA cBioPortalOOEP
AceView (NCBI)OOEP
Genatlas (Paris)OOEP
WikiGenes441161
SOURCE (Princeton)OOEP
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)OOEP
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)OOEP  -     chr6:73368557-73369792 -  6q13   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)OOEP  -     6q13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathOOEP - 6q13 [CytoView hg19]  OOEP - 6q13 [CytoView hg38]
ImmunoBaseENSG00000203907
Mapping of homologs : NCBIOOEP [Mapview hg19]  OOEP [Mapview hg38]
OMIM611689   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)BC024931 BX093821 EU290647
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001080507
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)OOEP
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.671212 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.671212
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000203907
Gene ExpressionOOEP [ NCBI-GEO ]   OOEP [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   OOEP [ SEEK ]   OOEP [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)OOEP [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)441161
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)OOEP
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000203907-OOEP [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtA6NGQ2   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtA6NGQ2  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProA6NGQ2
Splice isoforms : SwissVarA6NGQ2
PhosPhoSitePlusA6NGQ2
Domains : Interpro (EBI)MOEP19_KH-like   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)MOEP19 (PF16005)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam16005   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)OOEP
DMDM Disease mutations441161
Blocks (Seattle)OOEP
SuperfamilyA6NGQ2
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000203907-OOEP [tissue]
Peptide AtlasA6NGQ2
IPIIPI00455726   IPI00892661   IPI00852876   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)A6NGQ2
IntAct (EBI)A6NGQ2
FunCoupENSG00000203907
BioGRIDOOEP
STRING (EMBL)OOEP
ZODIACOOEP
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOA6NGQ2
Ontology : AmiGOin utero embryonic development  RNA binding  cell cortex  protein phosphorylation  embryo implantation  fertilization  embryonic pattern specification  establishment or maintenance of apical/basal cell polarity  protein complex  cellular protein complex assembly  apical part of cell  
Ontology : EGO-EBIin utero embryonic development  RNA binding  cell cortex  protein phosphorylation  embryo implantation  fertilization  embryonic pattern specification  establishment or maintenance of apical/basal cell polarity  protein complex  cellular protein complex assembly  apical part of cell  
NDEx NetworkOOEP
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkOOEP
Wikipedia pathwaysOOEP
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB441161
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000203907
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamOOEP
HOGENOMA6NGQ2
Homologs : HomoloGeneOOEP
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)OOEP
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion PortalKHDC1 OOEP
Fusion PortalSENP6 OOEP
Fusion : Fusion_HubEXOC2--OOEP    FAM19A2--OOEP    KHDC1--OOEP    OOEP--EIF3A    OOEP--KRT8    RERE--OOEP    SENP6--OOEP   
Fusion : QuiverOOEP
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerOOEP [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)OOEP
dbVarOOEP
ClinVarOOEP
1000_GenomesOOEP 
Exome Variant ServerOOEP
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000203907
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000203907
Varsome BrowserOOEP
Genetic variants : HAPMAP441161
Genomic Variants (DGV)OOEP [DGVbeta]
DECIPHEROOEP [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisOOEP 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalOOEP 
TCGA Data PortalOOEP 
Broad Tumor PortalOOEP
OASIS PortalOOEP [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICOOEP  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDOOEP
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch OOEP
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)OOEP
DoCM (Curated mutations)OOEP (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)OOEP (select a term)
intoGenOOEP
Cancer3DOOEP(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM611689   
Orphanet
DisGeNETOOEP
MedgenOOEP
Genetic Testing Registry OOEP
NextProtA6NGQ2 [Medical]
TSGene441161
GENETestsOOEP
Target ValidationOOEP
Huge Navigator OOEP [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease441161
BioCentury BCIQOOEP
ClinGenOOEP
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD441161
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA162398414
Clinical trialOOEP
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)OOEP (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexOOEP
Probes
Litterature
PubMed3 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineOOEP
EVEXOOEP
GoPubMedOOEP
iHOPOOEP
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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