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CXCL10 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10)

Written2012-05Frank Antonicelli, Philippe Bernard
Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Laboratoire de Dermatologie, CNRS FRE-3481, UFR medecine, Reims, France (FA); CHU de Reims, Hopital Robert Debre, Service de Dermatologie, Reims, France (PB)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesINP10
SCYB10
small inducible cytokine subfamily B (Cys-X-Cys), member 10
chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10
Alias_symbol (synonym)IFI10
IP-10
crg-2
mob-1
C7
gIP-10
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) CXCL10
LocusID (NCBI) 3627
Atlas_Id 40218
Location 4q21.1  [Link to chromosome band 4q21]
Location_base_pair Starts at 76021116 and ends at 76023536 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping CXCL10.png]
Note CXCL10 belongs to the CXC subfamily chemokine containing a single and variable amino acid between the two first of four highly conserved cysteine residues. The CXC chemokines can be divided into two subgroups according to the presence of the ELR motif or Glu-Leu-Arg. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are potent promoter of angiogenesis, whereas the ELR- chemokine, such as CXCL10, display angiostatic properties (Belperio et al., 2000). CXCL10 exerts its function through binding to CXCR3, a seven trans-membrane receptor coupled to G proteins. However, three CXCR3 receptor splice variants have been reported, with different properties, resulting in different and divergent CXCL10 biological effects. However, NH2-terminal processing of CXCL10 by proteases results in lower affinity with its CXCR3 receptor, whereas truncated proangiogenic chemokine such as CXCL1 and CXCL8 display enhanced activities (Van Damme et al., 2004).
CXCL10 is also named 10kDa interferon γ-induced protein (IP-10), as its secretion by CD4+, CD8+, NK and NK-T cells is dependent on IFN-γ, which is itself mediated by the IL-12 cytokine family. Similarly to IL12p70, the antitumoral effects of IL-27, a new member of the IL-12 family, are mediated either by the IFN-γ/CXCL10 axis, or directly by mimicking the function of IFN-γ (Engel and Neurath, 2010).

DNA/RNA

Note CXCL10 gene, localized on the chromosome 4 at band q21, was originally described in 1985 by Luster (Luster et al., 1985). The CXCL10 cDNA arises from 4 exons encoding for a 12 kDa protein (Liu et al., 2011; Luster and Ravetch, 1987), which is widely expressed. Transcription CXCL10, also named IP-10 for Interferon-g-inducible protein 10, is induced by a large range of innate and adaptive immune stimuli that induce the production of IFN type-1 and tye-2. Inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα, have also been shown to induce CXCL10 expression (Nestle et al., 2009; Nakae et al., 2003). The CXCL10 promoter includes response element for Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)1 and for many other transcription factor such as NF-κB, STAT-1, AP-1, FoxA2a, FoxF2, FHXA/FHXB-1, FHXA/FHXB-2 and CEBP (Lu et al., 2011; Clarke et al;, 2010). It was shown recently that CXCL10 promoter also contains a Gamma Activating Sequence (GAS) response element that is activated following homodimerisation of phosphorylated STAT1 (Saha et al., 2010). CXCL10 mRNA is stabilized by S100b protein binding at the 3'-UTR regions (Shanmugam et al., 2006). Multiple alignment sequences of pig, human, mouse, goat and sheep of CXCL10 gene product shows 86, 74, 72, 82 and 83% of homology respectively (Yang et al., 2007).

Protein

 
Description The primary translation product corresponds to a protein of 12 kDa that is then limited proteolysed in a protein of 98 amino acids mature protein of 10k Da after release of the signal peptide. The three-dimensional crystal structure of CXCL10 has been determined under different conditions, and the protein structural data have the following accession codes 1lv9, 1o7y, and 1o80 in the Protein Data Bank (Fig. 1). CXCL10 activity is bound to its structure and cleavage by MMPs and x-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase enzymes. The C-terminal truncation leaves CXCL10 under an active form, whereas reduction of its N-terminal tail generates a dominant negative antagonist. Then determination of the balance between the agonists and the antagonist forms is of interest in monitoring the role of CXCL10 in cancer and inflammatory diseases (Casrouge et al., 2012).
Expression CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types including T lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, splenocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, osteoblasts, astrocytes and smooth muscle cells.
Localisation CXCL10 is a secreted protein present in body fluids and in tissues.
Function CXCL10 is a pleiotropic molecule that exerts several functions according to the cell type and the CXCL10 receptor isoform they express. The mature form of CXCL10 and two other members of the CXC chemokine family, CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL11 (I-TAC), bind the CXCR3 receptor, with a higher affinity for the CXCR3A than the CXCR3B isoform. A third isoform of CXCR3 (CXCR3-alt) is always co-expressed at a very low level with CXCR3A, but its function has still not been determined ( Lo et al., 2010; Aksoy et al., 2006). According to cell types and CXCL10 receptors, several signalling pathways can be activated. Following to CXCL10 binding, CXCR3A activates Erk1/2, JNK and PI3K/AKT pathways (Liu et al., 2011; Ji et al., 2008; Maru et al., 2008; Aksoy et al., 2006; Loetscher et al., 1998), while CXCR3B stimulated the adenylyl cyclase cascade and p38/MAPK (Aksoy et al., 2006; Giuliani et al., 2006; Lazzeri and Romagnani, 2005; Romagnani et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2002).
Homology CXCL10 has significant amino-acid homology to platelet factor-4 and beta-thromboglobulin, two chemotatic proteins released by platelet (Luster et al., 1985).

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Brain cancer
Note Using mice models, it has been shown an elevated CXCL10 level upon nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocytes infiltration and reduced gliomagenesis (Fujita et al., 2011). Accordingly, Glioma-bearing CXCR3-deficient mice had significantly shorter median survival time and reduced numbers of tumor-infiltrated natural killer and natural killer T cells with respect to wild type mice (Liu et al., 2011). In this line, a therapy combining CXCL10 overexpression with glioma lysate-pulsed DCs revealed synergistic effect against glioma progression (Jiang et al., 2009).
  
  
Entity Breast cancer
Note In vitro study demonstrated that in breast cancer cells Ras-induced overexpression of CXCL10 is mediated primarily through the Raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways. The expression of the splice variant CXCR3-B, known to inhibit cell proliferation, is significantly down-regulated by Ras, suggesting that CXCL10-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation likely involves CXCR3-A (Datta et al., 2006). Besides, in murine breast cancer CXCL10 impairs tumor growth and metastasis formation through recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells and tumor-suppressive T lymphocytes. In such models, CXCL10 expression is controlled by PGE2 and cyclooxygenase inhibition (Bronger et al., 2012). The anti-tumoral immune response is favored by IFN-γ secreted from NK cells which promotes the production of CXCL10 from breast cancer cells, and in turn accelerates the migration of CXCR3-expressing NK cells into the tumor site. Then, activation of autologous NK cells could represent a potential therapeutic adoptive transfer (Kajitani et al., 2012).
  
  
Entity Colorectal cancer
Note Colorectal cancer is a complex disease involving immune defense mechanisms. Data from 108 patients showed that in patients with prolonged disease-free survival, CXCL10 correlated with different subsets of immune cells displaying particular TCR repertoire and with high densities of T-cell subpopulations within specific tumor regions (Mlecnik et al., 2010). Conversely, CXCL10 level increased with advanced colorectal cancer, with vascular invasion and distant metastasis. Then, CXCL10 was associated with poor prognosis and liver metastasis (Toiyama et al., 2012). CXCL10 deleterious effects are triggered by TNFα-induced NF-kB transcriptional activation and can be suppressed by 3'-Chloro-5,7-dimethoxyisoflavone, a synthetic isoflavone derivative (Shin et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Liver cancer
Note Among a 14-gene immune signature, CXCL10 contributes at predicting patient survival with hepatocellular carcinoma issued from two series includes, irrespectively of patient ethnicity and disease aetiology. In this study, CXCL10 correlates with markers of T helper 1 (Th1), CD8(+) T and natural killer (NK) cells, and good prognosis for patients with early disease (stages I and II), but not in late disease stages III and IV (Chew et al., 2012). Besides, use of an orthotopic liver tumor nude mice model with distant metastatic potential, adiponectin downregulates the ROCK/IP10/MMP-9 signaling pathway from tumor cell, and inhibits liver tumor growth and metastasis by reducing the formation of lamellipodia, which contribute to cell migration (Man et al., 2010). Of interest, CXCL10 level in different hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines is determined by melatonin concentration, which therefore could present relevant application for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (Lin and Chuang, 2010). Loss of hepatocyte c-Met receptor causes a strong deregulation of chemotactic and inflammatory signaling such as CXCL10, and alters hepatic microenvironment and aggravated hepatic fibrogenesis (Marquardt et al., 2012).
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Note CXCR3 expression in CD4(+) T cells from pleural plaque and mesothelioma is significantly reduced compared with that from healthy donors, and CD4(+)CXCR3(+) T cells from mesothelioma showed an inverse correlation with its ligand CXCL10/IP10 in plasma. This suggests that CXCR3and CXCL10/IP10 may be candidates to detect and monitor the antitumor immune function in patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma (Maeda et al., 2011). In this respect, although a synergistic antitumor effect is not observed in a combined treatment using CXCL10 and CXCL11, a chimeric molecule engineered by substituting the N-terminal and N-loop region of CXCL10 with those of CXCL11 promotes regression of established tumors and remarkably prolonges survival of mice compared to these chemokines used either alone or in combination (Wang et al., 2010). In this line, a chimeric γc homeostatic cytokine, IL-7/IL-7Rα-Fc promotes afferent and efferent antitumor responses in lung cancer by increasing CXCL10 expression, tumor macrophage infiltrates, frequencies of T and NK cells, effector memory T cells and T cell cytolytic activity against parental tumor cells (Andersson et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Lymphoma
Note CXCL10 was discovered following treatment of a lymphoma cell line (U937) with IFN-γ (Luster et al., 1985). Recently, a prognostic value was attributed to this chemokine in large-cell lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes suggesting a deleterious pathogenic contribution of this chemokine in these diseases development (Pardanani et al., 2011). Likewise, CXCL10 has been associated with epidermotropism of cutaneous T-lymphoma cells, which could partly explain the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the skin in the absence of systemic involvement (Sugaya, 2011).
  
  
Entity Melanoma
Note The antitumoral effects of CXCL10 were demonstrated in vivo using different animal models (Antonicelli et al., 2011; Feldman et al., 2002). Notably, it was shown that suppression of melanoma growth by thalidomide was associated with up-regulation of CXCL10 in the spleen of mice (Kawamata et al., 2006). In Human, induction of IP-10/CXCL10 secretion was proposed as an immunomodulatory effect of low-dose adjuvant interferon-alpha during treatment of melanoma (Mohty et al., 2010). High level expression of CXCL10 was detected in situ in regressive human primary melanoma concomitantly with the CXCR3+ lymphocyte recruitment (Wenzel et al., 2005). A high CXCL10 concentration is also secreted by PBMC from patients with melanoma in regression compared to patients with melanoma in progression (Antonicelli et al., 2011). Besides its chemotactic activity, this chemokine interacts either directly with melanoma cells to control tumour progression (Antonicelli et al., 2011) or reduces the microvessel density (Yang and Richmond, 2004).
  
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note Analysis of 201 ovarian cancer patients revealed that tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells are positively associated with effector cells, and are negatively associated with tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. The synergistic action between IL-17 and interferon-gamma, stimulate CXCL9 and CXCL10 production to recruit effector T cells and therefore contribute to protective human tumor immunity (Kryczek et al., 2009). Viral infection increases detection and elimination by immune cells. Viral infection stimulates RNA helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene-I induced CXCL10 from ovarian cancer cells and HLA class I upregulation. These cells become succeptible to apoptosis, phagocytose by monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, which in turn upregulated HLA class I/II and costimulatory molecules and released CXCL10 and IFN-alpha (Kübler et al., 2010).
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note In prostate cancer, CXCL10/IP10 promotes cell motility and invasiveness via PLCβ3 and µ-calpain activation. Meanwhile, CXCR3A mRNA level is upregulated while CXCR3B mRNA is downregulated in these prostate cancer specimens (Wu et al., 2012). However, in invitro study showed that CXCL10 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and decreased PSA production by up-regulation of CXCR3 receptor suggesting that CXCL10 may be potentially useful in the treatment of prostate cancer (Nagpal et al., 2006). In this line, neoadjuvant hormone therapy boosts the expression CXCL10 in the glandular epithelium of normal prostate tissue, and restored the CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion occurring in prostate cancer, whereas it significantly increased the CD4(+) lymphocyte infiltrate. However, it also increased the number of T regulatory cells, and then might have no impact on disease free survival (Sorrentino et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Immunity
Note Peripheral inflammatory markers are often used as predictor of tumour development. Determination of high level of CXCL10 in peripheral liquids is therefore a marker of host immune response, especially Th1 orientated T-cells, which have been shown to be associated with a better prognosis for many cancer types including brain (Elstner et al., 2011; Okada, 2009), hepatic (Moura et al., 2009) and colorectal (Engel and Neurath, 2010) neoplasms, or melanoma (Antonicelli et al., 2011; Mohty et al., 2010). In this line, natural Killer lymphocytes endowed immunoregulatory functions by secreting IFN-γ. Therefore these cells have been successfully employed to treat patients with myeloid leukaemia and other haematological malignancies (Maghazachi, 2010). Animal model showed apparent overexpression in tissue with tumour undergoing regression reflecting an immune host response (Tosato et al., 1998). Similarly, expression of CXCL10 as determined by immunocytochemistry was increased in tumour skin frozen sections (Daliani et al., 1998). Increased CXCL10 expression at site of injury could enhance the homing of immune cells expression the CXCR3 receptor (Okada, 2009). Recruited Th1 lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 secretion from a variety of cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop (Antonelli et al., 2008). This chemotactic-based amplification loop is impaired when the NH-2 terminal CXCL10 extremity is truncated (Persano et al., 2011; Proost et al., 2001). Although such sustained inflammatory and immune response is of interest to reduce tumour progression, it also may predispose or lead to autoimmune disorders (Lacotte et al., 2009; Antonelli et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2008; Luster et al., 1985).
  
  
Entity Angiostasis
Note As an ELR- CXC chemokine, CXCL10 displays angiostatic effects through binding to its CXCR3B receptor subunit. This anti-angiogenic effect is processed through inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells (Liu et al., 2011; Feldman et al., 2006). These effects are mediated by a downstream CXCR3B activation of the p38 pathway (Petrai et al., 2008). CXCL10 also antagonizes the pro-angiogenic effects of bFGF and VEGF (Aronica et al., 2009; Sato et al., 2007). Of note, the NH-2 CXCL10 truncation impaired its signalling cascade effects with modifying its anti-angiogenic properties (Struyf et al., 2011; Proost et al., 2001). Consequently, CXCL10 level has been inversely correlated with tumour progression such as in lymphoma, squamous cells carcinoma, carcinoma, melanoma and many others tumour types. However, preclinical studies have clearly indicated that such cytostatic factor need long-term administration to display an antitumoral effect, which furthermore is only really efficient during the early phase of tumour progression (Persano et al., 2007).
  

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N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 30;361(5):496-509. (REVIEW)
PMID 19641206
 
Brain tumor immunotherapy with type-1 polarizing strategies.
Okada H.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Sep;1174:18-23. (REVIEW)
PMID 19769732
 
IPSS-independent prognostic value of plasma CXCL10, IL-7 and IL-6 levels in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Pardanani A, Finke C, Lasho TL, Al-Kali A, Begna KH, Hanson CA, Tefferi A.
Leukemia. 2012 Apr;26(4):693-9. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.251. Epub 2011 Sep 13.
PMID 21912394
 
Anti-angiogenic gene therapy of cancer: current status and future prospects.
Persano L, Crescenzi M, Indraccolo S.
Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Feb;28(1):87-114. Epub 2007 Jan 11. (REVIEW)
PMID 17306361
 
Activation of p38(MAPK) mediates the angiostatic effect of the chemokine receptor CXCR3-B.
Petrai I, Rombouts K, Lasagni L, Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Romanelli RG, Sagrinati C, Mazzinghi B, Pinzani M, Romagnani S, Romagnani P, Marra F.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(9):1764-74. Epub 2008 Jan 16.
PMID 18291705
 
Amino-terminal truncation of CXCR3 agonists impairs receptor signaling and lymphocyte chemotaxis, while preserving antiangiogenic properties.
Proost P, Schutyser E, Menten P, Struyf S, Wuyts A, Opdenakker G, Detheux M, Parmentier M, Durinx C, Lambeir AM, Neyts J, Liekens S, Maudgal PC, Billiau A, Van Damme J.
Blood. 2001 Dec 15;98(13):3554-61.
PMID 11739156
 
CXCR3-mediated opposite effects of CXCL10 and CXCL4 on TH1 or TH2 cytokine production.
Romagnani P, Maggi L, Mazzinghi B, Cosmi L, Lasagni L, Liotta F, Lazzeri E, Angeli R, Rotondi M, Fili L, Parronchi P, Serio M, Maggi E, Romagnani S, Annunziato F.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Dec;116(6):1372-9.
PMID 16337473
 
Gene modulation and immunoregulatory roles of interferon gamma.
Saha B, Jyothi Prasanna S, Chandrasekar B, Nandi D.
Cytokine. 2010 Apr;50(1):1-14. Epub 2009 Dec 29. (REVIEW)
PMID 20036577
 
Expression of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 related to angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers.
Sato E, Fujimoto J, Tamaya T.
Oncology. 2007;73(3-4):246-51. Epub 2008 Apr 17.
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Interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10 mRNA stabilized by RNA-binding proteins in monocytes treated with S100b.
Shanmugam N, Ransohoff RM, Natarajan R.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 20;281(42):31212-21. Epub 2006 Aug 24.
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3'-Chloro-5,7-dimethoxyisoflavone inhibits TNF?-induced CXCL10 gene transcription by suppressing the NF-?B pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.
Shin SY, Hyun J, Lim Y, Lee YH.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2011 Dec;11(12):2104-11. Epub 2011 Sep 22.
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Androgen deprivation boosts prostatic infiltration of cytotoxic and regulatory T lymphocytes and has no effect on disease-free survival in prostate cancer patients.
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Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 15;17(6):1571-81. Epub 2010 Dec 15.
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Angiostatic and chemotactic activities of the CXC chemokine CXCL4L1 (platelet factor-4 variant) are mediated by CXCR3.
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Blood. 2011 Jan 13;117(2):480-8. Epub 2010 Oct 27.
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Sugaya M.
Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2011;34(2):91-8. (REVIEW)
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Int J Oncol. 2012 Feb;40(2):560-6. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1247. Epub 2011 Oct 31.
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Antonicelli, F ; Bernard, P
CXCL10 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(11):782-788.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/CXCL10ID40218ch4q21.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)CXCL10   10637
Cards
AtlasCXCL10ID40218ch4q21
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)CXCL10  3627  C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10
AliasesC7; IFI10; INP10; IP-10; 
SCYB10; crg-2; gIP-10; mob-1
GeneCards (Weizmann)CXCL10
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000169245 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000169245 [Gene_View]  chr4:76021116-76023536 [Contig_View]  CXCL10 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000169245
TCGA cBioPortalCXCL10
AceView (NCBI)CXCL10
Genatlas (Paris)CXCL10
WikiGenes3627
SOURCE (Princeton)CXCL10
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)CXCL10
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)CXCL10  -     chr4:76021116-76023536 -  4q21.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)CXCL10  -     4q21.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblCXCL10 - 4q21.1 [CytoView hg19]  CXCL10 - 4q21.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBICXCL10 [Mapview hg19]  CXCL10 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM147310   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA321649 AA505379 BC010954 BF056337 DQ892786
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001565
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)CXCL10
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.632586 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.632586
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000169245
Gene ExpressionCXCL10 [ NCBI-GEO ]   CXCL10 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   CXCL10 [ SEEK ]   CXCL10 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)CXCL10 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3627
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)CXCL10
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP02778   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP02778  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP02778
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP02778
PhosPhoSitePlusP02778
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)SMALL_CYTOKINES_CXC (PS00471)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Chemokine_CXC    Chemokine_CXC_CS    Chemokine_IL8-like_dom    CXC_Chemokine_domain   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)IL8 (PF00048)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00048   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)SCY (SM00199)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)CXCL10
DMDM Disease mutations3627
Blocks (Seattle)CXCL10
PDB (SRS)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
PDB (PDBSum)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
PDB (IMB)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
PDB (RSDB)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1LV9    1O7Y    1O7Z    1O80   
SuperfamilyP02778
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000169245
Peptide AtlasP02778
HPRD00930
IPIIPI00022448   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P02778
IntAct (EBI)P02778
FunCoupENSG00000169245
BioGRIDCXCL10
STRING (EMBL)CXCL10
ZODIACCXCL10
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP02778
Ontology : AmiGOreceptor binding  protein binding  extracellular region  extracellular region  extracellular space  chemotaxis  inflammatory response  immune response  signal transduction  cell surface receptor signaling pathway  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  cell-cell signaling  muscle organ development  chemokine activity  blood circulation  heparin binding  positive regulation of cell proliferation  cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity  response to cold  external side of plasma membrane  response to gamma radiation  T cell chemotaxis  regulation of T cell chemotaxis  response to auditory stimulus  negative regulation of angiogenesis  positive regulation of cAMP metabolic process  response to vitamin D  cellular response to heat  endothelial cell activation  regulation of cell proliferation  positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling  negative regulation of myoblast differentiation  regulation of protein kinase activity  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding  positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol  defense response to virus  chemokine-mediated signaling pathway  cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis  regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis  negative regulation of myoblast fusion  positive regulation of T cell migration  
Ontology : EGO-EBIreceptor binding  protein binding  extracellular region  extracellular region  extracellular space  chemotaxis  inflammatory response  immune response  signal transduction  cell surface receptor signaling pathway  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  cell-cell signaling  muscle organ development  chemokine activity  blood circulation  heparin binding  positive regulation of cell proliferation  cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity  response to cold  external side of plasma membrane  response to gamma radiation  T cell chemotaxis  regulation of T cell chemotaxis  response to auditory stimulus  negative regulation of angiogenesis  positive regulation of cAMP metabolic process  response to vitamin D  cellular response to heat  endothelial cell activation  regulation of cell proliferation  positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling  negative regulation of myoblast differentiation  regulation of protein kinase activity  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding  positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol  defense response to virus  chemokine-mediated signaling pathway  cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis  regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis  negative regulation of myoblast fusion  positive regulation of T cell migration  
Pathways : KEGG   
REACTOMEP02778 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-6783783 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkCXCL10
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkCXCL10
Wikipedia pathwaysCXCL10
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB3627
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000169245
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamCXCL10
HOVERGENP02778
HOGENOMP02778
Homologs : HomoloGeneCXCL10
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)CXCL10
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerCXCL10 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)CXCL10
dbVarCXCL10
ClinVarCXCL10
1000_GenomesCXCL10 
Exome Variant ServerCXCL10
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)CXCL10 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP3627
Genomic Variants (DGV)CXCL10 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERCXCL10 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisCXCL10 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalCXCL10 
TCGA Data PortalCXCL10 
Broad Tumor PortalCXCL10
OASIS PortalCXCL10 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICCXCL10  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDCXCL10
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch CXCL10
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)CXCL10
DoCM (Curated mutations)CXCL10 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)CXCL10 (select a term)
intoGenCXCL10
NCG5 (London)CXCL10
Cancer3DCXCL10(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM147310   
Orphanet
MedgenCXCL10
Genetic Testing Registry CXCL10
NextProtP02778 [Medical]
TSGene3627
GENETestsCXCL10
Target ValidationCXCL10
Huge Navigator CXCL10 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease3627
BioCentury BCIQCXCL10
ClinGenCXCL10
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD3627
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA35568
Clinical trialCXCL10
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)CXCL10 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed496 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineCXCL10
EVEXCXCL10
GoPubMedCXCL10
iHOPCXCL10
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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