Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

AR (Androgen Receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease))

Identity

Other namesAIS
DHTR
HUMARA
KD
NR3C4
RP11-383C12.1
SBMA
SMAX1
TFM
HGNC (Hugo) AR
LocusID (NCBI) 367
Location Xq12
Location_base_pair Starts at 66763874 and ends at 66950461 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
 
  Probe(s) - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics
Note (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease). (1 copy in males; 1 functional copy/cell in females due to X-inactivation).

DNA/RNA

Description 180 kb gene consisting of 8 exons
Transcription 4,314 bp mRNA, 2,762 bp open reading frame

Protein

 
  Layout of the AR gene, mRNA and protein with indicated regulatory regions. Borrowed from Litvinov, et al. 2003, with permission.
Description 919 amino acids (NCBI: P10275), MW = 99,187.57 daltons; -1.5 charge with an isoelectric pt = 6.3797; 10.6 kb AR transcript (NCBI: NM_000044 - partial sequence): 1.1kb 5' Untranslated Region (UTR) followed by the 2.7 kb Open Reading Frame (ORF) followed by the 6.8kb 3' UTR.
AR: AR isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_000035 920 aa
AR45: AR isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_001011645 388 aa
The AR coding sequence contains variable poly-aminoacid repeats in the amino-terminal domain:
1. poly-glutamine (CAG: Glu-Q): avg 22 repeats with normal polymorphic range from 8 to 35, shorter (<18) associated with increased AR transactivation and prostate cancer risk. CAG repeats in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients range from 38 to 62.
2. poly-proline (Pro-P): avg 8.
3. poly-glycine (GGC: Gly-G): avg 23, with normal range from 10 to 31.
Expression Embryonic tissue, prostate, testis, liver, eye, kidney, adrenal glands, thyroid, heart, breast/mammary gland, uterus, skeletal muscle, specific regions of the brain (CNS) including spinal and bulbar motor neurons.
Localisation Cytoplasm and nucleus
Function AR is a member of the steroid hormone receptor family of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors. AR functions include gene expression via actions as a DNA-binding transcription factor, cell cycle/proliferation regulation, cell-to-cell signaling, and intracellular signal transduction, leading to the regulation of biological processes such as development, cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Some of the main target genes transcriptionally regulated by AR include AR, prostate specific antigen (PSA/hKlk3), hKlk2, hKlk4, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), cell cycle regulator p27, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TMPRSS2, and Nkx3.1.
Prostate organogenesis: The presence of AR is required in the mesodermal-derived embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme to trigger branching morphogenesis of endodermal-derived epithelial cells in the presence of androgens; subsequent AR expression in the developing epithelium drives secretory protein production. AR also plays an important role in the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, spermatogenesis, hormonal regulation of sexual drive, muscle growth, and male patterning of the brain.
Recent identification of the gene fusion between the 5' end of the AR-regulated serine protease TMPRSS2 (21q22.2) and the 3' end of ETS family of transcription factors ETV1 (7p21.3) and ERG (21q22.3) in a large frequency of prostate cancer cases raises new questions regarding AR function in prostate cancer. The gene rearrangement is thought to result in AR-induced expression of the suspected ETV1 or ERG oncogenes.
Homology zebrafish (Danio rerio), dog (Canis familiaris), African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus), chicken (Gallus gallus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
No similarity-to-human data found for AR for:
pig (Sus scrofa), cow (Bos taurus), fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis), African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea), rice (Oryza sativa), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera), bread mold (Neurospora crassa), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis), amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum), A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii), K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis), medicago trunc (Medicago truncatula), malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum), schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii).

Mutations

Germinal Germ-line loss of function mutations in AR result in non-lethal loss of AR expression, a hallmark of androgen insensitivity syndrome. Individuals with AIS have a Y chromosome and functional testes, which produce high levels of testosterone; however, they lack male sex accessory organs, such as seminal vesicles and prostate, and are thus phenotypically female in both behavior and appearance.
Somatic Various somatic AR mutations have been identified, some of which are associated with prostate cancer, including the T877A mutation in the prostate cancer LNCaP cell line, which permits AR activation by progestins, estrogen, adrenal androgens, and anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide; however, the overall frequency of AR mutations in early, primary prostate cancer is <10%.
Polymorphic CAG repeats in exon 1 encoding a polyglutamine tract of variable length give rise to AR peptides of varying lengths: Shorter length (fewer CAG repeats) is associated with increased prostate cancer risk; increased length (greater CAG repeats) is associated with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and androgen insensitivity syndrome. For a more complete list of identified mutations, please visit http://androgendb.mcgill.ca/map.gif.

Implicated in

Disease Androgenic alopecia, spinal and bulbar muscular dystrophy, androgen insensitivity syndrome due to AR mutations, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate adenocarcinoma
  
Entity Prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa)
Disease PCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. PCa predominantly occurs in the peripheral zone of the human prostate, with roughly 5 to 10% of cases found in the central zone. Disease development involves the temporal and spatial loss of the basal epithelial compartment accompanied by increased proliferation and de-differentiation of the luminal (secretory) epithelial cells. PCa is a slow developing disease that is typically found in men greater than 40 years of age, with an increasing rate of occurrence with increasing age.
Prognosis Serum PSA testing combined with digital-rectal exams (DRE) are used to screen for the presence of disease. Given a positive DRE exam, additional tests including needle core biopsies are taken to histologically assess disease stage and grade. Localized, prostate-restricted disease is theoretically curable with complete removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy). Patients with extra-prostatic disease are treated with chemotherapy, hormone (androgen ablation) therapy, radiation, and/or antiandrogens; however, no curative treatments are available for non-organ confined, metastatic disease.
Cytogenetics Various forms of aneuploidy.
Abnormal Protein Unknown.
Oncogenesis Alterations in AR function are associated with the development of PCa due to a transition from paracrine AR signaling, traditionally involving the supporting mesenchyme instructing the terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelial cells, to autocrine AR signaling in luminal epithelial cells that promotes cell proliferation. Roughly 10% of PCa patients harbor AR mutations, suggesting that the prevalence of AR mutations, clinically, is low. Mutations that increase the signaling promiscuity of AR, AR gene amplification, as well as alterations in proteins that regulate AR levels/function contribute to de-regulated AR signaling.
  
Entity Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Disease Benign growth of the prostate, primarily occurring in the transitional zone of the prostate, results in urinary obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. AR function is associated with increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation, leading to increased size of the prostate gland. Originally thought of as benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH has since been correctly characterized as a hyperplastic condition.
Prognosis Patients with BPH are primarily treated with 2 types of agents to help reduce the size of the prostate, including Alpha-blockers: Flomax (tamsulosin), Uroxatral (alfuzosin), Hytrin (terazosin), Cardura (doxazosin); and 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Avodart (dutasteride), Proscar (finasteride). For symptoms unabated by medications, minimally invasive procedures: Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT) and Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) exist. More invasive surgeries: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), Open prostatectomy (open surgery), Laser surgery, Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) are available.
Oncogenesis Occurring in the transitional zone of the prostate, it is currently believed that BPH does not lead to or initiate the development of PCa.
  
Entity Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy
Note X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy
Disease Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, SMAX1), which is also known as Kennedy disease (KD), is caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the AR gene, resulting in decreased AR mRNA and protein levels. SBMA patients carry 38 to 62 CAG repeats; healthy individuals have 10 to 36.
Prognosis SBMA is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in slow, progressive limb and bulbar muscle weakness, characterized by muscle atrophy due to neuron dysfunction. Also can cause gynecomastia. Current therapies include androgen deprivation therapy to curb the effects of pathologic AR signaling.
  
Entity Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
Note X-linked recessive disorder
Disease Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), Testicular feminization syndrome (TFM). Affected males have female external genitalia, female breast development, blind vagina, absent uterus and female adnexa, and abdominal or inguinal testes, despite a normal male (2A + XY) karyotype. Caused by mutations in the gene for the androgen receptor.
  

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

Leukemias 11q23ChildAMLID1615 11q23ID1030

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

Solid Tumors AmeloblastomID5945 MedulloblastomaID5065 rhab5004 rhabID5004

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)AR   644
Cards
AtlasARID685chXq12
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)AR  367  androgen receptor
GeneCards (Weizmann)AR
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000169083 [Gene_View]  chrX:66763874-66950461 [Contig_View]  AR [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000169083
cBioPortalAR
AceView (NCBI)AR
Genatlas (Paris)AR
WikiGenes367
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_000044 NM_001011645
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)AR  -  Xq12   chrX:66763874-66950461 +  Xq12   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblAR - Xq12 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIAR [Mapview]
OMIM176807   300068   300633   312300   313200   313700   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF162704 AF321914 AF321915 AF321916 AF321917
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_000044 NM_001011645
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000155 NC_000023 NC_018934 NG_009014 NT_011651 NW_001842373 NW_004929443
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)AR
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.76704 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.76704
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0031585
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000169083
Gene ExpressionAR [ NCBI-GEO ]     AR [ SEEK ]   AR [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP10275 (Uniprot)
NextProtP10275  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProP10275
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP10275 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)NUCLEAR_REC_DBD_1 (PS00031)    NUCLEAR_REC_DBD_2 (PS51030)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Andrgn_rcpt [organisation]   Nucl_hormone_rcpt_ligand-bd [organisation]   Nucl_hrmn_rcpt_lig-bd_core [organisation]   Znf_hrmn_rcpt [organisation]   Znf_NHR/GATA [organisation]  
Related proteins : CluSTrP10275
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Androgen_recep (PF02166)    Hormone_recep (PF00104)    zf-C4 (PF00105)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam02166    pfam00104    pfam00105   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HOLI (SM00430)  ZnF_C4 (SM00399)  
DMDM Disease mutations367
Blocks (Seattle)P10275
PDB (SRS)1E3G    1GS4    1T5Z    1T63    1T65    1XJ7    1XOW    1XQ3    1Z95    2AM9    2AMA    2AMB    2AO6    2AX6    2AX7    2AX8    2AX9    2AXA    2HVC    2OZ7    2PIO    2PIP    2PIQ    2PIR    2PIT    2PIU    2PIV    2PIW    2PIX    2PKL    2PNU    2Q7I    2Q7J    2Q7K    2Q7L    2YHD    2YLO    2YLP    2YLQ    2Z4J    3B5R    3B65    3B66    3B67    3B68    3BTR    3L3X    3L3Z    3RLJ    3RLL    3V49    3V4A    3ZQT    4HLW    4K7A   
PDB (PDBSum)1E3G    1GS4    1T5Z    1T63    1T65    1XJ7    1XOW    1XQ3    1Z95    2AM9    2AMA    2AMB    2AO6    2AX6    2AX7    2AX8    2AX9    2AXA    2HVC    2OZ7    2PIO    2PIP    2PIQ    2PIR    2PIT    2PIU    2PIV    2PIW    2PIX    2PKL    2PNU    2Q7I    2Q7J    2Q7K    2Q7L    2YHD    2YLO    2YLP    2YLQ    2Z4J    3B5R    3B65    3B66    3B67    3B68    3BTR    3L3X    3L3Z    3RLJ    3RLL    3V49    3V4A    3ZQT    4HLW    4K7A   
PDB (IMB)1E3G    1GS4    1T5Z    1T63    1T65    1XJ7    1XOW    1XQ3    1Z95    2AM9    2AMA    2AMB    2AO6    2AX6    2AX7    2AX8    2AX9    2AXA    2HVC    2OZ7    2PIO    2PIP    2PIQ    2PIR    2PIT    2PIU    2PIV    2PIW    2PIX    2PKL    2PNU    2Q7I    2Q7J    2Q7K    2Q7L    2YHD    2YLO    2YLP    2YLQ    2Z4J    3B5R    3B65    3B66    3B67    3B68    3BTR    3L3X    3L3Z    3RLJ    3RLL    3V49    3V4A    3ZQT    4HLW    4K7A   
PDB (RSDB)1E3G    1GS4    1T5Z    1T63    1T65    1XJ7    1XOW    1XQ3    1Z95    2AM9    2AMA    2AMB    2AO6    2AX6    2AX7    2AX8    2AX9    2AXA    2HVC    2OZ7    2PIO    2PIP    2PIQ    2PIR    2PIT    2PIU    2PIV    2PIW    2PIX    2PKL    2PNU    2Q7I    2Q7J    2Q7K    2Q7L    2YHD    2YLO    2YLP    2YLQ    2Z4J    3B5R    3B65    3B66    3B67    3B68    3BTR    3L3X    3L3Z    3RLJ    3RLL    3V49    3V4A    3ZQT    4HLW    4K7A   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000169083 [gene] [tissue] [antibody] [cell] [cancer]
Peptide AtlasP10275
HPRD02437
IPIIPI00982907   IPI00020070   IPI00929478   IPI01010342   IPI01018822   IPI00929486   IPI00333533   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P10275
IntAct (EBI)P10275
FunCoupENSG00000169083
BioGRIDAR
InParanoidP10275
Interologous Interaction database P10275
IntegromeDBAR
STRING (EMBL)AR
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOnuclear chromatin  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding  DNA binding  chromatin binding  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  receptor binding  androgen binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  cytoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter  transport  signal transduction  cell-cell signaling  sex differentiation  beta-catenin binding  beta-catenin binding  beta-catenin binding  transcription factor binding  cell death  zinc ion binding  cell proliferation  positive regulation of cell proliferation  gene expression  cell growth  enzyme binding  androgen receptor signaling pathway  intracellular receptor signaling pathway  prostate gland development  positive regulation of phosphorylation  protein complex  steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  negative regulation of integrin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter  protein dimerization activity  positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  protein oligomerization  regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane  negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
Ontology : EGO-EBInuclear chromatin  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding  DNA binding  chromatin binding  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  androgen receptor activity  receptor binding  androgen binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  cytoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter  transport  signal transduction  cell-cell signaling  sex differentiation  beta-catenin binding  beta-catenin binding  beta-catenin binding  transcription factor binding  cell death  zinc ion binding  cell proliferation  positive regulation of cell proliferation  gene expression  cell growth  enzyme binding  androgen receptor signaling pathway  intracellular receptor signaling pathway  prostate gland development  positive regulation of phosphorylation  protein complex  steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  negative regulation of integrin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter  protein dimerization activity  positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  protein oligomerization  regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane  negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
Pathways : KEGGOocyte meiosis    Pathways in cancer    Prostate cancer   
Protein Interaction DatabaseAR
Wikipedia pathwaysAR
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)AR
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease367
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)AR
SNP : HGBaseAR
Genetic variants : HAPMAPAR
Exome VariantAR
1000_GenomesAR 
ICGC programENSG00000169083 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICAR 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisAR 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDAR
Mutations and Diseases : intOGenAR
Genomic VariantsAR  AR [DGVbeta]
dbVarAR
ClinVarAR
Pred. of missensesPolyPhen-2  SIFT(SG)  SIFT(JCVI)  Align-GVGD  MutAssessor  Mutanalyser  
Pred. splicesGeneSplicer  Human Splicing Finder  MaxEntScan  
Diseases
OMIM176807    300068    300633    312300    313200    313700   
MedgenAR
GENETestsAR
Disease Genetic AssociationAR
Huge Navigator AR [HugePedia]  AR [HugeCancerGEM]
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneAR
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)AR
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamAR
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD367
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA57
Clinical trialAR
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000169083
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineAR
iHOPAR
OncoSearchAR

Bibliography

Physiology and pathophysiology of androgen action.
Hiort O, Holterhus PM, Nitsche EM
Bailliere's clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 1998 ; 12 (1) : 115-132.
PMID 9890064
 
Molecular genetics of prostate cancer.
Abate-Shen C, Shen MM
Genes & development. 2000 ; 14 (19) : 2410-2434.
PMID 11018010
 
Pattern of somatic androgen receptor gene mutations in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Hyytinen ER, Haapala K, Thompson J, Lappalainen I, Roiha M, Rantala I, Helin HJ, Jˆ§nne OA, Vihinen M, Palvimo JJ, Koivisto PA
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology. 2002 ; 82 (11) : 1591-1598.
PMID 12429819
 
Formation of the androgen receptor transcription complex.
Shang Y, Myers M, Brown M
Molecular cell. 2002 ; 9 (3) : 601-610.
PMID 11931767
 
Is the Achilles' heel for prostate cancer therapy a gain of function in androgen receptor signaling?
Litvinov IV, De Marzo AM, Isaacs JT
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2003 ; 88 (7) : 2972-2982.
PMID 12843129
 
Hormonal, cellular, and molecular regulation of normal and neoplastic prostatic development.
Cunha GR, Ricke W, Thomson A, Marker PC, Risbridger G, Hayward SW, Wang YZ, Donjacour AA, Kurita T
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2004 ; 92 (4) : 221-236.
PMID 15663986
 
[Paradigm shift in clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases]
Katsuno M, Banno H, Suzuki K, Takeuchi Y, Sobue G
Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo. 2007 ; 59 (4) : 367-374.
PMID 17447523
 
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

Search in all EBI   NCBI

Contributor(s)

Written01-2008Jason D'Antonio
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Laboratory of John T. Isaacs, PhD, Cancer Research, Bldg 1, 1650 Orleans St., Rm 1M40, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
D'Antonio, J
AR (androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2008;12(5):358-361.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ARID685chXq12.html

© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
indexed on : Sat Oct 4 12:53:18 CEST 2014

Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us

jlhuret@AtlasGeneticsOncology.org.