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TRD (T cell Receptor Delta)

Written2000-07Marie-Paule Lefranc
IMGT, LIGM, IGH, UPR CNRS 1142, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesTCRD
TRD@
Alias_symbol (synonym)TCRDV1
Other aliasTRD@ (T cell Receptor Delta)
HGNC (Hugo) TRD
LocusID (NCBI) 6964
Atlas_Id 279
Location 14q11.2  [Link to chromosome band 14q11]
Location_base_pair Starts at 22422546 and ends at 22466577 bp from pter
 
  for complete Figure, see: chromosome 14, IMGT (The International ImMunoGeneTics information system ®) © Copyright 1995-2017 IMGT, IMGT is a CNRS trademark
Note The TRD locus is embedded in the TRA locus, between the TRAV and TRAJ genes. The orientation of the locus has been determined by the analysis of translocations, involving the TRD locus, in leukemia and lymphoma

DNA/RNA

 
  TRA/TRD
V-GENE: Green box: Functional; Red: Pseudogene.
D-GENE: Blue: Functional.
J-GENE: Yellow: Functional; Pale yellow: Open reading frame; Red: Pseudogene.
C-GENE: Blue: Functional.
for complete Figure, see: locus TRD IMGT (The International ImMunoGeneTics information system ®) © Copyright 1995-2017 IMGT, IMGT is a CNRS trademark
Description
  • The human TRD locus at 14q11.2 comprises a cluster of one TRDV gene (TRDV2), three TRDD segments, and four TRDJ segments, upstream of the unique TRDC gene; another TRDV gene (TRDV3) is localized downstream of the TRDC gene, in inverted orientation of transcription.
  • This cluster spans 60 kb and is localized inside the TRA locus, between the TRAV genes and the TRAJ segments. One TRDV gene (TRDV1) is localized at 360 kb upstream of the TRDC gene, among the TRAV genes. Five variable genes have been found rearranged to both (D)J segments of the TRD locus and TRAJ segments, and can therefore be used for the synthesis of both delta and alpha chains. These genes are described as TRAV/DV.
  • The TRDV genes are unique members of different subgroups. All the TRD genes are functional, with the exception of one TRAV/DV, which has been found either functional or as a pseudogene.
  • Enhancer sequences have been described between the TRDJ3 and the TRDC gene.
  • List of the human TRD genes
  • Protein

    Description
  • Proteins encoded by the TRD locus are the T cell receptor delta chains. They result from the recombination (or rearrangement), at the DNA level, of three genes: TRDV, TRDD and TRDJ, with deletion of the intermediary DNA to create a rearranged TRDV-D-J gene. The rearranged TRDV-D-J gene is transcribed with the TRDC gene and translated into a T cell receptor delta chain.
  • Translation of the variable germline genes involved in the TRDV-D-J rearrangements are available at IMGT Repertoire Protein displays. TRD V-D-J rearrangements can be analysed using the IMGT/V-QUEST tool.
  • Mutations

    Note Mutations which correspond to allelic polymorphisms of the functional germline TRDV, TRDD, TRDJ and TRDC genes are described in the IMGT database: (IMGT Repertoire>Alignments of alleles)

    Implicated in

    Note
      
    Entity Translocations which frequently result from errors of the recombinase enzyme complexe (RAG1, RAG2, etc.), responsable of the Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J rearrangements. TRDV, TRDD or TRDJ recombination signals or isolated heptamer are frequently observed at the breakpoints.
      
      
    Entity t(1;14)(p32;q11); involve TAL1 in 1p32
    Prognosis median survival > 5 yrs in children
      
      
    Entity t(8;14)(q24;q11); involve MYC in 8q24
    Disease T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL); rare
      
      
    Entity t(10;14)(q24;q11); involve HOX11 in 10q24
    Disease T- cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
    Prognosis not unfavourable
      
      
    Entity t(11;14)(p13;q11); involve RBTN2 in 11p13
    Disease T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
      
      
    Entity t(11;14)(p15;q11); involve RBTN1 in 11p15
    Disease T-cell Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
      
      
    Entity t(14;14)(q11;q32), inv(14)(q11q32); involve TCL1 in 14q32
    Disease T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma
    Prognosis poor
      

    Breakpoints

     

    Bibliography

    Locus Map and Genomic repertoire of the Human Immunoglobulin Genes (Review)
    Lefranc MP
    The immunologist,. 2000.
     
    The T cell Receptor FactsBook (Review)
    Lefranc M-P and Lefranc G
    Academic Press, London, UK (398 pages), 2001. ISBN: 124413528
     

    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Lefranc, MP
    TRD (T cell receptor delta)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2000;4(3):121-122.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/TCRDID279.html


    Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 14 ]
      t(10;14)(q24;q11) TLX1/TRD::t(7;10)(q34;q24) TRB/HOX11
    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL)
    t(7;14)(q35;q32.1) TRB/TCL1A::inv(14)(q11q32.1) TRA-TRD/TCL1A::t(14;14)(q11;q32.1) TRA-TRD/TCL1A
    t(5;14)(q35;q11) RANBP17 (or TLX3)/TRD
    t(5;14)(q35;q11) TRD/NKX2-5
    t(5;14)(q35;q32.2) BCL11B/TLX3 and NKX2-5
    t(6;14)(p25.3;q11.2) TRA/IRF4
    t(7;12)(q34;p13) TRB/CCND2::t(12;14)(p13;q11) TRA or TRD/CCND2
    t(7;14)(p15;q11) TRD/HOXA10
    t(8;14)(q24;q11) TRA/MYC
    t(11;14)(p15;q11) TRD/LMO1
    t(14;14)(q11;q32) CEBPE/IGH::inv(14)(q11q32) CEBPE/IGH
    T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)
    T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukaemia


    External links

    Nomenclature
    HGNC (Hugo)TRD   12252
    Cards
    AtlasTCRDID279
    Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TRD  6964  T-cell receptor delta locus
    AliasesTCRD; TCRDV1; TRD@
    GeneCards (Weizmann)TRD
    Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton) [Gene_View]
    Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton) [Gene_View]  chr14:22422546-22466577 [Contig_View]  TRD [Vega]
    TCGA cBioPortalTRD
    AceView (NCBI)TRD
    Genatlas (Paris)TRD
    WikiGenes6964
    SOURCE (Princeton)TRD
    Genetics Home Reference (NIH)TRD
    Genomic and cartography
    GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)TRD  -     chr14:22422546-22466577 14q11.2  hg19-Feb_2009   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
    GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)TRD  -     hg19-Feb_2009   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
    EnsemblTRD - hg19-Feb_2009 [CytoView hg19]  TRD - hg19-Feb_2009 [CytoView hg38]
    Mapping of homologs : NCBITRD [Mapview hg19]  TRD [Mapview hg38]
    Gene and transcription
    Genbank (Entrez)-
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
    RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
    Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TRD
    Gene ExpressionTRD [ NCBI-GEO ]   TRD [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   TRD [ SEEK ]   TRD [ MEM ]
    Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)TRD [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
    SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)6964
    GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)TRD
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Conserved Domain (NCBI)TRD
    DMDM Disease mutations6964
    Blocks (Seattle)TRD
    Protein Interaction databases
    BioGRIDTRD
    STRING (EMBL)TRD
    ZODIACTRD
    Ontologies - Pathways
    Huge Navigator TRD [HugePedia]
    snp3D : Map Gene to Disease6964
    BioCentury BCIQTRD
    ClinGenTRD
    Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
    Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD6964
    Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA36932
    Clinical trialTRD
    Miscellaneous
    canSAR (ICR)TRD (select the gene name)
    Other databaseTRD@ - IMGT
    Probes
    Litterature
    PubMed54 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
    GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
    CoreMineTRD
    EVEXTRD
    GoPubMedTRD
    iHOPTRD
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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    indexed on : Mon Sep 18 17:15:57 CEST 2017

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