Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

del(5q) in myeloid neoplasms

Identity

Note Interstitial del(5q) was first reported as a type of refractory anemia with characteristic clinical features; female predominance (unlike other MDS), macrocytosis, erythroid hypoplasia, frequent thrombocytosis and dysmegakaryopoiesis. It is one of the most common structural rearrangements in MDS (10%), seen as an isolated abnormality or with additional karyotypic anomalies. It is also observed in AML, with important prognostic significance.
 
  del(5q) G-banding (top) - Courtesy Diane H. Norback, Eric B. Johnson, Sara Morrison-Delap Cytogenetics at theWaisman Center (1 and 5 from the left), Kazunori Kanehira, Rhett P. Ketterling, Daniel L. Van Dyke (2, 4, 6, and 7), and Jean-Luc Lai (3); R-banding (bottom), Courtesy Christiane Charrin (1 and 3), Jean Loup Huret (2), Hossein Mossafa (4 and 5, and FISH).

Clinics and Pathology

Disease 5q- syndrome
Note The World Health Organization (WHO) defined the 5q- syndrome as a specific type of MDS, restricting diagnosis to the cases with isolated interstitial del(5q), without excess blasts in the bone marrow (<5%). It also defined a new category, therapy-related MDS/AML, excluding cases with a history of previous chemotherapy from 5q- syndrome MDS.
Clinics As described above, cases of MDS with isolated del(5q) show female predominance (M:F=1:1.5-4), anemia, macrocytosis, normal or moderately decreased WBC, normal or moderately decreased platelet count, and dysmegakaryopoiesis.
Treatment Supportive care including RBC transfusion for anemia is the mainstay of treatment. It is not infrequent that transfusions are needed for years, causing iron overload, and increasing the risk of blood-borne infections. Anemia of 5q- syndrome does not respond well to erythropoietin. Leanalidomide, a Thalidomide derivative, has been investigated for treatment of MDS with 5q-. Lenalidomide has immunomodulatory properties, including the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes, enhancement of T-cell and NK-cell activation, and inhibition of angiogenesis. In Phase II trials in transfusion-dependent MDS with 5q-, 168 patients were enrolled, of whom 76% had isolated 5q- and 29% had the 5q- syndrome. Transfusion independence was obtained in 67%. A complete cytogenetic response was achieved in 45% of patients. Cytogenetic response rate was not significantly different in isolated del(5q), del(5q) + 1 and del(5q) + >1 additional chromosome abnormalities. Although the results of lenalidomide treatment seem promising, it is not yet clear if the treatment will affect the natural disease course and prolongs survival.
Prognosis The impact of lenalidomide on the prognosis of MDS patients with 5q- is unknown at this point. Progression to AML is rare (10%). With the supportive therapy, the prognosis of 5q- syndrome is favorable, with reported median survival ranging from 53 to 146 months. MDS patients with 5q- plus one additional chromosome abnormality seem to have significantly shorter survival (with exception of loss of the Y chromosome). MDS with 5q- as part of a complex karyotype (3 or more abnormalities) have an unfavorable prognosis.

Disease AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
Clinics Deletion of 5q can be observed in both de novo and therapy related AML. It is also seen as monosomy 5. In AML, 5q deletion is usually associated with a complex karyotype.
Prognosis Prognosis of AML with 5q-/-5 is generally unfavorable, associated with rapid disease progression and poor outcome and survival, especially when it is seen as a part of complex karyotype.

Cytogenetics

Cytogenetics Morphological The most commonly observed interstitial deletions are del(5)(q13q31), del(5)(q13q33), and del(5)(q22q33), forming a commonly deleted region (CDR) at 5q31-q32.
Cytogenetics Molecular The CDR is the approximately 1.5 Mb interval between D5S413 and GLRA1 gene, containing around 40 genes. No cases of 5q- syndrome have been reported to have biallelic deletion within the CDR, and no point mutations have been found in the genes in the region. Recently, it is suggested that haploinsufficienty (a gene dosage effect) of one or more of the genes mapping to the CDR is the pathogenetic basis of the 5q- syndrome. Ebert et al. demonstrated that impaired function of the ribosomal subunit protein RPS14 recapitulated the characteristic phenotype of the 5q- syndrome, a severe decrease in the production of erythroid cells with relative preservation of megakaryocytic cells, in normal CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, forced expression of RPS14 rescued the disease phenotype in patient-derived bone marrow cells.
Germline heterozygous mutation for two other ribosomal proteins, RPS19 and RPS24, have recently been described in the congenital disorder known as Diamond-Blackfan anemia. The congenital anemia is characterized by sever anemia, macrocytosis, relative preservation of the platelet and neutrophil count, erythroid hypoplasia in the bone marrow and an increased risk of leukemia. The erythroid specificity of 5q- syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan anemia in ribosomal expression is noteworthy.
Additional anomalies By definition, an interstitial deletion of 5q must be the sole abnormality for 5q- syndrome. However, 5q deletion can be seen with other accompanying abnormalities. Review of the recent Mayo Clinic cases shows that major abnormalities include -7, +8, -20, 20q-, -13/13q-, and abnormalities in 12p, in the descending order.

Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

Genes ASXL1 MECOM ARHGAP26 IRF1 MIR145 NSD1

Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 del(5q) in myeloid neoplasms

External links

Mitelman database
del(5q) - Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)

Bibliography

Distinct haematological disorder with deletion of long arm of no. 5 chromosome.
Van den Berghe H, Cassiman JJ, David G, Fryns JP, Michaux JL, Sokal G.
Nature. 1974 Oct 4;251(5474):437-8.
PMID 4421285
 
Clinical and prognostic implications of chromosome 5q deletions: 96 high resolution studied patients.
Pedersen B, Jensen IM.
Leukemia. 1991 Jul;5(7):566-73. (REVIEW)
PMID 2072742
 
Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia in children: correlation between chromosomal abnormalities and prior therapy.
Rubin CM, Arthur DC, Woods WG, Lange BJ, Nowell PC, Rowley JD, Nachman J, Bostrom B, Baum ES, Suarez CR, et al.
Blood. 1991 Dec 1;78(11):2982-8.
PMID 1954385
 
Chromosomal loss and deletion are the most common mechanisms for loss of heterozygosity from chromosomes 5 and 7 in malignant myeloid disorders.
Neuman WL, Rubin CM, Rios RB, Larson RA, Le Beau MM, Rowley JD, Vardiman JW, Schwartz JL, Farber RA.
Blood. 1992 Mar 15;79(6):1501-10.
PMID 1347709
 
Translocation t(5;12)(q31-q33;p12-p13): a non-random translocation associated with a myeloid disorder with eosinophilia.
Baranger L, Szapiro N, Gardais J, Hillion J, Derre J, Francois S, Blanchet O, Boasson M, Berger R.
Br J Haematol. 1994 Oct;88(2):343-7. (REVIEW)
PMID 7803280
 
Syndromes myelodysplasiques et deletion 5q.
Fenaux P
Hematologie. 1995; 1: 35-43.
 
The 5q-syndrome.
Boultwood J, Lewis S, Wainscoat JS.
Blood. 1994 Nov 15;84(10):3253-60. (REVIEW)
PMID 7949083
 
Chromosomal deletions in myelodysplasia.
Boultwood J, Fidler C.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1995 Mar;17(1-2):71-8. (REVIEW)
PMID 7773164
 
5q-, twenty-five years later: a synopsis.
Van den Berghe H, Michaux L.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1997 Mar;94(1):1-7. (REVIEW)
PMID 9078284
 
The 5q- syndrome.
Giagounidis AA, Germing U, Wainscoat JS, Boultwood J, Aul C.
Hematology. 2004 Aug;9(4):271-7.
PMID 15621734
 
Myelodysplastic syndromes: clinicopathologic features, pathobiology, and molecular pathogenesis.
Nishino HT, Chang CC.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Oct;129(10):1299-310. (REVIEW)
PMID 16196520
 
Clinical relevance of cytogenetics in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Bernasconi P, Boni M, Cavigliano PM, Calatroni S, Giardini I, Rocca B, Zappatore R, Dambruoso I, Caresana M.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:395-410.
PMID 17261783
 
The genetics of the myelodysplastic syndromes: classical cytogenetics and recent molecular insights.
Cherian S, Bagg A.
Hematology. 2006 Feb;11(1):1-13. (REVIEW)
PMID 16522543
 
Impact of cytogenetics on outcome of de novo and therapy-related AML and MDS after allogeneic transplantation.
Armand P, Kim HT, DeAngelo DJ, Ho VT, Cutler CS, Stone RM, Ritz J, Alyea EP, Antin JH, Soiffer RJ.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007 Jun;13(6):655-64. Epub 2007 Mar 21.
PMID 17531775
 
Cytogenetic features in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Haase D.
Ann Hematol. 2008 Jul;87(7):515-26. Epub 2008 Apr 15. (REVIEW)
PMID 18414863
 
The role of lenalidomide in the management of myelodysplasia with del 5q.
Kelaidi C, Eclache V, Fenaux P.
Br J Haematol. 2008 Feb;140(3):267-78. (REVIEW)
PMID 18217896
 
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues.
Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Vardiman JW.
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th Edition; 2008;102.
 
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed

Contributor(s)

Written03-1998Christiane Charrin
Service d'Hematologie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
Updated04-2009Kazunori Kanehira, Rhett P Ketterling, Daniel L Van Dyke
FACMG, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Kanehira, K ; Ketterling, RP ; Van, Dyke DL
del(5q) in myeloid neoplasms
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(3):-.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
History of this paper:
Kanehira, K ; Ketterling, RP ; Van, Dyke DL. del(5q) in myeloid neoplasms. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(3):-.
http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/2042/44718/1/04-2009-del5qID1092.pdf
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Anomalies/del5qID1092.html

© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
indexed on : Thu Sep 25 15:34:28 CEST 2014


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us

jlhuret@AtlasGeneticsOncology.org.