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NUMB (numb homolog (Drosophila))

Written2011-03Stefano Confalonieri, Salvatore Pece, Pier Paolo Di Fiore
IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139, Milan, Italy (SC, SP, PPDF); IEO, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy (SC, SP, PPDF)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesC14orf41
numb (Drosophila) homolog
chromosome 14 open reading frame 41
numb homolog (Drosophila)
Other aliasS171
HGNC (Hugo) NUMB
LocusID (NCBI) 8650
Atlas_Id 43702
Location 14q24.2  [Link to chromosome band 14q24]
Location_base_pair Starts at 73275210 and ends at 73458580 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping NUMB.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ANXA4 (2p13.3) / NUMB (14q24.2)FUT8 (14q23.3) / NUMB (14q24.2)NUMB (14q24.2) / ALDH6A1 (14q24.3)
NUMB (14q24.2) / GPR68 (14q32.11)NUMB (14q24.2) / HKR1 (19q13.12)NUMB (14q24.2) / SRP14 (15q15.1)
NUMB (14q24.2) / TGOLN2 (2p11.2)RANBP1 (22q11.21) / NUMB (14q24.2)

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure 1: Structure of NUMB gene. Asterisks indicate exons that undergo alternative splicing during NUMB transcript maturation.
Description The NUMB locus spans 183368 bp on the minus (-) strand of the long arm of chromosome 14 and is composed of 13 exons.
Transcription As a result of three alternative splicing events the NUMB locus can generate six different transcripts of 3647 bp (isoform 1), 3503 bp (isoform 2), 3614 bp (isoform 3) and of 3470 bp (isoform 4); isoforms 5 and 6 are only partial and cover only the coding sequence and their representation* is putative.
Pseudogene No known pseudogenes.

Protein

 
  The modular structure of the longest human Numb isoform is shown.
Description The human Numb gene is transcribed in 6 different splicing variants (see above), due to the alternate skipping of three exons. Arrowheads indicate the boundaries of the protein sequences encoded by the three alternative exons. The PTB (Phospho-Tyrosine Binding) domain and the NumbF domain (domain found in the Numb family of proteins adjacent to the PTB domain) are indicated. The position of the DPF (responsible for binding to alpha-adaptin) and NPF motifs (responsible for binding to the EH domain of endocytic proteins) are indicated as gray and red boxes respectively.
Expression From an in-silico analysis Numb RNA messenger seems broadly expressed in human tissues. However in mouse and drosophila it has been demonstrated that isoforms 1 to 4 are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Localisation Mostly cytosolic partially associated to the plasma membrane and vesicles; may be found also in the nucleus.
Function Numb plays a multifaceted role in cellular homeostasis and is implicated in a variety of biochemical pathways connected with signaling, endocytosis, determination of polarity and ubiquitination. The pleiotropic biochemical functions of Numb lie at the heart of its involvement in diverse physiological processes, including cell fate developmental decisions, maintenance of the homeostasis of stem cell compartments, regulation of cell polarity, adhesion and migration. Loss of Numb is implicated in different types of human cancers, underscoring its complex function as a tumor suppressor in normal tissue homeostasis. The role of Numb as an intrinsic molecular determinant of cell fate during developmental programs is inextricably intertwined with the execution of asymmetric mitotic divisions, that is the mechanism through which a mother cell generates two daughter cells with different fates. The unequal distribution of Numb between two daughter cells causes a biochemical asymmetry of pathways epistatically regulated by Numb, a condition epitomized by the differential regulation of the Notch circuitry in the two daughter cells derived from the asymmetric mitotic division of the sensory organ precursor (SOP) in drosophila neurogenesis. This mechanism appears to be conserved between flies and mammals. Numb is involved at different levels in the process of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking. It interacts with the EH domain of several endocytic proteins, such as Eps15 and Eps15R, and with the major clathrin adaptor AP-2, and is subcellularly localized in endocytic/recycling organelles. Numb is also required for the internalization and recycling of transmembrane proteins, such as Sanpodo in drosophila, and different types of integrins or other transmembrane molecules in mammals.The role of Numb in the regulation of cell polarity is exerted through its interaction with core components of the evolutionary conserved Par3/Par6/aPKC (PAR) complex, and through the regulation of adherens and tight junctions. At the biochemical level, Numb is endowed with pleiotropic signaling functions. In fact, besides intersecting the Notch pathway, Numb also modulates the Hedgehog and the p53 circuitry. In general terms, the role of Numb in the regulation of specific molecular pathways is a function of a number of liaisons between Numb itself and components of the ubiquitin/proteasomal machinery. For instance, the interaction of Numb with the E3-ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the Itch-dependent ubiquitination and ensuing proteasomal degradation of Notch. Likewise, the Numb/Itch interaction is a prerequisite for targeting Itch to the transcription factor Gli1, which ultimately affects Gli1 stability and therefore suppresses Hedgehog signaling. Furthermore, the ability of Numb to bind and inhibit the E3-ligase Hdm2 (Mdm2 in mouse) protects p53 from Hdm2-mediated ubiquitination and consequent proteasomal degradation, thus resulting in a positive regulation of the cellular levels of p53 and of its tumor suppressor activity. The downregulatory function of Numb over Hdm2 occurs in the context of a Numb/p53/Hdm2 tricomplex. Loss of this regulatory circuitry results in impaired p53-mediated cellular responses, such as apoptosis, DNA-damage and cell cycle checkpoint activation response, and is relevant to the intrinsic resistance of Numb-defective breast cancers to genotoxic agents. The networking of Numb into ubiquitin-based circuitries appears also to be at the heart of the regulation of cellular Numb levels in homeostasis. E3-ubiquitin ligases, such as Siah1 and LNX, have been implicated in targeting Numb for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Ubiquitin-based biochemical pathways that regulate Numb levels under physiological conditions are likely relevant to cancer as well since, both in breast and in lung Numb-defective tumors, loss of Numb is due to its exaggerated ubiquitination and degradation. Considering its pleiotropic functions in many critical cellular processes, subversion of Numb has been linked to important human pathologies, and in particular to cancer.
Homology Numb appears in evolution roughly with bilateral animals. Mammalian Numb homologues evolved from a common ancestral gene, possibly owing to gene duplication followed by the divergence of two gene families, Numb and Numbl. In the tree, mammalian Numb and NumbL formed two distinct clusters. A gene duplication of the ancestral Numb gene may be occurred prior to the appearance and the divergence of the major vertebrate clades, since one Numb gene is present in the chordate Ciona intestinalis, and one of the two duplicated genes evolved into NumbL via the acquisition of two Numbl unique motifs. Two of the known cellular functions to which Numb participates, endocytosis and ubiquitination, have ancient origins. Endocytosis is widely held to represent one of the distinguishing features between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. There is evidence that endocytosis is present as far back as the last eukaryotic common ancestor. In actual fact, endocytosis might be even older than this, as recent evidence demonstrates that: i) bacteria of the phyla Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia display intracellular membranous compartmentalization, and have membrane coat-like proteins; ii) the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus exhibits endocytic-like protein uptake. Similarly, while ubiquitination is certainly one of the distinctive, and highly conserved, features of eukaryotes, its ancestry can now be traced back to bacteria, both in terms of ubiquitin-like molecules and of enzymatic molecular machinery. By the time Numb appears in phylogenesis, endocytosis and ubiquitination are already cornerstones of the eukaryotic make-up that are deeply interconnected. It is unlikely, therefore, that Numb might have evolved in direct conjunction with these processes. At the same time, the appearance of Numb roughly coincides with the appearance of the PAR complex. While polarity is perhaps as old as cellular life, a clear existence of proteins of the PAR complex can be traced back in animals only until roughly 500 million years ago, probably with the emergence of ancestors of bilateral animals (e.g., nematodes, flies and mammals). It is possible therefore that Numb evolved (or co-evolved) together with the PAR complex. Regardless, Numb might represent (and might have evolved to be) a critical connector between polarization and endocytosis. Thus, Numb might have evolved with an original role in polarity, but because of its membrane location might have subsequently acquired additional roles in the connected endocytic/ubiquitin networks: acting as a go-between between these networks and the hardware of polarity, as well as participating in them in a polarity-independent fashion.
 

Mutations

Germinal None found.
Somatic Two mutations are reported in the COSMIC database, both of them are silent mutations:
- c.1452G>T (Substitution), p.G484G (Substitution - coding silent) in one out of 447 glioma samples screened
- c.354C>T (Substitution), p.A118A (Substitution - coding silent) in one out of 6 malignant melanoma samples screened.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Breast cancer
Prognosis Loss of Numb in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis and with clinico/pathological parameters of biological aggressiveness, such as a poorly differentiated tumor phenotype (high grade), high proliferative index (Ki67 expression), a basal-like phenotype and expression of cancer stem cell markers.
Oncogenesis Numb is a tumor suppressor in the human mammary gland and its expression is frequently lost in breast cancer. Numb-defective breast tumors are addicted to loss of Numb, as witnessed by the loss of their proliferative advantage caused by re-expression of Numb. In these tumors, loss of Numb results in overactivation of oncogenic Notch signaling and impaired tumor suppression function of p53, two molecular events that are causal for transformation. Loss of Numb expression in breast cancer is due to its exaggerated ubiquitination and ensuing proteasomal degradation.
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Oncogenesis The expression of Numb is frequently lost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In NSCLC, loss of Numb results in enhanced activation of the Notch pathway, and addiction of these tumors to deregulated Notch activity. Likewise breast cancer, loss of Numb in NSCLCs is due to enhanced destruction of this protein through the proteasomal machinery.
  
  
Entity Salivary gland cancer
Prognosis Reduced Numb levels correlate with poor prognosis and with clinico/pathological parameters of biological aggressiveness (high grade and proliferative index) in salivary gland carcinomas. The molecular mechanism underlying loss of Numb in these tumors are not yet defined.
  
  
Entity Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Oncogenesis In a mouse model of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), Ito et al. found that reduced Numb expression is necessary for the establishment of blast crisis. A molecular mechanism different from enhanced proteasomal degradation appears to be involved in reduced Numb expression during CML progression, which is represented by the high levels of Musashi2, a repressor of Numb translation. An upregulation of Musashi2 expression was found in human CML patients during disease progression towards blast crisis, concomitant to downregulation of numb expression.
  

Bibliography

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PMID 14687546
 
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Mammalian numb proteins promote Notch1 receptor ubiquitination and degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain.
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PMID 12682059
 
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EMBO J. 2002 Jan 15;21(1-2):93-102.
PMID 11782429
 
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PMID 18493060
 
Numb controls integrin endocytosis for directional cell migration with aPKC and PAR-3.
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PMID 17609107
 
Numb inhibits membrane localization of Sanpodo, a four-pass transmembrane protein, to promote asymmetric divisions in Drosophila.
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NUMB-ing down cancer by more than just a NOTCH.
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PMID 20940030
 
Loss of negative regulation by Numb over Notch is relevant to human breast carcinogenesis.
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PMID 15492044
 
Numb protein expression correlates with a basal-like phenotype and cancer stem cell markers in primary breast cancer.
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PMID 19795205
 
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PMID 8313469
 
Segregation of myogenic lineages in Drosophila requires numb.
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PMID 9428422
 
Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module.
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Numb is an endocytic protein.
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Asymmetric localization of numb autonomously determines sibling neuron identity in the Drosophila CNS.
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PMID 8582263
 
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PMID 11752454
 
Distinct functions of human numb isoforms revealed by misexpression in the neural stem cell lineage in the Drosophila larval brain.
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numb, a gene required in determination of cell fate during sensory organ formation in Drosophila embryos.
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PMID 2752427
 
Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of endocytic proteins.
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PMID 11425879
 
Distinct human NUMB isoforms regulate differentiation vs. proliferation in the neuronal lineage.
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PMID 10468633
 
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Verdi JM, Schmandt R, Bashirullah A, Jacob S, Salvino R, Craig CG, Program AE, Lipshitz HD, McGlade CJ.
Curr Biol. 1996 Sep 1;6(9):1134-45.
PMID 8805372
 
NUMB localizes in the basal cortex of mitotic avian neuroepithelial cells and modulates neuronal differentiation by binding to NOTCH-1.
Wakamatsu Y, Maynard TM, Jones SU, Weston JA.
Neuron. 1999 May;23(1):71-81.
PMID 10402194
 
Polo inhibits progenitor self-renewal and regulates Numb asymmetry by phosphorylating Pon.
Wang H, Ouyang Y, Somers WG, Chia W, Lu B.
Nature. 2007 Sep 6;449(7158):96-100.
PMID 17805297
 
Alterations of the Notch pathway in lung cancer.
Westhoff B, Colaluca IN, D'Ario G, Donzelli M, Tosoni D, Volorio S, Pelosi G, Spaggiari L, Mazzarol G, Viale G, Pece S, Di Fiore PP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 29;106(52):22293-8. Epub 2009 Dec 10.
PMID 20007775
 
Mammalian Numb is a target protein of Mdm2, ubiquitin ligase.
Yogosawa S, Miyauchi Y, Honda R, Tanaka H, Yasuda H.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 21;302(4):869-72.
PMID 12646252
 
Distinct expression patterns of splicing isoforms of mNumb in the endocrine lineage of developing pancreas.
Yoshida T, Tokunaga A, Nakao K, Okano H.
Differentiation. 2003 Oct;71(8):486-95.
PMID 14641329
 
Mouse numb is an essential gene involved in cortical neurogenesis.
Zhong W, Jiang MM, Schonemann MD, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Jan LY, Jan YN.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6;97(12):6844-9.
PMID 10841580
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Confalonieri, S ; Pece, S ; Di, Fiore PP
NUMB (numb homolog (Drosophila))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2011;15(10):848-853.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/NUMBID43702ch14q24.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)NUMB   8060
Cards
AtlasNUMBID43702ch14q24
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)NUMB  8650  NUMB, endocytic adaptor protein
AliasesC14orf41; S171; c14_5527
GeneCards (Weizmann)NUMB
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000133961 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000133961 [Gene_View]  chr14:73275210-73458580 [Contig_View]  NUMB [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000133961
TCGA cBioPortalNUMB
AceView (NCBI)NUMB
Genatlas (Paris)NUMB
WikiGenes8650
SOURCE (Princeton)NUMB
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)NUMB
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)NUMB  -     chr14:73275210-73458580 -  14q24.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)NUMB  -     14q24.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblNUMB - 14q24.3 [CytoView hg19]  NUMB - 14q24.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBINUMB [Mapview hg19]  NUMB [Mapview hg38]
OMIM603728   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA872908 AF015040 AF108092 AF171938 AF171939
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001005743 NM_001005744 NM_001005745 NM_001320114 NM_003744
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)NUMB
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.714879 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.714879
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000133961
Gene ExpressionNUMB [ NCBI-GEO ]   NUMB [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   NUMB [ SEEK ]   NUMB [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)NUMB [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)8650
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)NUMB
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000133961-NUMB [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP49757   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP49757  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP49757
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP49757
PhosPhoSitePlusP49757
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PID (PS01179)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Numb/numb-like    Numb_domain    PH_dom-like    PTB/PI_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)NumbF (PF06311)    PID (PF00640)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam06311    pfam00640   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)PTB (SM00462)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)NUMB
DMDM Disease mutations8650
Blocks (Seattle)NUMB
SuperfamilyP49757
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000133961-NUMB [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP49757
HPRD04767
IPIIPI00028059   IPI00180634   IPI00216241   IPI00180920   IPI01015175   IPI01026389   IPI00384017   IPI01026302   IPI01025968   IPI01025077   IPI01025742   IPI01025649   IPI01025423   IPI01025201   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P49757
IntAct (EBI)P49757
FunCoupENSG00000133961
BioGRIDNUMB
STRING (EMBL)NUMB
ZODIACNUMB
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP49757
Ontology : AmiGOprotein binding  nucleus  early endosome  plasma membrane  focal adhesion  axonogenesis  beta-catenin binding  basolateral plasma membrane  extrinsic component of plasma membrane  lateral ventricle development  neuroblast division in subventricular zone  clathrin-coated vesicle  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of polarized epithelial cell differentiation  adherens junction organization  apical part of cell  alpha-catenin binding  cadherin binding  negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway  positive regulation of neurogenesis  lung epithelial cell differentiation  negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  
Ontology : EGO-EBIprotein binding  nucleus  early endosome  plasma membrane  focal adhesion  axonogenesis  beta-catenin binding  basolateral plasma membrane  extrinsic component of plasma membrane  lateral ventricle development  neuroblast division in subventricular zone  clathrin-coated vesicle  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of polarized epithelial cell differentiation  adherens junction organization  apical part of cell  alpha-catenin binding  cadherin binding  negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway  positive regulation of neurogenesis  lung epithelial cell differentiation  negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  
Pathways : KEGGNotch signaling pathway   
REACTOMEP49757 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5632684 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkNUMB
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkNUMB
Wikipedia pathwaysNUMB
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB8650
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000133961
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamNUMB
HOVERGENP49757
HOGENOMP49757
Homologs : HomoloGeneNUMB
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)NUMB
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanNUMB/ALDH6A1 [14q24.2/14q24.3]  
Fusion : MitelmanNUMB/GPR68 [14q24.2/14q32.11]  [t(14;14)(q24;q32)]  
Fusion: TCGA_MDACCNUMB 14q24.2 GPR68 14q32.11 LUSC
Tumor Fusion PortalNUMB
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerNUMB [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)NUMB
dbVarNUMB
ClinVarNUMB
1000_GenomesNUMB 
Exome Variant ServerNUMB
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000133961
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000133961
Genetic variants : HAPMAP8650
Genomic Variants (DGV)NUMB [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERNUMB [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisNUMB 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalNUMB 
TCGA Data PortalNUMB 
Broad Tumor PortalNUMB
OASIS PortalNUMB [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICNUMB  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDNUMB
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch NUMB
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)NUMB
DoCM (Curated mutations)NUMB (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)NUMB (select a term)
intoGenNUMB
NCG5 (London)NUMB
Cancer3DNUMB(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM603728   
Orphanet
DisGeNETNUMB
MedgenNUMB
Genetic Testing Registry NUMB
NextProtP49757 [Medical]
TSGene8650
GENETestsNUMB
Target ValidationNUMB
Huge Navigator NUMB [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease8650
BioCentury BCIQNUMB
ClinGenNUMB
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD8650
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA31845
Clinical trialNUMB
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)NUMB (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed104 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineNUMB
EVEXNUMB
GoPubMedNUMB
iHOPNUMB
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Tue Nov 21 14:58:11 CET 2017

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