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t(10;14)(q24;q11) TLX1/TRD

t(7;10)(q34;q24) TRB/HOX11

Written1999-09Christine Pérot
Laboratoire de Cytogenetique, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


ICD-Morpho 9837/3 T lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma
Atlas_Id 1068
  t(10;14)(q24;q11) R-banding -Courtesy Pascale Cornillet-Lefebvre and Stéphanie Struski

Clinics and Pathology

Disease acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with medullary involvement
Phenotype / cell stem origin T lineage; occurs at early stage of T cell development
Epidemiology 5 to 10% of T cell ALL
Clinics organomegaly with marked hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal mass, high WBC count (100 to 200 X 109/l) sometimes with anemia
Cytology high blast count in bone marrow
Prognosis not unfavourable


Cytogenetics Morphological t(10;14)(q24;q11) is the sole anomaly in half cases;
t(7;10)(q34;q24) is a rare variant translocation
Additional anomalies number or structural changes involving various chromosomes, sometimes complex

Genes involved and Proteins

Gene NameTLX1 (T-cell leukemia homeobox 1)
Location 10q24.31
Dna / Rna spans over 7 kb, 3 exons, mRNA 7 kb
Protein HOX 11 homeoprotein, 61 amino acids, nuclear localisation, binds DNA to transactivate transcription, not normally expressed in adult tissues at levels detectable by routine Northern analysis
Gene NameTRD (T cell Receptor Delta)
Location 14q11.2
Note or TRB in the case of a 7q34-36 involvement
Protein T-cell receptor

Result of the chromosomal anomaly

Fusion Protein
Description no fusion protein, but promoter exchange; through aberrant physiological recombination, HOX 11 is placed under the control of regulatory domains of the TCTD gene and deregulated
Oncogenesis inappropriate and abundant expression of HOX 11 in T- lineage cells bearing the translocation


A novel human homeobox gene lies at the chromosome 10 breakpoint in lymphoid neoplasias with chromosomal translocation t(10;14).
Dubé ID, Kamel-Reid S, Yuan CC, Lu M, Wu X, Corpus G, Raimondi SC, Crist WM, Carroll AJ, Minowada J
Blood. 1991 ; 78 (11) : 2996-3003.
PMID 1683261
Deregulation of a homeobox gene, HOX11, by the t(10;14) in T cell leukemia.
Hatano M, Roberts CW, Minden M, Crist WM, Korsmeyer SJ
Science (New York, N.Y.). 1991 ; 253 (5015) : 79-82.
PMID 1676542
Clustering of breakpoints on chromosome 10 in acute T-cell leukemias with the t(10;14) chromosome translocation.
Kagan J, Finger LR, Letofsky J, Finan J, Nowell PC, Croce CM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1989 ; 86 (11) : 4161-4165.
PMID 2542965
Joining of recombination signals on the der 14q- chromosome in T-cell acute leukemia with t(10;14) chromosome translocation.
Kagan J, Joe YS, Freireich EJ
Cancer research. 1994 ; 54 (1) : 226-230.
PMID 8261443
Establishment and characterization of a childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, PER-255, with chromosome abnormalities involving 7q32-34 in association with T-cell receptor-beta gene rearrangement.
Kees UR, Lukeis R, Ford J, Garson OM
Blood. 1989 ; 74 (1) : 369-373.
PMID 2546623
HOX11, a homeobox-containing T-cell oncogene on human chromosome 10q24.
Kennedy MA, Gonzalez-Sarmiento R, Kees UR, Lampert F, Dear N, Boehm T, Rabbitts TH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1991 ; 88 (20) : 8900-8904.
PMID 1681546
Dysregulation of HOX11 by chromosome translocations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a paradigm for homeobox gene involvement in human cancer.
Lichty BD, Ackland-Snow J, Noble L, Kamel-Reid S, Dubé ID
Leukemia & lymphoma. 1995 ; 16 (3-4) : 209-215.
PMID 7719228
Molecular characterization of the t(10;14) translocation breakpoints in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: further evidence for illegitimate physiological recombination.
Lu M, Dubé I, Raimondi S, Carroll A, Zhao Y, Minden M, Sutherland P
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1990 ; 2 (3) : 217-222.
PMID 2078512
The tcl-3 proto-oncogene altered by chromosomal translocation in T-cell leukemia codes for a homeobox protein.
Lu M, Gong ZY, Shen WF, Ho AD
The EMBO journal. 1991 ; 10 (10) : 2905-2910.
PMID 1717256
Genomic organization of the putative human homeobox proto-oncogene HOX-11 (TCL-3) and its endogenous expression in T cells.
Lu M, Zhang N, Ho AD
Oncogene. 1992 ; 7 (7) : 1325-1330.
PMID 1352396
A complex genetic rearrangement in a t(10;14)(q24;q11) associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Park JK, Le Beau MM, Shows TB, Rowley JD, Diaz MO
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1992 ; 4 (1) : 32-40.
PMID 1377007
7q32-q36 translocations in childhood T cell leukemia: cytogenetic evidence for involvement of the T cell receptor beta-chain gene.
Raimondi SC, Pui CH, Behm FG, Williams DL
Blood. 1987 ; 69 (1) : 131-134.
PMID 3491637
The t(10;14)(q24;q11) of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia juxtaposes the delta T-cell receptor with TCL3, a conserved and activated locus at 10q24.
Zutter M, Hockett RD, Roberts CW, McGuire EA, Bloomstone J, Morton CC, Deaven LL, Crist WM, Carroll AJ, Korsmeyer SJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1990 ; 87 (8) : 3161-3165.
PMID 2326274


This paper should be referenced as such :
Pérot, C
t(10;14)(q24;q11) - t(7;10)(q34;q24)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(3):156-157.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 4 ]


Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 t(10;14)(q24;q11) HOX11/TRD
 t(7;10)(q34;q24) TRB/HOX11

External links

TRD (-) TLX1 (10q24.31)

Mitelman databaset(10;14)(q24;q11) [Case List]    t(10;14)(q24;q11) [Association List] Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)
Mitelman databaset(7;10)(q34;q24) [Case List]    t(7;10)(q34;q24) [Association List] Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)
arrayMapTopo ( C42) Morph ( 9837/3) - arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)  [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
Mitelman databaseTRD/TLX1 [MCList]  TRD (-) TLX1 (10q24.31)
Disease databaset(10;14)(q24;q11) TLX1/TRD
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed
All articlesautomatic search in PubMed

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