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RAC3 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3))

Identity

HGNC (Hugo) RAC3
LocusID (NCBI) 5881
Location 17q25.3
Location_base_pair Starts at 79989532 and ends at 79992080 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
Local_order Located telomeric to the BROV region. Centromeric to LRRC45 - Rac3 - DCXR telomeric.
Note With 5\271 end towards the centromere. Nucleotide 203731-2061912 of contig NT_010663.

DNA/RNA

Note 6 exons, spread out over approximately 2,4 kb.
Description The Rac3 gene encompasses 6 exons on chromosome 17. Exon 1 encodes residues 1-12, exon 2 residues 13-36, exon 3 residues 37-75, exon 4 residues 76-96, exon 5 residues 97-149 and exon 6 residues 150-192.
Transcription Human Rac3 mRNA is a single species of around 1 kb. No splice variants have been reported. Factors that would regulate gene expression on a transcriptional level have not yet been reported.
Pseudogene No pseudogenes of Rac3 are reported in human.

Protein

Note The Rac3 gene encodes a single protein of 192 amino acid residues.
 
  Schematic representation of the Rac3 protein (not to scale). Mutations that generate mutants that are locked in a certain conformation - constitutively active or dominant negative - are shown. The C-terminal end contains the CTVM motif that is post-translationally modified the three last amino acid residues are removed and the C residue is geranyl-geranylated.
Description Rac3 is a small 21 kDa GTPase that acts as a molecular switch. In its active form, it is bound to GTP, whereas it is inactive in its GDP-bound form. Racs are controlled by guanidine activating proteins (GEFs) that exchange bound GDP for GTP and by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that promote GTP hydrolysis. Because of the hydrophobic isoprenyl moiety at the C-terminal end, it is associated with membranes. In the cytoplasm it associates with the chaperone RhoGDI.
Expression Rac3 mRNA was reported in human cell lines including GM04155 (lymphoblastic leukemia), K562 (CML), 5838 (Ewing sarcoma), HL60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and DU4475 (breast cancer). Rac3 expression was reported using semi-quantitative RT/PCR in gastric tumor and adjacent normal tissue as well as gastric cancer cell lines. Expression of Rac3 using RT/PCR (38 cycles) was reported in human brain, liver, kidney and pancreas poly A RNA and also 19% of brain tumors expressed Rac3 mRNA. Rac3-specific polyclonal antibodies were used to show Rac3 protein in the brain (deep cerebellar nuclei and the pons) in 7 day old mice. Low level expression of mouse rac3 has been reported in bone-marrow-derived monocytes and in B-lineage lymphoblasts using standard and Real-Time RT/PCR. Expression of Rac3 is inferred because of the effect of siRNA knockdown in cell lines including HCT116 colon cancer, MDA-MB231 breast cancer, HeLa, and PC3 prostate cancer (Zhu et al., 2011). Real-time RT/PCR showed Rac3 mRNA in prostate cancer biopsy samples (Engers et al., 2007). Analysis of gene expression profiling datasets (Chang et al., 2005) in breast cancer samples showed Rac3 expression (Walker et al., 2011).
Localisation The Rac3 protein is located on endomembranes and cell membranes. Nuclear localization was also reported (Walker et al., 2011).
Function Rac proteins regulate a variety of functions including cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species production, and vesicle trafficking. In its activity on reactive oxygen species production, Rac3 is able to activate Nox1, Nox2 and Nox3 (Miyano et al., 2009; Miyano and Sumimoto, 2012). Studies of null mutant Rac3 mice showed that Rac3 regulates cerebellar functions and in a mouse model plays a role in leukemia development caused by the Bcr/Abl oncogene. Point mutations (N26D, F37L, Y40C, N43D) were introduced into different critical residues of the effector domain of Rac3 and the effects of these were investigated on the ability of Rac3 to regulate membrane ruffles, c-jun activation and transformation. Transformation was assayed as the ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation of NIH3T3 cells and the ability to promote growth of these cells in soft agar. Rac3 was found to negatively regulate autophagy in colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, since its knockdown stimulated LC3-II expression (Zhu et al., 2011). Different effects on migration are reported. Rac3 negatively regulates diapedesis of PC3 cells, since knockdown using siRNA increases migration of PC3 prostate cancer cells through a BMEC layer (Chatterjee et al., 2011). In contrast, overexpression of Rac3 in MCF7 breast cancer cells stimulates E2-induced migration (Walker et al., 2011).
Homology Rac3 is most closely related to Rac1 and Rac2. On a nucleotide level human Rac3 has 77% identity with Rac1, 83% identity with Rac2 and 69% identity with RhoG. On an amino acid level, Rac3 and Rac1 differ in 14/192 residues (92% identical), whereas Rac3 and Rac2 differ in 22/192 residues (89% identical). Rac belongs to the extended Rho family of small G-proteins. Biochemically, Rac1 and Rac3 are closely related and have overlapping (Corbetta et al., 2009; Pennucci et al., 2011; Basso et al., 2011) as well as distinct functions. Rac3 differs from Rac1 in the presence of a residue in its C-terminal end, S151, which is A151 in Rac1 and mediates binding of Rac3 to ERα (Walker et al., 2011). Rac3 and Rac1 also differ in their effect on NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells, in which Rac3 induces cell rounding and Rac1 induces spreading (Hajdo-Milasinovic et al., 2007; Hajdo-Milasinovic et al., 2009).

Implicated in

Entity Breast cancer
Note Using in situ hybridization, Rac3 was reported to lies outside of the BROV region commonly deleted in breast and ovarian cancer.
Activated Rac3 protein was reported in MDA-435, T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines and 1 of 3 patient samples using a GST-Pak pull-down assay to detect activated Rac.
siRNA against Rac3 inhibits SNB19 glioblastoma and BT549 breast cancer cell line invasion in an in vitro assay.
It was showed that introduction of a constitutively active Rac3 into the MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line caused increased invasion and motility in vitro.
Transgenic mice with tissue specific expression of constitutively active (V12)Rac3 in the mammary gland were generated. Post-lactational female mice had delayed involution.
In the MCF7 breast cancer cell line, E2-stimulated migration was decreased by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rac3, and Rac3 interacted with the ERα in a ligand-dependent manner (Chatterjee et al., 2011). Meta-analysis of gene expression profiling datasets of breast cancer samples (Chang et al., 2005) for Rac3 showed that expression levels correlated with increased probability of metastatic events (Walker et al., 2011).
  
Entity Gastric cancer
Note Semi-quantitative RT/PCR was used to examine Rac3 mRNA expression in gastric cancer tissues and 7 gastric cell lines. Rac3 expression was detected in the tumor samples but there was no statistically significant difference between the expression levels in gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumorous tissues. The cell lines had a varying but detectable Rac3 expression.
  
Entity Brain tumors
Note RT-PCR was used to evaluate Rac3 mRNA expression in human brain tumor tissues. Expression of rac3 was reported in 3/9 meningiomas, 1/11 astrocytomas, 1/6 pituitary adenomas. The PCR fragments were subcloned and sequenced, and mutations were reported in Rac3 in 12/19 brain tumors including E10V, V14E, D35N, P35S, N43D, V46A, D57V, R57P, L67V, S83F, V85A, E100G, H104L, P109H, R120H, T125P, S158P, P180T, V182E, V182A, H184L and G186E.
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note Using real-time RT/PCR, increased Rac3 mRNA was detected in involved prostate cancer biopsy samples compared to adjacent normal tissue (Engers et al., 2007).
  

To be noted

There is a second gene that is named RAC3 in some publications. This protein is functionally and structurally unrelated to the small GTPase Rac3. This is the steroid receptor coactivator-3, or nuclear receptor coactivator SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM-1.
Probes 1-12 from NM_005052-links-probes
1: ProbeID:6597734 TaqMan gene expression (TaqMan) probe Hs00414037_g1 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for real time qRT-PCR gene expression profiling. Reagent is available from Applied Biosystems.
2: ProbeID:3104502 Small interfering RNA (siRNA) probe for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Has been used for RNA interference (RNAi). Reference Chan et al., 2005
3: ProbeID:3104501 Small interfering RNA (siRNA) probe for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Has been used for RNA interference (RNAi). Reference Chan et al., 2005
4: ProbeID:1163472 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001057586 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
5: ProbeID:1163461 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001057592 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
6: ProbeID:1157480 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001229136 for Homo sapiens genes ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3) and leucine rich repeat containing 45 (LRRC45). Developed for SNP discovery.
7. ProbeID:1152860 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001400685 for Homo sapiens genes ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3) and leucine rich repeat containing 45 (LRRC45). Developed for SNP discovery.
8: ProbeID:1152824 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001401207 for Homo sapiens genes ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3) and leucine rich repeat containing 45 (LRRC45). Developed for SNP discovery.
9: ProbeID:1151274 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001457703 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
10: ProbeID:1151272 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001457859 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
11: ProbeID:1151270 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001458006 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
12: ProbeID:1151269 Resequencing amplicon (RSA) probe RSA001458005 for Homo sapiens gene ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) (RAC3). Developed for SNP discovery.
13. Chan et al. (2005) reported TaqMan primers useful in quantifying human Rac3 expression.
14. Pan et al. (2004) reported primers for semi-quantitative RT/PCR for human Rac3 that yielded a 249 bp
15. Hwang et al. (2005) reported primers for RT-PCR of human RNA. Fw primer was 5'-AATTCATGCAGGCCATCAAGT-3' and the reverse primer 5'-CTAGAAGACGGTGCACTT-3'.

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)RAC3   9803
Cards
AtlasRAC3ID42022ch17q25
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)RAC3  5881  ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)
GeneCards (Weizmann)RAC3
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000169750 [Gene_View]  chr17:79989532-79992080 [Contig_View]  RAC3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000169750
AceView (NCBI)RAC3
Genatlas (Paris)RAC3
WikiGenes5881
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_005052
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)RAC3  -  17q25.3   chr17:79989532-79992080 +  17q25.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblRAC3 - 17q25.3 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIRAC3 [Mapview]
OMIM602050   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF008591 AF498966 BC009605 BC015197 BT019443
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_005052
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000149 NC_000017 NC_018928 NT_010663 NW_001838459 NW_004929408
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)RAC3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.45002 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.45002
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0012913
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000169750
Gene ExpressionRAC3 [ NCBI-GEO ]     RAC3 [ SEEK ]   RAC3 [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP60763 (Uniprot)
NextProtP60763  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProP60763
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP60763 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)RHO (PS51420)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)P-loop_NTPase    Small_GTP-bd_dom    Small_GTPase    Small_GTPase_Rho   
Related proteins : CluSTrP60763
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Ras (PF00071)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00071   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)RHO (SM00174)  
DMDM Disease mutations5881
Blocks (Seattle)P60763
PDB (SRS)2C2H    2G0N    2IC5    2OV2    2QME   
PDB (PDBSum)2C2H    2G0N    2IC5    2OV2    2QME   
PDB (IMB)2C2H    2G0N    2IC5    2OV2    2QME   
PDB (RSDB)2C2H    2G0N    2IC5    2OV2    2QME   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000169750
Peptide AtlasP60763
HPRD03629
IPIIPI00023138   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P60763
IntAct (EBI)P60763
FunCoupENSG00000169750
BioGRIDRAC3
IntegromeDBRAC3
STRING (EMBL)RAC3
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP60763
Ontology : AmiGOGTPase activity  protein binding  GTP binding  cytosol  plasma membrane  GTP catabolic process  small GTPase mediated signal transduction  endomembrane system  lamellipodium  cell projection assembly  actin cytoskeleton organization  growth cone  neuron projection development  filamentous actin  positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin  intracellular signal transduction  neuron projection  neuronal cell body  calcium-dependent protein binding  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  neuromuscular process controlling balance  regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction  cell periphery  positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  
Ontology : EGO-EBIGTPase activity  protein binding  GTP binding  cytosol  plasma membrane  GTP catabolic process  small GTPase mediated signal transduction  endomembrane system  lamellipodium  cell projection assembly  actin cytoskeleton organization  growth cone  neuron projection development  filamentous actin  positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin  intracellular signal transduction  neuron projection  neuronal cell body  calcium-dependent protein binding  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  neuromuscular process controlling balance  regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction  cell periphery  positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  
Pathways : KEGGMAPK signaling pathway    Ras signaling pathway    Rap1 signaling pathway    Wnt signaling pathway    Axon guidance    VEGF signaling pathway    Focal adhesion    Adherens junction    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity    B cell receptor signaling pathway    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton    Pathways in cancer    Colorectal cancer    Pancreatic cancer    Viral myocarditis   
REACTOMEP60763 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysREACT_111102 Signal Transduction [pathway]
Protein Interaction DatabaseRAC3
Wikipedia pathwaysRAC3
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)RAC3
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)RAC3
SNP : HGBaseRAC3
Genetic variants : HAPMAPRAC3
1000_GenomesRAC3 
ICGC programENSG00000169750 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisRAC3 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICRAC3 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
DECIPHER (Syndromes)17:79989532-79992080
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDRAC3
OMIM602050   
MedgenRAC3
GENETestsRAC3
Disease Genetic AssociationRAC3
Huge Navigator RAC3 [HugePedia]  RAC3 [HugeCancerGEM]
Genomic VariantsRAC3  RAC3 [DGVbeta]
Exome VariantRAC3
dbVarRAC3
ClinVarRAC3
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease5881
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneRAC3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)RAC3
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamRAC3
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD5881
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA34164
Clinical trialRAC3
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000169750
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed40 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineRAC3
GoPubMedRAC3
iHOPRAC3

Bibliography

Structure and chromosomal assignment to 22q12 and 17qter of the ras-related Rac2 and Rac3 human genes.
Courjal F, Chuchana P, Theillet C, Fort P.
Genomics. 1997 Sep 1;44(2):242-6.
PMID 9299243
 
Characterization of RAC3, a novel member of the Rho family.
Haataja L, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N.
J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 15;272(33):20384-8.
PMID 9252344
 
The small GTPase RAC3 gene is located within chromosome band 17q25.3 outside and telomeric of a region commonly deleted in breast and ovarian tumours.
Morris CM, Haataja L, McDonald M, Gough S, Markie D, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N.
Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;89(1-2):18-23.
PMID 10894930
 
Differential distribution of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in the developing mouse brain: implications for a role of Rac3 in Purkinje cell differentiation.
Bolis A, Corbetta S, Cioce A, de Curtis I.
Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Nov;18(9):2417-24.
PMID 14622142
 
Comparative functional analysis of the Rac GTPases.
Haeusler LC, Blumenstein L, Stege P, Dvorsky R, Ahmadian MR.
FEBS Lett. 2003 Dec 18;555(3):556-60.
PMID 14675773
 
Targeted expression of activated Rac3 in mammary epithelium leads to defective postlactational involution and benign mammary gland lesions.
Leung K, Nagy A, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N, Kaartinen V.
Cells Tissues Organs. 2003;175(2):72-83.
PMID 14605486
 
Expression of seven main Rho family members in gastric carcinoma.
Pan Y, Bi F, Liu N, Xue Y, Yao X, Zheng Y, Fan D.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 12;315(3):686-91.
PMID 14975755
 
Rac1 and Rac3 isoform activation is involved in the invasive and metastatic phenotype of human breast cancer cells.
Baugher PJ, Krishnamoorthy L, Price JE, Dharmawardhane SF.
Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7(6):R965-74. Epub 2005 Sep 30.
PMID 16280046
 
Roles of the Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in human tumor cell invasion.
Chan AY, Coniglio SJ, Chuang YY, Michaelson D, Knaus UG, Philips MR, Symons M.
Oncogene. 2005 Nov 24;24(53):7821-9.
PMID 16027728
 
Robustness, scalability, and integration of a wound-response gene expression signature in predicting breast cancer survival.
Chang HY, Nuyten DS, Sneddon JB, Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Sorlie T, Dai H, He YD, van't Veer LJ, Bartelink H, van de Rijn M, Brown PO, van de Vijver MJ.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 8;102(10):3738-43. Epub 2005 Feb 8.
PMID 15701700
 
Generation of rac3 null mutant mice: role of Rac3 in Bcr/Abl-caused lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cho YJ, Zhang B, Kaartinen V, Haataja L, de Curtis I, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jul;25(13):5777-85.
PMID 15964830
 
Generation and characterization of Rac3 knockout mice.
Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Albertinazzi C, Paris S, Croci L, Consalez GG, de Curtis I.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jul;25(13):5763-76.
PMID 15964829
 
Expression of Rac3 in human brain tumors.
Hwang SL, Chang JH, Cheng TS, Sy WD, Lieu AS, Lin CL, Lee KS, Howng SL, Hong YR.
J Clin Neurosci. 2005 Jun;12(5):571-4.
PMID 15993075
 
Rac3-mediated transformation requires multiple effector pathways.
Keller PJ, Gable CM, Wing MR, Cox AD.
Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 1;65(21):9883-90.
PMID 16267012
 
Prognostic relevance of increased Rac GTPase expression in prostate carcinomas.
Engers R, Ziegler S, Mueller M, Walter A, Willers R, Gabbert HE.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007 Jun;14(2):245-56.
PMID 17639041
 
Rac1 and Rac3 have opposing functions in cell adhesion and differentiation of neuronal cells.
Hajdo-Milasinovic A, Ellenbroek SI, van Es S, van der Vaart B, Collard JG.
J Cell Sci. 2007 Feb 15;120(Pt 4):555-66. Epub 2007 Jan 23.
PMID 17244648
 
Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development.
Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz VL, de Curtis I.
FASEB J. 2009 May;23(5):1347-57. Epub 2009 Jan 6.
PMID 19126596
 
Rac3 inhibits adhesion and differentiation of neuronal cells by modifying GIT1 downstream signaling.
Hajdo-Milasinovic A, van der Kammen RA, Moneva Z, Collard JG.
J Cell Sci. 2009 Jun 15;122(Pt 12):2127-36.
PMID 19494130
 
The insert region of the Rac GTPases is dispensable for activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases.
Miyano K, Koga H, Minakami R, Sumimoto H.
Biochem J. 2009 Aug 13;422(2):373-82.
PMID 19534724
 
Absence of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in the nervous system hinders thymic, splenic and immune-competence development.
Basso V, Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Tonoli D, Poliani PL, Sanvito F, Doglioni C, Mondino A, de Curtis I.
Eur J Immunol. 2011 May;41(5):1410-9. doi: 10.1002/eji.201040892. Epub 2011 Apr 15.
PMID 21469092
 
Individual rac GTPases mediate aspects of prostate cancer cell and bone marrow endothelial cell interactions.
Chatterjee M, Sequeira L, Jenkins-Kabaila M, Dubyk CW, Pathak S, van Golen KL.
J Signal Transduct. 2011;2011:541851. Epub 2011 Jun 27.
PMID 21776386
 
Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases regulate the development of hilar mossy cells by affecting the migration of their precursors to the hilus.
Pennucci R, Tavano S, Tonoli D, Gualdoni S, de Curtis I.
PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24819. Epub 2011 Sep 20.
PMID 21949760
 
RAC3 is a pro-migratory co-activator of ER?.
Walker MP, Zhang M, Le TP, Wu P, Laine M, Greene GL.
Oncogene. 2011 Apr 28;30(17):1984-94. Epub 2011 Jan 10.
PMID 21217774
 
A role for Rac3 GTPase in the regulation of autophagy.
Zhu WL, Hossain MS, Guo DY, Liu S, Tong H, Khakpoor A, Casey PJ, Wang M.
J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 7;286(40):35291-8. Epub 2011 Aug 18.
PMID 21852230
 
Assessment of the role for Rho family GTPases in NADPH oxidase activation.
Miyano K, Sumimoto H.
Methods Mol Biol. 2012;827:195-212.
PMID 22144277
 
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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Contributor(s)

Written02-2007Nora C Heisterkamp
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA, USA
Updated04-2012Nora C Heisterkamp
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Heisterkamp, NC
RAC3 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(9):665-668.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
History of this paper:
Heisterkamp, NC. RAC3 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(9):665-668.
http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/47538/04-2012-RAC3ID42022ch17q25.pdf
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/RAC3ID42022ch17q25.html

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