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PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2)

Written2018-04Helmut Hanenberg and Paul R. Andreassen
Department of Pediatrics III, University Children's Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen Germany; (HH); Division of Experimental Hematology & Cancer Biology, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati OH, USA; (APR)

Abstract PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) was first identified as a BRCA2-interacting protein. Subsequently, PALB2 has been recognized as a cog in the cellular machinery for DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). PALB2 also mediates S and G2 DNA damage checkpoints, and has an apparent function in protecting transcriptionally active genes from genotoxic stress. PALB2 also interacts with, is localized by, and functions downstream of BRCA1. Further, PALB2 interacts with other essential effectors of HR, including RAD51 and RAD51C, as well as BRCA2. Consistent with its function in HR and its interaction with key HR proteins, PALB2-deficient cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and DNA interstrand crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin. Mechanistically, PALB2 is required for HR by mediating the recruitment of BRCA2 and the RAD51 recombinase to sites of DNA damage. Similar to bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51 and RAD51C, bi-allelic mutations in PALB2 cause Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare childhood disorder which is associated with progressive bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and a predisposition to leukemia and solid tumors. Due to their close functional relationship, bi-allelic mutations of PALB2 and BRCA2 cause particularly severe forms of FA, called FANCN and FANCD1, both characterized by severe congenital abnormalities and very early onset of various cancers. This includes acute leukemias, Wilms tumor, medulloblastoma and neuroblastomas. Also, heterozygous germ-line mutations of PALB2, like mutations in several other essential HR genes listed above, yield an increased susceptibility to breast and pancreatic cancer.

Keywords Fanconi anemia; Breast Cancer Susceptibility; Tumor Suppressor; Homologous Recombination; DNA Repair

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


HGNC Alias symbFLJ21816
HGNC Alias nameFanconi anemia, complementation group N
LocusID (NCBI) 79728
Atlas_Id 46402
Location 16p12.2  [Link to chromosome band 16p12]
Location_base_pair Starts at 23603165 and ends at 23641310 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping PALB2.png]
Local_order As outlined by NCBI (Gene), coding genes most proximal to PALB2 on 16p12.2, in the centromeric to telomeric direction, are ERN2 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signalling 2), PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1), DCTN5 (dynactin subunit 5), PALB2, NDUFAB1 (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit AB1), UBFD1 (ubiquitin family domain containing 1), and EARS2 (glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2).
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)


Note The PALB2 protein was identified as a BRCA2-interacting protein using mass spectrometry. This was found to correspond to gene locus 79728 (LOC79728), which encodes putative protein FLJ21816 (Xia et al., 2006). In the same study, the first cDNA clone for human PALB2 was generated using RT-PCR. The human transcript includes 13 exons arranged as diagrammed below:
  Exon structure of the human PALB2 gene. Exons are delineated by a vertical black line. The coding sequences are shown in grey, while non-coding sequences in exons 1 and 13 are shown in white. (Above) The encoded protein is shown in blue with key domains and/or motifs that mediate interactions shown in black. CC, coiled-coil; ChAM, chromatin association motif; LDEETGE, extended EDGE motif.
Description The human PALB2 gene (13 exons) spans 38.14 kb.
Transcription Absent confirmed splice variants, the full-length transcript of PALB2 is 4,003 bp.


Note PALB2 has a large number of interactions with other DNA damage response proteins that function in DNA repair by homologous recombination, as illustrated below and reviewed elsewhere (Park et al., 2014b). This includes interactions with BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, RAD51C and XRCC3. In this way, PALB2 functions in a large network of HR proteins and seems to have a key role in coordinating their function (Park et al., 2014b). In particular, direct binding to BRCA1 mediates PALB2 recruitment to DNA damage foci (Zhang et al., 2009a; Zhang et al., 2009b). Notably, KEAP1-dependent ubiquitination of the PALB2 coiled-coil domain suppresses HR in G1 by inhibiting the interaction of PALB2 with BRCA1 (Orthwein et al., 2015). Importantly, direct interactions of the N- and C-termini of PALB2 with BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively, physically links these tumor suppressor proteins (Sy et al., 2009b; Zhang et al., 2009a; Zhang et al., 2009b).
PALB2 also directly interacts with MORF4L1 (MRG15); this interaction appears to be independent of the interaction of MRG15 with the TIP60 histone methyltransferase complex (Hayakawa et al., 2010; Sy et al., 2009a). Additionally, PALB2 interacts with KEAP1, a sensor of oxidative stress (Ma et al., 2012).
PALB2 is essential for embryonic development; homozygous knockout of PALB2 in mice disrupts the normal differentiation of mesoderm and results in embryonic lethality by E9.5 (Bowman-Colin et al., 2013; Rantakari et al., 2010).
Description PALB2 contains a coiled-coil domain at its N-terminus from amino acids (a.a.) 9-44, which mediates interaction with BRCA1 (Sy et al., 2009b; Zhang et al., 2009a; Zhang et al., 2009b). A nearby sequence present at a.a. 88-94 in human PALB2 is responsible for interaction with KEAP1 (Ma et al., 2012). PALB2 contains a Chromatin Association Motif (ChAM) from a.a. 395-446 and a FXLP mofif from a.a. 612-615, which binds to MRG15, thereby promoting the interaction of PALB2 with chromatin (Bleuyard et al., 2012; Hayakawa et al., 2010; Xie et al., 2012). The C-terminal WD40 domain of PALB2, from a.a. 867-1186, directly binds BRCA2 (Oliver et al., 2009), RAD51 (Buisson et al., 2010), RAD51C and XRCC3 (Park et al., 2014a), POLE (pol η) (Buisson et al., 2014) and RNF168 (Luijsterburg et al., 2017). Within the WD40 domain, there is a hidden nuclear protein export signal from a.a. 928-945 (Pauty et al., 2017).
  Key domains in the PALB2 protein and interactions they mediate. Functional domains (or motifs) are shown in black and are identified above the diagram; the amino acids that each domain spans is noted in parentheses. Known interactions which are mediated by the particular domain or motif are shown beneath the diagram.
Expression According to The Human Protein Atlas (online), PALB2 is ubiquitously expressed to varying degrees across different tissues including the brain, bone marrow, spleen, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, testis, ovary and skin.
Localisation PALB2 localises to nuclei in both chromatin and the nucleoplasm during interphase (Xia et al., 2006). In untreated populations of human cancer cells, the majority of cells display a dispersed non-nucleolar signal while a subset of cells also display DNA damage foci. Treatment with agents that induce DNA damage and/or replication stress increases the assembly of nuclear DNA damage foci. The assembly of PALB2 nuclear foci requires interaction of the protein with BRCA1 (Zhang et al., 2009a; Zhang et al., 2009b). Additionally, the recruitment of PALB2 into foci is also promoted by MDC1, RNF8, UIMC1 (RAP80) and ABRAXAS1 (Abraxas), all of which are involved in the recruitment of BRCA1 (Zhang et al., 2012), and by RNF168 (Luijsterburg et al., 2017). MRG15, PALB2 phosphorylated at S59 and hypophosphorylated at S64, the APRIN cohesion factor and phosphorylated RPA2 also promote the recruitment of PALB2 to sites of DNA damage (Brough et al., 2012; Buisson et al., 2017; Hayakawa et al., 2010; Murphy et al., 2014).
Function PALB2 acts as a typical cancer suppressor gene. Mono-allelic loss-of-function germline mutations are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer (Antoniou et al., 2014; Erkko et al., 2007; Rahman et al., 2007) and pancreatic cancer (Jones et al., 2009). Bi-allelic mutations in PALB2 (FANCN) cause a severe form of Fanconi anemia, subtype FA-N, with early onset of acute myeloid leukemia, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and often Wilms' tumor, leading to early death in the first decade of life (Reid et al., 2007).
PALB2 is believed to act as a tumor suppressor protein by mediating DNA repair and thereby suppressing genome instability (Park et al., 2014b). Importantly, PALB2/FANCN-deficient cells have largely reduced levels of wild-type BRCA2 protein (Xia et al., 2007; Xia et al., 2006), reflective of a role for PALB2 in stabilizing the BRCA2 protein. Therefore, the phenotypes of these cells, as well as the clinical phenotypes of FA-N patients, are very similar to those of cells from patients with a BRCA2/ FANCD1 deficiency.
As demonstrated by employing reporter constructs integrated into human cells, PALB2 has an important role in mediating the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) (Xia et al., 2006). While not specifically tested for PALB2, its partner BRCA2 has an additional role in mediating HR in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs); ICLs are specifically repaired by FA proteins (Nakanishi et al., 2011). Consistent with a requirement for PALB2 in DNA repair by HR, and due to largely reduced BRCA2 protein levels, PALB2-deficient cells are hypersensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin (Xia et al., 2007; Xia et al., 2006), and to ionizing radiation (IR) (Park et al., 2014a). As further support for a role in DNA repair, PALB2-deficient cells are also hypersensitive to poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (Buisson et al., 2010) and to aldehydes (Ghosh et al., 2014).
As a mediator of HR, PALB2 recruits BRCA2 and the RAD51 recombinase to sites of DNA damage (Xia et al., 2006). Additionally, PALB2 stabilizes BRCA2 present in chromatin (Xia et al., 2006). Biochemical experiments demonstrate that PALB2 also directly binds DNA and promotes strand invasion necessary to initiate HR (Buisson et al., 2010; Dray et al., 2010). In this process, PALB2 decreases inhibition of D-loop formation mediated by RPA and enhances HR by stabilizing RAD51 filaments. Also, PALB2 interacts with pol η, thereby promoting DNA synthesis at D-loops (Buisson et al., 2014).
PALB2 has additional roles in other facets of the DNA damage response, beyond its role in mediating HR. Among these, PALB2 promotes maintenance of G2 checkpoint arrest in response to DNA damage (Menzel et al., 2011). PALB2 is also required for chromosome stability. PALB2-deficient cells display increased breaks and radials in response to DNA damage (Bowman-Colin et al., 2013). Further, PALB2 has a role in protecting the cell from replication stress. Carriers of PALB2 mutations display increased firing of dormant replication origins (Nikkila et al., 2013) and mice with a single amino acid knock-in of in Brca2, p.Gly25Arg, which is deficient for binding to PALB2, display decreased fork stability in response to hydroxyurea (Hartford et al., 2016). Homozygosity of these Brca2 knock-in mice, and also hemizygosity in combination with Palb2 and Trp53 heterozygosity, results in defects in body size, fertility, meiosis and genome stability, and also increases tumor susceptibility (Hartford et al., 2016). Further, via its chromodomain, MRG15 targets PALB2 to actively transcribed genes and protects them from DNA damage induced by camptothecin (Bleuyard et al., 2017).
Homology Based on HomoloGene (NCBI), the following are homologs of the human PALB2 gene (NP_078951.2, 1186 a.a.):
Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) XP_510877.2, 1186 a.a.
Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) XP_001095569.2, 1135 a.a.
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) XP_850671.2, 1195 a.a.
Mouse (Mus musculus) NP_001074707.1, 1104 a.a.
Rat (Rattus norvegicus) NP_001178532.1, 1110 a.a.
Chicken (Gallus gallus) XP_004945321.1, 1341 a.a.


Note Germ-line frameshift, splice site and nonsense mutations that result in truncation of at least part of the C-terminal WD40 domain of PALB2, which binds BRCA2, are linked to Fanconi anemia (Reid et al., 2007; Xia et al., 2007), as well as breast cancer and pancreatic cancer (Erkko et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2009; Rahman et al., 2007; Tischkowitz et al., 2007). Consistent with the role of PALB2 as an interaction partner in a large DNA repair network, these mutations disrupt the binding of PALB2 with BRCA2 and other partners, thereby diminishing DNA repair by HR.
Germ-line, as well as acquired missense mutations, have also been reported in breast cancer patients (Casadei et al., 2011). At the time of writing, 2023 distinct variations were listed in Clinvar ( for PALB2, with 244 frameshift, 110 nonsense, 43 splice site, 14 near gene/UTR, and 966 missense alterations listed. Notably, the clinical significance, as well as the functional significance, of most of these amino acid exchanges is unknown. These are therefore termed variants of uncertain significance (VUS). However, we have demonstrated by functional tests in reconstituted PALB2-deficient FA cells that the p.L939W and p.L1143P variants in the WD40 domain of PALB2 decrease the efficiency of HR and confer partial resistance to IR, when compared to cells reconstituted with wild-type PALB2 (Park et al., 2014a). More recently, it has been demonstrated that the c.104T>C (p.L35P) missense mutant in the N-terminus of PALB2 segregates with malignancies in a family with a strong history of breast cancer (Foo et al., 2017). The p.L35P mutant protein completely abrogates the interaction of PALB2 with BRCA1 and therefore shows no protein activity in HR assays or in assays of cellular resistance to platinum and PARP inhibitors. The findings with p.L35P demonstrate that missense mutations in PALB2 can be pathogenic. Considering the large number of PALB2 VUS, and given the importance of PALB2 functionality for determining prognosis and treatment stratification in patients, significant efforts should be undertaken to systematically determine the functional consequences of such variants on defined cellular functions. Determination of the effects of PALB2 VUS on cellular sensitivity to PARP inhibitors, cisplatin and related drugs, and irradiation is particularly important, since PALB2 promotes cellular resistance to each of these therapeutic agents.
Epigenetics Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the PALB2 promoter has been observed in a subset of cases of inherited and sporadic breast cancer, and in ovarian cancer (Potapova et al., 2008).

Implicated in

Note Germ-line bi-allelic and heterozygous loss-of-mutations in PALB2 are associated with different clinical disorders and outcomes. Bi-allelic inactivating mutations of PALB2 result in Fanconi anemia subtype N (FA-N, gene: FANCN), while heterozygous inheritance of a deleterious PALB2 mutation increases the lifetime risk of developing breast and pancreatic cancer. Loss of heterozygosity has not been consistently detected in tumors that develop in carriers of heterozygous PALB2 mutations (Hartley et al., 2014). How much germ-line mutations of PALB2 increase the risk of developing other malignancies, such as ovarian or lung cancers, remains to be determined (Phuah et al., 2013).
Entity Fanconi Anemia (FA)
Disease Just seven months after the identification and characterization of PALB2 as a novel BRCA2 binding protein (Xia et al., 2006), two independent groups identified a total of eight FA patients with biallelic mutations in PALB2: [(Xia et al., 2007): n=1, (Reid et al., 2007): n=7]. These patients exhibited a severe FA phenotype with pronounced congenital abnormalities and a high incidence of malignancies before age seven that was similar to the phenotype described for BRCA2-deficient FANCD1 patients (Alter et al., 2007; Hirsch et al., 2004; Wagner et al., 2004). Notably, these eight children developed 12 distinct malignancies (5X medulloblastoma, 3X Wilms tumors, 2X acute myeloid leukemia, 1X neuroblastoma and 1X hemangioendothelioma) before five years of age. One German patient experienced three different malignancies at 12 months of age, and there were cases of breast and pancreatic cancers present in the families (Reid et al., 2007). PALB2 was the 12th identified FA gene, defining the FA-N complementation group.
At present, 22 FA or FA-like genes have been identified (Nepal et al., 2017). Except for the X-linked FANCB and the autosomal dominant RAD51 (FANCR), FA genes are autosomal recessive tumor suppressor genes. Based on the central activation step in the FA pathway, the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2/ FANCI protein dimer, one can distinguish the so-called early (or upstream) FA genes, FANC -A, -B, -C, -E, -F, -G, -L, -M, UBE2T (FANC-T) with no ubiquitination of FANCD2/I when mutated (Mamrak et al., 2017; Nepal et al., 2017). In contrast, late/downstream FA genes are not required for monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. These late genes include BRCA2 (FANCD1), BRIP1 (FANCJ), FANCN/PALB2,/RAD51C (FANCO), RAD51 (FANCR), BRCA1 (FANCS), XRCC2 (FANCU), MAD2L2 (FANCV/polTheta) and RFWD3 (FANCW). Most FA patients have bi-allelic mutations in the upstream FA genes, especially FANCA, FANCC and FANCG, and show the characteristic clinical features of FA. These clinical features include progressive bone marrow failure around 7.6 years of age, various congenital anomalies, and a predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia and an assortment of solid tumors that occur in the second and third decade of life (Kutler et al., 2003). Congenital anomalies observed in FA patients can include microcephaly, short stature, skin pigmentation defects, hypogonadism, and radial ray anomalies. A significant number of FA patients also experience endocrine abnormalities (Rose et al., 2012).
In contrast to other FA complementation groups, FA patients that harbour biallelic mutations in PALB2/FANCN or its partner BRCA2/FANCD1 show clinically indistinguishable phenotypes of severe FA characterized by a very early onset and high penetrance of cancers before age seven (Reid et al., 2007). More than 90% of patients succumb to their malignancies before ten years of age. Notably, the spectrum of cancers found in FA patients from the FANCN/PALB2 and FANCD1/BRCA2 complementation groups is different than for other FA complementation groups, including frequent occurrences of medulloblastoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma and hepatoblastomas (Alter et al., 2007; Tischkowitz and Xia, 2010). Bone marrow failure is usually not observed in FA-N patients (Reid et al., 2007).
On a cellular level, FA including the FA-N/PALB2 complementation group is a chromosome instability syndrome. Notably, FA patients are hypersensitive to agents which induce DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Specifically, cells from FA patients display a characteristic spontaneous and ICL-induced chromosome instability; this phenotype is typically utilized to diagnose FA (Auerbach, 2009). Recently, without functional testing, next generation sequencing based strategies have also been employed to diagnose FA in patients and at the same time identify the defective gene (De Rocco et al., 2014). Additionally, cells from FA patients display accumulation in G2-M of the cell cycle in response to ICLs (Bogliolo and Surralles, 2015). Other cellular functions affected in cells with defects in the FA pathway include sensitivity to aldehydes and oxygen, excessive cytokine production, and defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint, autophagy, cellular reprograming, unwinding of quadruplex and triplex DNA and microsatellite instability (Bogliolo and Surralles, 2015). Correction of the cellular phenotypes by expression of the appropriate FA gene can be utilized to determine the FA complementation group (Chandra et al., 2005; Hanenberg et al., 2002; Virts et al., 2015). For patients with a deficiency for FANCA, stem cell gene therapy might become a new treatment option (Hanenberg et al., 2017).
Entity Breast Cancer
Disease Back-to-back with the identification of PALB2 as the 12th FA gene, Rahman et al. reported the identification of 10 out of 923 individuals (1.1%) from familial breast cancer pedigrees with mono-allelic loss-of-function germ-line mutations in PALB2 (Rahman et al., 2007). A lower frequency of PALB2 germ-line mutation (0.5 to 1%) was found in patients with or without a positive family history (Erkko et al., 2007; Foulkes et al., 2007). Further, founder mutations were detected in Finland (Erkko et al., 2007) and Canada (Foulkes et al., 2007).
The largest study to date included 311 women and 51 men from 154 families with loss-of-function germ-line PALB2 mutations, of whom 229 women and 7 men developed breast cancer. Biostatistical analyses revealed that the risk of developing breast cancer for PALB2 mutation carriers was increased by a factor of 9.07 (95% CI, 5.72 to 14.39) when compared to the breast cancer incidence in the general population (Antoniou et al., 2014). The cumulative risk of female heterozygous PALB2 germ-line mutation carriers to develop breast cancer by the age of 70 was as high as 35%. Thus, along with BRCA1 and BRCA2, PALB2 is among the genes that confer the highest breast cancer risk when mutated. In a recent German study of 5589 breast cancer patients without mutations in BRCA1/2, loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 accounted for 1.15% of cases and were also significantly associated with bilateral breast cancer occurrence (Hauke et al., 2018). Only 8 out of 40 patents with PALB2 germ-line mutations belonged to the triple negative breast cancer subtype (Hauke et al., 2018).
Breast cancer causing mutations of PALB2 include established nonsense, frameshift and splice site mutations, which all are thought to compromise the role of PALB2 in cellular responses to DNA damage. However, it is noteworthy that almost 50% of the PALB2 sequence alterations listed in ClinVar are missense variations of unknown clinical and functional significance. Importantly, loss of function of PALB2 is synthetically lethal with radiation, PARP inhibitors, and cisplatin and related compounds. While tumors, which are driven by mutations in PALB2, typically have loss of function of PALB2, normal tissues retain a functional copy of this gene. As such, radiation and/or PARP inhibitors or platinum compounds may be particularly effective against tumor cells with bi-allelic PALB2 mutations.
Interestingly, the relative risk for ovarian cancer was only increased non-significantly to 2.31 for PALB2 mutation carriers (Antoniou et al., 2014). This is surprising, as the PALB2 protein physically interacts with the products of other ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, specifically BRCA1, BRCA2 and RAD51C (Park et al., 2014b).
Entity Pancreatic Cancer
Disease While BRCA2, which encodes a partner of the PALB2 protein, is the most frequently mutated gene in hereditary pancreatic cancer (Shindo et al., 2017; Zhen et al., 2015), mutation of PALB2 is also an important cause of this disease (Jones et al., 2009). To date, truncating loss-of-function germ-line mutations in PALB2 have been associated with the development of pancreatic cancer. In some pedigrees of families with inherited pancreatic cancer, breast and other cancers have also been observed (Blanco et al., 2013; Zhen et al., 2015).


MRG15-mediated tethering of PALB2 to unperturbed chromatin protects active genes from genotoxic stress
Bleuyard JY, Fournier M, Nakato R, Couturier AM, Katou Y, Ralf C, Hester SS, Dominguez D, Rhodes D, Humphrey TC, Shirahige K, Esashi F
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Jul 18;114(29):7671-7676
PMID 28673974
Palb2 synergizes with Trp53 to suppress mammary tumor formation in a model of inherited breast cancer
Bowman-Colin C, Xia B, Bunting S, Klijn C, Drost R, Bouwman P, Fineman L, Chen X, Culhane AC, Cai H, Rodig SJ, Bronson RT, Jonkers J, Nussenzweig A, Kanellopoulou C, Livingston DM
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 May 21;110(21):8632-7
PMID 23657012
APRIN is a cell cycle specific BRCA2-interacting protein required for genome integrity and a predictor of outcome after chemotherapy in breast cancer
Brough R, Bajrami I, Vatcheva R, Natrajan R, Reis-Filho JS, Lord CJ, Ashworth A
EMBO J 2012 Mar 7;31(5):1160-76
PMID 22293751
Cooperation of breast cancer proteins PALB2 and piccolo BRCA2 in stimulating homologous recombination
Buisson R, Dion-Côté AM, Coulombe Y, Launay H, Cai H, Stasiak AZ, Stasiak A, Xia B, Masson JY
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2010 Oct;17(10):1247-54
PMID 20871615
Coupling of Homologous Recombination and the Checkpoint by ATR
Buisson R, Niraj J, Rodrigue A, Ho CK, Kreuzer J, Foo TK, Hardy EJ, Dellaire G, Haas W, Xia B, Masson JY, Zou L
Mol Cell 2017 Jan 19;65(2):336-346
PMID 28089683
Contribution of inherited mutations in the BRCA2-interacting protein PALB2 to familial breast cancer
Casadei S, Norquist BM, Walsh T, Stray S, Mandell JB, Lee MK, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, King MC
Cancer Res 2011 Mar 15;71(6):2222-9
PMID 21285249
A rapid method for retrovirus-mediated identification of complementation groups in Fanconi anemia patients
Chandra S, Levran O, Jurickova I, Maas C, Kapur R, Schindler D, Henry R, Milton K, Batish SD, Cancelas JA, Hanenberg H, Auerbach AD, Williams DA
Mol Ther 2005 Nov;12(5):976-84
PMID 16084127
Enhancement of RAD51 recombinase activity by the tumor suppressor PALB2
Dray E, Etchin J, Wiese C, Saro D, Williams GJ, Hammel M, Yu X, Galkin VE, Liu D, Tsai MS, Sy SM, Schild D, Egelman E, Chen J, Sung P
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2010 Oct;17(10):1255-9
PMID 20871616
A recurrent mutation in PALB2 in Finnish cancer families
Erkko H, Xia B, Nikkilä J, Schleutker J, Syrjäkoski K, Mannermaa A, Kallioniemi A, Pylkäs K, Karppinen SM, Rapakko K, Miron A, Sheng Q, Li G, Mattila H, Bell DW, Haber DA, Grip M, Reiman M, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Mustonen A, Kere J, Aaltonen LA, Kosma VM, Kataja V, Soini Y, Drapkin RI, Livingston DM, Winqvist R
Nature 2007 Mar 15;446(7133):316-9
PMID 17287723
Compromised BRCA1-PALB2 interaction is associated with breast cancer risk
Foo TK, Tischkowitz M, Simhadri S, Boshari T, Zayed N, Burke KA, Berman SH, Blecua P, Riaz N, Huo Y, Ding YC, Neuhausen SL, Weigelt B, Reis-Filho JS, Foulkes WD, Xia B
Oncogene 2017 Jul 20;36(29):4161-4170
PMID 28319063
Hypersensitivities for acetaldehyde and other agents among cancer cells null for clinically relevant Fanconi anemia genes
Ghosh S, Sur S, Yerram SR, Rago C, Bhunia AK, Hossain MZ, Paun BC, Ren YR, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Azad NA, Kern SE
Am J Pathol 2014 Jan;184(1):260-70
PMID 24200853
Interaction with PALB2 Is Essential for Maintenance of Genomic Integrity by BRCA2
Hartford SA, Chittela R, Ding X, Vyas A, Martin B, Burkett S, Haines DC, Southon E, Tessarollo L, Sharan SK
PLoS Genet 2016 Aug 4;12(8):e1006236
PMID 27490902
Mutation analysis of PALB2 in BRCA1 and BRCA2-negative breast and/or ovarian cancer families from Eastern Ontario, Canada
Hartley T, Cavallone L, Sabbaghian N, Silva-Smith R, Hamel N, Aleynikova O, Smith E, Hastings V, Pinto P, Tischkowitz M, Tomiak E, Foulkes WD
Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2014 Aug 28;12(1):19
PMID 25225577
MRG15 binds directly to PALB2 and stimulates homology-directed repair of chromosomal breaks
Hayakawa T, Zhang F, Hayakawa N, Ohtani Y, Shinmyozu K, Nakayama J, Andreassen PR
J Cell Sci 2010 Apr 1;123(Pt 7):1124-30
PMID 20332121
Exomic sequencing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene
Jones S, Hruban RH, Kamiyama M, Borges M, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Lin JC, Palmisano E, Brune K, Jaffee EM, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Maitra A, Parmigiani G, Kern SE, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Eshleman JR, Goggins M, Klein AP
Science 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):217
PMID 19264984
A PALB2-interacting domain in RNF168 couples homologous recombination to DNA break-induced chromatin ubiquitylation
Luijsterburg MS, Typas D, Caron MC, Wiegant WW, van den Heuvel D, Boonen RA, Couturier AM, Mullenders LH, Masson JY, van Attikum H
Elife 2017 Feb 27;6
PMID 28240985
PALB2 interacts with KEAP1 to promote NRF2 nuclear accumulation and function
Ma J, Cai H, Wu T, Sobhian B, Huo Y, Alcivar A, Mehta M, Cheung KL, Ganesan S, Kong AN, Zhang DD, Xia B
Mol Cell Biol 2012 Apr;32(8):1506-17
PMID 22331464
A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance
Menzel T, Nähse-Kumpf V, Kousholt AN, Klein DK, Lund-Andersen C, Lees M, Johansen JV, Syljuåsen RG, Sørensen CS
EMBO Rep 2011 Jul 1;12(7):705-12
PMID 21637299
Phosphorylated RPA recruits PALB2 to stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate fork recovery
Murphy AK, Fitzgerald M, Ro T, Kim JH, Rabinowitsch AI, Chowdhury D, Schildkraut CL, Borowiec JA
J Cell Biol 2014 Aug 18;206(4):493-507
PMID 25113031
Homology-directed Fanconi anemia pathway cross-link repair is dependent on DNA replication
Nakanishi K, Cavallo F, Perrouault L, Giovannangeli C, Moynahan ME, Barchi M, Brunet E, Jasin M
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2011 Apr;18(4):500-3
PMID 21423196
Fanconi Anemia Signaling and Cancer
Nepal M, Che R, Zhang J, Ma C, Fei P
Trends Cancer 2017 Dec;3(12):840-856
PMID 29198440
Heterozygous mutations in PALB2 cause DNA replication and damage response defects
Nikkilä J, Parplys AC, Pylkäs K, Bose M, Huo Y, Borgmann K, Rapakko K, Nieminen P, Xia B, Pospiech H, Winqvist R
Nat Commun 2013;4:2578
PMID 24153426
Structural basis for recruitment of BRCA2 by PALB2
Oliver AW, Swift S, Lord CJ, Ashworth A, Pearl LH
EMBO Rep 2009 Sep;10(9):990-6
PMID 19609323
A mechanism for the suppression of homologous recombination in G1 cells
Orthwein A, Noordermeer SM, Wilson MD, Landry S, Enchev RI, Sherker A, Munro M, Pinder J, Salsman J, Dellaire G, Xia B, Peter M, Durocher D
Nature 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):422-6
PMID 26649820
Breast cancer-associated missense mutants of the PALB2 WD40 domain, which directly binds RAD51C, RAD51 and BRCA2, disrupt DNA repair
Park JY, Singh TR, Nassar N, Zhang F, Freund M, Hanenberg H, Meetei AR, Andreassen PR
Oncogene 2014 Oct 2;33(40):4803-12
PMID 24141787
PALB2: the hub of a network of tumor suppressors involved in DNA damage responses
Park JY, Zhang F, Andreassen PR
Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Aug;1846(1):263-75
PMID 24998779
Cancer-causing mutations in the tumor suppressor PALB2 reveal a novel cancer mechanism using a hidden nuclear export signal in the WD40 repeat motif
Pauty J, Couturier AM, Rodrigue A, Caron MC, Coulombe Y, Dellaire G, Masson JY
Nucleic Acids Res 2017 Mar 17;45(5):2644-2657
PMID 28158555
Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore
Phuah SY, Lee SY, Kang P, Kang IN, Yoon SY, Thong MK, Hartman M, Sng JH, Yip CH, Taib NA, Teo SH
PLoS One 2013 Aug 20;8(8):e73638
PMID 23977390
Promoter hypermethylation of the PALB2 susceptibility gene in inherited and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer
Potapova A, Hoffman AM, Godwin AK, Al-Saleem T, Cairns P
Cancer Res 2008 Feb 15;68(4):998-1002
PMID 18281473
PALB2, which encodes a BRCA2-interacting protein, is a breast cancer susceptibility gene
Rahman N, Seal S, Thompson D, Kelly P, Renwick A, Elliott A, Reid S, Spanova K, Barfoot R, Chagtai T, Jayatilake H, McGuffog L, Hanks S, Evans DG, Eccles D; Breast Cancer Susceptibility Collaboration (UK), Easton DF, Stratton MR
Nat Genet 2007 Feb;39(2):165-7
PMID 17200668
Inactivation of Palb2 gene leads to mesoderm differentiation defect and early embryonic lethality in mice
Rantakari P, Nikkilä J, Jokela H, Ola R, Pylkäs K, Lagerbohm H, Sainio K, Poutanen M, Winqvist R
Hum Mol Genet 2010 Aug 1;19(15):3021-9
PMID 20484223
Biallelic mutations in PALB2 cause Fanconi anemia subtype FA-N and predispose to childhood cancer
Reid S, Schindler D, Hanenberg H, Barker K, Hanks S, Kalb R, Neveling K, Kelly P, Seal S, Freund M, Wurm M, Batish SD, Lach FP, Yetgin S, Neitzel H, Ariffin H, Tischkowitz M, Mathew CG, Auerbach AD, Rahman N
Nat Genet 2007 Feb;39(2):162-4
PMID 17200671
PALB2 is an integral component of the BRCA complex required for homologous recombination repair
Sy SM, Huen MS, Chen J
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Apr 28;106(17):7155-60
PALB2/FANCN: recombining cancer and Fanconi anemia
Tischkowitz M, Xia B
Cancer Res 2010 Oct 1;70(19):7353-9
PMID 20858716
AluY-mediated germline deletion, duplication and somatic stem cell reversion in UBE2T defines a new subtype of Fanconi anemia
Virts EL, Jankowska A, Mackay C, Glaas MF, Wiek C, Kelich SL, Lottmann N, Kennedy FM, Marchal C, Lehnert E, Scharf RE, Dufour C, Lanciotti M, Farruggia P, Santoro A, Savasan S, Scheckenbach K, Schipper J, Wagenmann M, Lewis T, Leffak M, Farlow JL, Foroud TM, Honisch E, Niederacher D, Chakraborty SC, Vance GH, Pruss D, Timms KM, Lanchbury JS, Alpi AF, Hanenberg H
Hum Mol Genet 2015 Sep 15;24(18):5093-108
PMID 26085575
Germline mutations in BRCA2: shared genetic susceptibility to breast cancer, early onset leukemia, and Fanconi anemia
Wagner JE, Tolar J, Levran O, Scholl T, Deffenbaugh A, Satagopan J, Ben-Porat L, Mah K, Batish SD, Kutler DI, MacMillan ML, Hanenberg H, Auerbach AD
Blood 2004 Apr 15;103(8):3226-9
PMID 15070707
Fanconi anemia is associated with a defect in the BRCA2 partner PALB2
Xia B, Dorsman JC, Ameziane N, de Vries Y, Rooimans MA, Sheng Q, Pals G, Errami A, Gluckman E, Llera J, Wang W, Livingston DM, Joenje H, de Winter JP
Nat Genet 2007 Feb;39(2):159-61
PMID 17200672
Control of BRCA2 cellular and clinical functions by a nuclear partner, PALB2
Xia B, Sheng Q, Nakanishi K, Ohashi A, Wu J, Christ N, Liu X, Jasin M, Couch FJ, Livingston DM
Mol Cell 2006 Jun 23;22(6):719-29
PMID 16793542
Structural basis for molecular interactions involving MRG domains: implications in chromatin biology
Xie T, Graveline R, Kumar GS, Zhang Y, Krishnan A, David G, Radhakrishnan I
Structure 2012 Jan 11;20(1):151-60
PMID 22244764
MDC1 and RNF8 function in a pathway that directs BRCA1-dependent localization of PALB2 required for homologous recombination
Zhang F, Bick G, Park JY, Andreassen PR
J Cell Sci 2012 Dec 15;125(Pt 24):6049-57
PMID 23038782
PALB2 functionally connects the breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2
Zhang F, Fan Q, Ren K, Andreassen PR
Mol Cancer Res 2009 Jul;7(7):1110-8
PMID 19584259
PALB2 links BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the DNA-damage response
Zhang F, Ma J, Wu J, Ye L, Cai H, Xia B, Yu X
Curr Biol 2009 Mar 24;19(6):524-9
PMID 19268590
BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and CDKN2A mutations in familial pancreatic cancer: a PACGENE study
Zhen DB, Rabe KG, Gallinger S, Syngal S, Schwartz AG, Goggins MG, Hruban RH, Cote ML, McWilliams RR, Roberts NJ, Cannon-Albright LA, Li D, Moyes K, Wenstrup RJ, Hartman AR, Seminara D, Klein AP, Petersen GM
Genet Med 2015 Jul;17(7):569-77
PMID 25356972


This paper should be referenced as such :
Helmut Hanenberg, Paul R Andreassen
PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2018;22(12):484-490.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Therapy-Related Hematopoietic Neoplasia

Other Cancer prone implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 4 ]
  Fanconi anemia Familial Myeloproliferative Disorders Hereditary breast cancer Hereditary pancreatic cancer

External links


HGNC (Hugo)PALB2   26144
LRG (Locus Reference Genomic)LRG_308
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PALB2    partner and localizer of BRCA2
GeneCards (Weizmann)PALB2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000083093 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000083093 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000083093 [Sequence]  chr16:23603165-23641310 [Contig_View]  PALB2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000083093
TCGA cBioPortalPALB2
Genatlas (Paris)PALB2
SOURCE (Princeton)PALB2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PALB2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PALB2  -     chr16:23603165-23641310 -  16p12.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PALB2  -     16p12.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathPALB2 - 16p12.2 [CytoView hg19]  PALB2 - 16p12.2 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIPALB2 [Mapview hg19]  
OMIM114480   610355   610832   613348   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK025469 AK097533 AK299152 AL834425 BC044254
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_024675
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PALB2
Gene ExpressionPALB2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   PALB2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PALB2 [ SEEK ]   PALB2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PALB2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of PALB2 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)79728
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PALB2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000083093-PALB2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ86YC2   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ86YC2  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ86YC2
Domains : Interpro (EBI)PALB2    PALB2_WD40    WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf    WD40_repeat_dom_sf   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)PALB2_WD40 (PF16756)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam16756   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PALB2
PDB (RSDB)2W18    3EU7   
PDB Europe2W18    3EU7   
PDB (PDBSum)2W18    3EU7   
PDB (IMB)2W18    3EU7   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase2W18    3EU7   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)2W18    3EU7   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)2W18    3EU7   
AlphaFold pdb e-kbQ86YC2   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000083093-PALB2 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q86YC2
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOdouble-strand break repair via homologous recombination  double-strand break repair via homologous recombination  double-strand break repair via homologous recombination  somitogenesis  inner cell mass cell proliferation  DNA binding  DNA binding  protein binding  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  mesoderm development  animal organ morphogenesis  protein-containing complex  multicellular organism growth  post-anal tail morphogenesis  negative regulation of apoptotic process  embryonic organ development  
Ontology : EGO-EBIdouble-strand break repair via homologous recombination  double-strand break repair via homologous recombination  double-strand break repair via homologous recombination  somitogenesis  inner cell mass cell proliferation  DNA binding  DNA binding  protein binding  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  mesoderm development  animal organ morphogenesis  protein-containing complex  multicellular organism growth  post-anal tail morphogenesis  negative regulation of apoptotic process  embryonic organ development  
Pathways : KEGGFanconi anemia pathway   
REACTOMEQ86YC2 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5693579 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkPALB2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPALB2
Wikipedia pathwaysPALB2
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000083093
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPALB2
Homologs : HomoloGenePALB2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PALB2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : QuiverPALB2
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPALB2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PALB2
Exome Variant ServerPALB2
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000083093
Varsome BrowserPALB2
ACMGPALB2 variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)PALB2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERPALB2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPALB2 
ICGC Data PortalPALB2 
TCGA Data PortalPALB2 
Broad Tumor PortalPALB2
OASIS PortalPALB2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Cancer Gene: CensusPALB2 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPALB2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DPALB2
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPALB2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PALB2
DoCM (Curated mutations)PALB2
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PALB2
NCG (London)PALB2
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
OMIM114480    610355    610832    613348   
Orphanet634    3384    19054    3708   
Genetic Testing Registry PALB2
NextProtQ86YC2 [Medical]
Target ValidationPALB2
Huge Navigator PALB2 [HugePedia]
ClinGenPALB2 (curated)
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDPALB2
Pharm GKB GenePA162398608
Clinical trialPALB2
DataMed IndexPALB2
Other database
Other database
PubMed233 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

Search in all EBI   NCBI

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indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:24:29 CEST 2021

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