PARK7 (Parkinsonism associated deglycase)

2016-04-01   Valentina La Cognata , Sebastiano Cavallaro 


Location Cytogenetic location: 1p36.23; Molecular location: Chromosome 1; Start 7961654; Stop 7985282based on Genome Browser Human Dec. 2013 (GRCh38/hg38) Assembly [Link to chromosome band 1p36]
Atlas Image
Figure 1 displays the human chromosome 1 (NCBI Reference Sequence NC_000001.11) and relative localization and orientation of PARK7 and flanking genes. PARK7 is represented in red. Further genes (UTS2, TNFRSF9, ERRFI1) and a non-coding RNA (LOC105376694) map in this locus.


PARK7 (also called DJ-1 or Parkinsonism associated deglycase) is a pleiotropic protein belonging to the peptidase C56 family. It acts as positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription, redox-sensitive chaperone, sensor for oxidative stress, and apparently protects neurons against oxidative stress and cell death. Dysfunctions in PARK7 are related to autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7 and cancer forms. Here, we review some major data on PARK7, concerning the genetic structure, the transcription regulation, the encoded protein and functions, and its implication in human diseases.


Atlas Image
Figure 2 displays the two full-length Reference Sequences of PARK7 gene (NCBI - Nucleotide Database). Corresponding GenBank Accession Numbers are indicated on the left. Exons are represented as boxes (blue for coding regions and white for non-coding), whereas the dashed line indicates intronic regions. The green triangle specifies the start codon, while the red one designates the stop codon.
Atlas Image
Figure 3 displays the structures of the currently known PARK7 mRNA splicing variants listed in Ensembl. Each mRNA variant is indicated with a number corresponding to that indicated in Table 1. Transcript variants are classified as coding mRNAs (black) and non-coding (gray).


DJ-1 maps on the distal part of the short arm of chromosome 1, cytoband 1p36.23 (Figure 1). It spans about 24 kb and includes eight exons (Figure 2). The first two exons (1A and 1B) are noncoding and alternatively spliced in the DJ-1 mRNAs (Bonifati, Rizzu, Squitieri, et al., 2003).


Currently, the NCBI RefSeq database annotates two representative transcripts as full-length PARK7 mRNAs (Figure 2). However, a total of 10 spliced variants is reported in the Ensembl database 3). The majority of mRNAs contain a 570 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 189 aa. Two shorter transcripts (PARK7-003 lacking exon 4, and PARK7-010 starting at an inner transcription point) produce smaller proteins (169 and 160 aa respectively) (Table 2 and Fig. 3). Other transcripts do not encode proteins and are processed via the NMD (non-sense mediated decay) mechanism.
Table 1.



Ensembl Transcript ID








Protein coding






Protein coding






Processed transcript

No protein





Protein coding






Protein coding






Processed transcript

No rotein





Protein coding






Protein coding






Processed transcript

No protein





Protein coding



PGOHUM00000239770: Chr. 12, Start Coordinate 49988931, Stop Coordinate 49989471 according toGenome BrowserHuman Dec. 2013 (GRCh38/hg38) Assembly
PGOHUM00000236716: Chr. 9, Start Coordinate 98680419, Stop Coordinate 98680983according to Genome BrowserHuman Dec. 2013 (GRCh38/hg38) Assembly


Atlas Image
Figure 4 shows the crystallographic structure of DJ-1 protein. This protein is a dimer composed of two portions, monomer A represented in purple and monomer B represented in green. Adapted from (Wilson et al., 2003).


X-ray crystallographic examination of DJ-1 protein structure indicates that it exists as a dimer (Figure 4)(Wilson et al., 2003). It contains domains found in heat shock chaperones and belongs to the ThiJ/PfpI family. This family (pfam01965) includes: ThiJ, a protein involved in thiamine biosynthesis in prokaryotes; PfpI (so-called from P. furious protease I) and other bacterial proteases; araC and other bacterial transcription factors; and the glutamine amidotransferases family (including bacteria catalases) (Bonifati, Rizzu, Squitieri, et al., 2003).


DJ-1 is a ubiquitous protein, highly expressed in almost all cells and tissue (Figure 5). Distribution studies indicate that DJ-1 is preferentially expressed in testis, brain and kidney. In the brain, DJ-1 is expressed in both neurons and glial cells. The expression level of DJ-1 is increased under oxidative stress conditions both in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases(Ariga et al., 2013). DJ-1 is also frequently overexpressed in the several tumor types (Cao et al., 2015).
Atlas Image
Figure 5 (adapted from PROTEOMICS DB - shows the central and peripheral distribution of DJ-1 in human tissues. It is a ubiquitous protein, expressed in almost all human body systems.


Subcellular localization: DJ-1 is mainly localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria and is secreted into culture medium or serum, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and nipple fluid(Ariga, 2015). DJ-1 is translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus upon addition of a mitogen to the culture medium, while it translocates to mitochondria after oxidative stress (Junn et al., 2009).
Atlas Image
Figure 6 (fromGeneCards database and based on Compartments shows the subcellular localizations of DJ-1 into cellular structures. Data are derived from database annotations, automatic text mining of the biomedical literature, and sequence-based predictions. The confidence of each association is indicated with numbers (the higher number corresponds to a greater confidence).


The product of DJ-1 is an 189 amino acidic highly conserved multifunctional protein belonging to the peptidase C56 family (Lev et al., 2006). It mainly acts as regulator of transcription, redox-sensitive chaperone, sensor for oxidative stress, cysteine protease, and seems to protect neurons from ROS-induced apoptosis (Figure 7) (Xu et al., 2005; Ariga et al., 2013).
The oxidative stress sensor activity is carried out by three cysteine residues at C46, C53 and C106: under oxidative stress conditions, C106 is firstly oxidized from SH to SOH, SO2H and to SO3H form. The other cysteine residues then follow the same process of oxidation.
The regulation of transcription is mediated by DJ-1 binding with various transcription factors without directly tie up to DNA. Transcription factors or modified proteins identified so far include TP53, the androgen receptorAR and its regulatory proteins, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor(SFPQ), KEAP1, an inhibitor for nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NFE2L2), the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription1 (STAT1) (Ariga, 2015).
DJ-1 is also involved in the activation or repression of cell growth and cell death signaling pathways. Specifically, this polypeptide modulates p53 activity, the PI3K/Akt pathway by interacting with PTEN, and intervenes in the Raf/Erk pathway together with ras (Ariga, 2015). To this regard, it should be reminded that the first identified DJ-1 function was its oncogene activity transforming mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated ras (Nagakubo et al., 1997).
Atlas Image
Figure 7 summarizes the functions of DJ-1 and related diseases. It is though that excess of activation or loss of function of DJ-1 triggers the onset of various diseases, including cancer and oxidative stress-related diseases. Abbreviations: PD - Parkinsons Disease, FAP - familial amyloid polyneuropathy; COPD - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adapted from (Ariga, 2015).


The PARK7 Gene Tree shows a great evolutionary conservation across species (Figure 8). The internal nodes of the phylogenetic tree are annotated for duplication (red boxes) and speciation (blue boxes) events, which correspond to paralogs and orthologs genes respectively.
Atlas Image
Figure 8. The PARK7 Gene Tree shows the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree representing the evolutionary history of this gene, constructed using the alignment of a representative protein for each species (green bars). This Gene tree has been generated by Ensembl (GeneTree ENSGT00390000001231).



PARK7 Mutations ExonReferences
Ex1-5del(g.07561_21658del14098) EX1-5(Bonifati, Rizzu, van Baren, et al., 2003)
Ex1-5dup (breakpoints not mapped) EX1-5 (Macedo et al., 2009)
Ex2del (breakpoints not mapped) EX2 (Guo et al., 2010)
Ex5del (breakpoints not mapped) EX5 (Djarmati et al., 2004)
Ex5-7del (breakpoints not mapped) EX5-7 (Hedrich et al., 2004)
c.-122_-107del (g.10539_10554del16)5UTR(Keyser et al., 2009)
Leu10Pro (g.11658T>C) EX2(Guo et al., 2008)
Met26Ile (g.11707G>A)EX2(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
Ala39Ser (g.14192G>T)EX3(Tang et al., 2006)
Glu64Asp (g.14269G>C)EX3(Hering et al., 2004)
Gly78 (g.18230C>T) EX2(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
IVS4+8_9insA (g.18256_18257insA) IVS4(Tarantino et al., 2009)
Arg98Gln (g.19778G>A) EX5(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
(Lockhart et al., 2004)
(Healy et al., 2004)
(Clark et al., 2004)
(Pankratz et al., 2006)
Arg98(g.19779G>A)EX5(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
Ala104Thr(g.19795G>A)EX5Clark et al., 2004)
IVS5+2_12del (g.19809_19819del11)IVS5(Hedrich et al., 2004)
Asp149Ala  (g.33774A>C)EX7(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
Pro158del  (g.33799_33801delGCC)EX7Macedo et al., 2009)
Thr160 (g.33808C>A) EX7(Pankratz et al., 2006)
Glu163Lys (g.33815G>A) EX7(Annesi et al., 2005)
Leu166Pro (g.33825T>C) EX7(Bonifati, Rizzu, van Baren, et al., 2003)
Ala167 (g.33829A>G)EX7 (Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
Ala171Ser (g.33839G>T) EX7(Clark et al., 2004)
Lys175Glu (g.33851A>G) EX7(Nuytemans et al., 2009)
Ala179Thr (g.33863G>A)EX7(Macedo et al., 2009)
(Nuytemans et al., 2009)
Val186 (g.33886T>C)EX7(Hering et al., 2004)
c.*120insA (g.34018_34019insA)EX7(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)
c.*203G>A (g.34101G>A)EX7(Abou-Sleiman et al., 2003)

Table 2 displays the currently known PARK7 genetic mutations related to familial Parkinsons Disease. Details are available at the Parkinson Disease Mutation Database (
Atlas Image
Figure 9 shows the overall distribution of PARK7 somatic mutations in cancer listed in COSMIC Database ( (March 2016). The exact number of collected somatic mutations in different cancer types is indicated in the data labels.


A wide spectrum of mutations in PARK7 have been identified in familial Parkinsons Disease patients from different ethnicities. Mutations include missense mutations in coding and UTR regions, frame-shifts, copy number variations, and splice sites alterations (Table 2).


Along with the germinal mutations occurring in Parkinsons Disease, genetic defects have also been observed in solid tumors. A list of the known cancer-derived mutations is available at the COSMIC Database and is summarized in Figure 9.


No currently known epigenetic mechanismsregulating PARK7.

Implicated in

Entity name
Parkinsons Disease
Mutations in PARK7 are the less common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinsonism (~ 1% of early-onset PD) (Lockhart et al., 2004; Moore et al., 2005). The first identified mutations were a large homozygous deletion and a missense mutation (L166P) identified in both Italian and Dutch consanguineous families (van Duijn et al., 2001; Bonifati, Rizzu, Squitieri, et al., 2003). The other observed familial mutations are summarized in Table 2.
Entity name
Familial amyloid polyneuropathy
Transthyretin (TTR), a protein causing familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), is a substrate of DJ-1 protease (Koide-Yoshida et al., 2007). In normal conditions, both TTR and DJ-1 are secreted into the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, TTR but not DJ-1 is secreted into the culture medium, resulting in the aggregation of TTR protein. Mirror images of both the expression patterns and solubility of DJ-1 and TTR have been observed in tissues of FAP patients, and the unoxidized form of DJ-1 is secreted into the serum of FAP patients. These results suggest that oxidative stress abrogates secretion of DJ-1 and that secreted DJ-1 degrades aggregated TTR to protect against the onset of FAP (Koide-Yoshida et al., 2007).
Entity name
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by cigarette smoking and oxidative stress. Malhotra et al. assessed the expression of NFE2L2 (NRF2) and DJ-1 in non-COPD and smoker COPD lungs and in cigarette smoke-exposed human lung epithelial cells (Beas2B) and mice (Malhotra et al., 2008). COPD patient lungs showed significantly decreased DJ-1 levels. Exposure of Bea2B cells to cigarette smoke caused oxidative modification and enhanced proteasomal degradation of DJ-1 protein. Disruption of DJ-1 in mouse lungs, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and Beas2B cells lowered NRF2 protein stability and impaired antioxidant induction in response to cigarette smoke. Overall, DJ-1 expression was negatively associated with severity of COPD (Malhotra et al., 2008).
Entity name
Type II Diabetes
The expression of DJ-1 is reduced in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Under non-diabetic conditions, DJ-1 expression increases in mouse and human islets during aging. Jain et al. demonstrated that, in mouse islets, DJ-1 prevents an increase in reactive oxygen species and preserves mitochondrial integrity and physiology, prerequisites for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion(Jain et al., 2012). Accordingly, DJ-1-deficient mice developed glucose intolerance and reduced βcell area as they age or gain weight. These data suggested that DJ-1 is more generally involved in age- and lifestyle-related human diseases and show that DJ-1 plays a key role in glucose homeostasis (Jain et al., 2012).
Entity name
Loss of DJ-1 increases the sensitivity to excitotoxicity and ischemia, whereas expression of DJ-1 can reverse this sensitivity and provide protection (Aleyasin et al., 2007). Importantly, DJ-1 expression decreases markers of oxidative stress after stroke insult in vivo, suggesting that DJ-1 protects through alleviation of oxidative stress (Aleyasin et al., 2007). Consistent with this finding, (Aleyasin et al., 2007) demonstrated the essential role of the oxidation-sensitive cysteine-106 residue in the neuroprotective activity of DJ-1 after stroke.
Entity name
Prostate cancer
he intracellular level of the DJ-1 polypeptide in prostatic benign hyperplasia BPH-1 cells is inducible and results markedly increased after exposure to stress-inducing agents (H 2 O 2 and mitomycin C). The expression of DJ-1 is relatively high in PC-3 cells at the constitutive level, and incubation with the same cytotoxic drugs does not further modulate the polypeptide expression. Both cytotoxic agents activate the apoptotic pathway in the benign prostatic cells but not in PC-3 cells, which are resistant to their action (Hod, 2004).
Entity name
Renal carcinoma
The expression level of DJ-1 mRNA in a series of 176 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has been measured by (Sitaram et al., 2009). The level of DJ-1 has been demonstrated significantly elevated in clear cell RCC compared with papillary RCC and kidney cortex tissue.
Entity name
Hepatocellular carcinoma
DJ-1 was found significantly up-regulated in 149 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). DJ-1 expression correlates with preoperative alpha-fetoprotein, liver cirrhosis, vein invasion, differentiation and overall survival, thus suggesting DJ-1 as a candidate prognostic biomarker of HCC (S. Liu et al., 2010).
Entity name
Ovarian carcinoma
The expression and clinical role of DJ-1 and its putative association with transcriptional regulators specific proteins (SP1 and SP3) were investigated in ovarian carcinoma by (Davidson et al., 2008). RT-PCR reactions and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression levels of DJ-1, Sp1 and Sp3 mRNAs and PTEN protein. DJ-1 expression resulted positively associated with Sp1 expression in effusions, and with Sp1 and Sp3 expression in solid tumors. Overall, results show DJ-1 is frequently expressed in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma at all anatomical sites and is co-expressed with its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3. In contrast, PTEN expression is infrequent in this disease.
Entity name
Breast cancer
Expression of DJ-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization in 273 breast invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and 41 breast ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) and in cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231). DJ-1 protein expression resulted lower than adjacent non-cancerous epithelium in 6 of the 41 DCISs and in 146 of the 273 IDCs. Patients with IDC and low DJ-1 expression had significant shorter disease-free survival and overall survival. Low expression of DJ-1 protein seems to be predictive of poor outcome in patients with IDC (Tsuchiya et al., 2012). Furthermore, RS/DJ-1 was found to be secreted in the breast cell line SUM-44 and in sera of diagnosed patients with breast cancer (Le Naour et al., 2001).
Entity name
Acute leukemia
DJ-1 was found overexpressed in acute leukemia (AL) patient samples and leukemia cell lines, giving the first clue that DJ-1 overexpression might be involved in leukemogenesis and/or disease progression of AL (H. Liu et al., 2008). Inactivation of DJ-1 by RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in leukemia cell lines K562 and HL60 resulted in inhibition of the proliferation potential and enhancement of the sensitivity of leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic drug etoposide(H. Liu et al., 2008).
Entity name
Cervical cancer
Normal cervical epithelium and patient-matched high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) with cervical carcinoma tissue were compared by using laser capture microdissection and 2-D DIGE (Arnouk et al., 2009). Significant expression changes were observed with 53 spots corresponding to 23 unique proteins, including DJ-1. Results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using either frozen sections from the same cohort or formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples from a tissue microarray. These markers can have potential applications for increasing the predictive value of current screening methods (Arnouk et al., 2009).
Entity name
Non-small cell lung carcinoma
A proteomic approach using two-dimensional gels coupled with mass spectrometry was used in non-small cell lung carcinoma samples to identify proteins altered when treated with paclitaxel, a chemotherapic that activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a MEK inhibitor (MacKeigan et al., 2003). This combined treatment uniquely altered the proteins RS/DJ-1 (RNA-binding regulatory subunit/DJ-1 PARK7) and RhoGDIalpha (MacKeigan et al., 2003).
Entity name
Endometrial cancer
RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the DJ-1 expression in 100 surgical specimens of endometrial cancer tissues, paired tumor-adjacent tissues, and 30 surgical specimens of normal endometrium tissues (Morelli et al., 2014).DJ-1 expression in endometrial cancer tissues was higher than in tumor-adjacent tissues and normal endometrial tissues. At the same time, it was associated with signs of cancer progression, including differentiation, myometrial invasion depth, and presence of lymph node metastasis. Overall, high DJ-1 expression seems to be negatively correlated with apoptosis, and it may be part of the mechanisms for the development, invasion, and metastasis in endometrial cancer (Morelli et al., 2014).
Entity name
Thyroid cancer
A comparative proteome analysis was performed by (Giusti et al., 2008) in order to examine the global changes of fine needle aspiration fluid protein patterns of two variants of malignant papillary thyroid cancer PTC (classical variant and tall cell variant) respect to the controls. Changes in protein expression were identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and peptide mass finger printing via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), as well as Western blot analysis. A significant statistical up-regulation of 17 protein spots including DJ-1 was observed in classical PTC and/or tall cell variant PTC with respect to controls(Giusti et al., 2008).
Entity name
Pancreas adenocarcinoma
To identify potential novel biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from pancreatic juice, (Tian et al., 2008) carried out gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to compare the pancreatic juice profiling from 9 PDAC patients and 9 cancer-free controls. Of the differently expressed proteins, three up-regulated proteins in pancreatic cancer juice were selected for validation by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, including DJ-1. Up-regulation of DJ-1 was associated with better differentiation (Tian et al., 2008). In another study, the DJ-1 protein expression in tissue specimens from 41 patients was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and associated with a negative impact of chemotherapy with gemcitabine on patients survival. Therefore, DJ-1 has been suggested as prognostic markers that express resistance of pancreatic cancer patients to chemotherapy with gemcitabine (Tsiaousidou et al., 2013).
Entity name
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
A study conducted by (Shen et al., 2011)aimed to explore the correlation between DJ-1 gene and survivin gene BIRC5 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The expression levels of DJ-1 gene and survivin gene in 82 laryngeal carcinoma tissues from patients and 82 negative surgical margin tissue samples were measured by immunohistochemistry and the relationship with clinicopathologic parameters was assessed. Positive correlations were found between expression levels and patients clinical parameters in laryngeal carcinoma tissues and tumor stages, but not with lymph node metastasis. The DJ-1 gene expression level was also related to cell differentiation. DJ-1 and survivin play a vital role in the occurrence and development of laryngeal carcinoma. DJ-1 may promote the carcinogenesis of laryngeal cells by up-regulating the survivin gene expression (Shen et al., 2011).
Entity name
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
The expression of DJ-1 in 81 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tumors, 31 paired non neoplastic esophageal epithelia, and 19 paired ESCC lymph node metastases was analyzed by (Yuen et al., 2008). They found that cytoplasmic DJ-1 expression was significantly higher in ESCC and ESCC lymph node metastases than in non neoplastic esophageal epithelium. ESCC specimens with high distant metastatic potential also had a significantly higher level of nuclear DJ-1 expression. A high level of nuclear DJ-1 was significantly associated with poorer patient survival in the cohort (P = 0.028). DJ-1 expression was significantly associated with pAkt, whereas nuclear DJ-1 expression was significantly correlated with nuclear expression of DAXX. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and Daxx-regulated apoptosis might be important in DJ-1-mediated ESCC progression. In conclusion, results suggest that DJ-1 plays a very important role in transformation and progression of ESCC and may be used as a prognostic marker in ESCC.
Entity name
Other malignancies
Increased levels of DJ-1 expression have been observed in other kinds of cancer cells and tissues, including gastric cancer (Shimwell et al., 2012; Li et al., 2013), supraglottic cancer (Zhu et al., 2012), cholangiocarcinoma (Kawase et al., 2009), glioma/glioblastomas(Hinkle et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2013), bladder carcinoma (Lee et al., 2012) and melanoma (Pardo et al., 2006). Increased levels of DJ-1 expression in cancer cells are parallel to severity of cancer with poor prognosis, including metastasis and invasion (Ariga, 2015).


Pubmed IDLast YearTitleAuthors
129532602003The role of pathogenic DJ-1 mutations in Parkinson's disease.Abou-Sleiman PM et al
180038942007The Parkinson's disease gene DJ-1 is also a key regulator of stroke-induced damage.Aleyasin H et al
162403582005DJ-1 mutations and parkinsonism-dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis complex.Annesi G et al
260278202015Common mechanisms of onset of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.Ariga H et al
237668572013Neuroprotective function of DJ-1 in Parkinson's disease.Ariga H et al
198345832009Characterization of Molecular Markers Indicative of Cervical Cancer Progression.Arnouk H et al
124468702003Mutations in the DJ-1 gene associated with autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism.Bonifati V et al
254988032015DJ-1 as a human oncogene and potential therapeutic target.Cao J et al
152549372004Analysis of an early-onset Parkinson's disease cohort for DJ-1 mutations.Clark LN et al
179497812008Expression and clinical role of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in ovarian carcinoma.Davidson B et al
151082932004Detection of Parkin (PARK2) and DJ1 (PARK7) mutations in early-onset Parkinson disease: Parkin mutation frequency depends on ethnic origin of patients.Djarmati A et al
186656252008Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: proteomic analysis to identify cancer biomarkers.Giusti L et al
187852332008Mutation analysis of Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1 and ATP13A2 genes in Chinese patients with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinsonism.Guo JF et al
201460682010Mutation analysis of Parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in Chinese patients with sporadic early onset parkinsonism.Guo JF et al
152109172004Assessment of a DJ-1 (PARK7) polymorphism in Finnish PD.Healy DG et al
148720182004DJ-1 (PARK7) mutations are less frequent than Parkin (PARK2) mutations in early-onset Parkinson disease.Hedrich K et al
153659892004Novel homozygous p.E64D mutation in DJ1 in early onset Parkinson disease (PARK7).Hering R et al
204973432011DJ-1 expression in glioblastomas shows positive correlation with p53 expression and negative correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor amplification.Hinkle DA et al
152589052004Differential control of apoptosis by DJ-1 in prostate benign and cancer cells.Hod Y et al
226112532012Age- and diet-dependent requirement of DJ-1 for glucose homeostasis in mice with implications for human type 2 diabetes.Jain D et al
187117452009Mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 leads to enhanced neuroprotection.Junn E et al
195697272009Differential LC-MS-based proteomics of surgical human cholangiocarcinoma tissues.Kawase H et al
198251602009Identification of a novel functional deletion variant in the 5'-UTR of the DJ-1 gene.Keyser RJ et al
174874202007DJ-1 degrades transthyretin and an inactive form of DJ-1 is secreted in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.Koide-Yoshida S et al
117058442001Proteomics-based identification of RS/DJ-1 as a novel circulating tumor antigen in breast cancer.Le Naour F et al
227409402012Overexpression of DJ-1 and HSP90α, and loss of PTEN associated with invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder: Possible prognostic markers.Lee H et al
170857802006Role of DJ-1 in Parkinson's disease.Lev N et al
241556572013High-expression of DJ-1 and loss of PTEN associated with tumor metastasis and correlated with poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma.Li Y et al
187223522008Expression and role of DJ-1 in leukemia.Liu H et al
214100672010Increased DJ-1 and its prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.Liu S et al
149853932004DJ-1 mutations are a rare cause of recessively inherited early onset parkinsonism mediated by loss of protein function.Lockhart PJ et al
189732542009Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Dutch patients with early onset Parkinson's disease.Macedo MG et al
185566272008Decline in NRF2-regulated antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lungs due to loss of its positive regulator, DJ-1.Malhotra D et al
160225902005Molecular pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.Moore DJ et al
246148262014DJ-1 in endometrial cancer: a possible biomarker to improve differential diagnosis between subtypes.Morelli M et al
90703101997DJ-1, a novel oncogene which transforms mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with ras.Nagakubo D et al
194050942009Relative contribution of simple mutations vs. copy number variations in five Parkinson disease genes in the Belgian population.Nuytemans K et al
169974642006Mutations in DJ-1 are rare in familial Parkinson disease.Pankratz N et al
165702762006The characterization of the invasion phenotype of uveal melanoma tumour cells shows the presence of MUC18 and HMG-1 metastasis markers and leads to the identification of DJ-1 as a potential serum biomarker.Pardo M et al
215561242011Significance and relationship between DJ-1 gene and surviving gene expression in laryngeal carcinoma.Shen Z et al
229686502012Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and DJ-1 in gastric cancer: differences between high-incidence and low-incidence areas.Shimwell NJ et al
193849552009The PTEN regulator DJ-1 is associated with hTERT expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.Sitaram RT et al
166324862006Association of PINK1 and DJ-1 confers digenic inheritance of early-onset Parkinson's disease.Tang B et al
187228012009Compound heterozygosity in DJ-1 gene non-coding portion related to parkinsonism.Tarantino P et al
187060982008Proteomic analysis identifies MMP-9, DJ-1 and A1BG as overexpressed proteins in pancreatic juice from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.Tian M et al
242805702013B7H4, HSP27 and DJ-1 molecular markers as prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer.Tsiaousidou A et al
223853182012Clinical significance of DJ-1 as a secretory molecule: retrospective study of DJ-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in ductal carcinoma of the breast.Tsuchiya B et al
237141932013The positive correlation between DJ-1 and β-catenin expression shows prognostic value for patients with glioma.Wang C et al
128557642003The 1.1-A resolution crystal structure of DJ-1, the protein mutated in autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease.Wilson MA et al
157905952005The Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1 protein is a transcriptional co-activator that protects against neuronal apoptosis.Xu J et al
190645762008DJ-1 could predict worse prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Yuen HF et al
231513192012Tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma.Zhu XL et al
114621742001Park7, a novel locus for autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism, on chromosome 1p36.van Duijn CM et al

Other Information

Locus ID:

NCBI: 11315
MIM: 602533
HGNC: 16369
Ensembl: ENSG00000116288


dbSNP: 11315
ClinVar: 11315
TCGA: ENSG00000116288


Gene IDTranscript IDUniprot

Expression (GTEx)



PathwaySourceExternal ID
Parkinson's diseaseKEGGhsa05012

Protein levels (Protein atlas)

Not detected


Pubmed IDYearTitleCitations
124468702003Mutations in the DJ-1 gene associated with autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism.683
170158342006DJ-1, a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein, stabilizes the antioxidant transcriptional master regulator Nrf2.251
208421032010Inhibition of mitochondrial fusion by α-synuclein is rescued by PINK1, Parkin and DJ-1.185
155028742004DJ-1 is a redox-dependent molecular chaperone that inhibits alpha-synuclein aggregate formation.176
157666642005DJ-1, a novel regulator of the tumor suppressor PTEN.168
209401492011DJ-1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway to control mitochondrial function and autophagy.159
178461732007Parkin-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination targets misfolded DJ-1 to aggresomes via binding to HDAC6.140
159441982005Mitochondrial localization of the Parkinson's disease related protein DJ-1: implications for pathogenesis.138
205063122010Genetic etiology of Parkinson disease associated with mutations in the SNCA, PARK2, PINK1, PARK7, and LRRK2 genes: a mutation update.136
165176092006Oxidative damage of DJ-1 is linked to sporadic Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases.135


Valentina La Cognata ; Sebastiano Cavallaro

PARK7 (Parkinsonism associated deglycase)

Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2016-04-01

Online version: