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EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta)

Written2019-05Luigi Cristiano
Aesthetic and medical biotechnologies research unit, Prestige, Terranuova Bracciolini, Italy; prestige.infomed@gmail.com; luigicristiano@libero.it

Abstract Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta, alias EEF1D, is a protein-coding gene that plays a role in the elongation step of translation and considering its importance it is found frequently overexpressed in human cancer cells. This review collects the data on DNA/RNA, on the protein encoded and on the diseases where EEF1D is involved.

Keywords EEF1D; Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta; Translation; Translation elongation factor; protein synthesis; cancer; oncogene; cancer marker

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_nameseukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein)
Alias_symbol (synonym)EF-1D
FLJ20897
Other aliasEukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein)
EF1D
eEF1delta;
eEF1Bdelta;
TEF-1delta;
FP1047
antigen NY-CO-4
HGNC (Hugo) EEF1D
LocusID (NCBI) 1936
Atlas_Id 43240
Location 8q24.3  [Link to chromosome band 8q24]
Location_base_pair Starts at 143579722 and ends at 143597675 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping EEF1D.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure. 1. EEF1D gene and splicing variants/isoforms. The figure shows the locus on chromosome 8 of the EEF1D gene (reworked from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene; http://grch37.ensembl.org; www.genecards.org)
Description EEF1D (Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1 delta) is a protein-coding gene that starts at 143,579,722 nt and ends at 143,597,675 nt from pter. It has a length of 17,954 bp and the current reference sequence is NC_000008.11. It is proximal to the NAPRT (nicotinate phospho-ribosyl-transferase domain containing 1) gene and TIGD5 (tigger transposable element derived 5) gene. Around the genomic locus of EEF1D there are different promoter or enhancer transcriptional elements. Two strong of these elements are closer to the sequence of EEF1D gene and are located at +1.6 kb and at -1.2 kb respectively.
Transcription Several alternative splicing transcript variants for EEF1D were observed and they encode multiple eEF1D isoforms. Their main characteristics are reported in Table.1 . The main reference sequence is NM_032378.5 that corresponds to the variant 1 of EEF1D mRNA, alias EEF1D-205 or EEF1D-001, and it is 2,473 bp long. The 5'UTR counts 459 nt, the CDS is extended from 460 to 2,403 nt, while the 3'UTR covers the last 70 nt.
NameVariantRefSeq (1)Transcript IDExonsTypeLenght (bp)IsoformAliasRefSeq (2)Lenght (aa)MW (kDa)pI
EEF1D-204Var.3NM_001130053ENST00000423316.69protein coding2356Isoform 1-NP_00112352564771.426.02
EEF1D-205 (EEF1D-001)Var.1NM_032378ENST00000442189.610protein coding2473Isoform 1-NP_11575464771.426.02
EEF1D-201Var.6NM_001130057ENST00000317198.108protein coding1458Isoform 2-NP_00112352928131.124.90
EEF1D-203Var.5NM_001130055ENST00000419152.6 9protein coding1427Isoform 2-NP_00112352728131.124.90
EEF1D-225  (EEF1D-006)--ENST00000529272.58protein coding1311---281--
EEF1D-202  (EEF1D-002)Var.9NM_001289950ENST00000395119.78protein coding1428Isoform 2-NP_00127687928131.124.90
Var.2NM_0019601251Isoform 2-NP_00195128131.124.90
EEF1D-207 (EEF1D-053)--ENST00000524624.58protein coding1084---257--
EEF1D-218  (EEF1D-005)Var.8NM_001195203ENST00000526838.58protein coding1194Isoform 5-NP_00118213226229.074.91
EEF1D-223  (EEF1D-004)Var.7NM_001130056 ENST00000528610.57protein coding1179Isoform 4-NP_00112352825728.564.81
Var.10NM_0013177431176Isoform 4-NP_00130467225728.564.81
Var.11NM_0013306461386Isoform 4-NP_00131757525728.564.81
EEF1D-246 (EEF1D-007)--ENST00000532741.58protein coding2387---697--
EEF1D-256--ENST00000618139.210protein coding2238---631--
EEF1D-232 (EEF1D-017)--ENST00000530445.55protein coding1217---166--
EEF1D-253 (EEF1D-048)--ENST00000534380.58protein coding1001---261--
EEF1D-216 (EEF1D-040)--ENST00000526710.11protein coding996---300--
EEF1D-239 (EEF1D-034)--ENST00000531670.53protein coding926---179--
EEF1D-230 (EEF1D-032)--ENST00000530191.55protein coding853---204--
EEF1D-247 (EEF1D-047)--ENST00000533204.57protein coding842---204--
EEF1D-238 (EEF1D-020)--ENST00000531621.57protein coding840---238--
EEF1D-208 (EEF1D-037)--ENST00000524883.12protein coding828---180--
EEF1D-237 (EEF1D-035)--ENST00000531281.12protein coding813---257--
EEF1D-244 (EEF1D-033)--ENST00000532543.12protein coding791---39--
EEF1D-236 (EEF1D-046)--ENST00000531218.57protein coding787---198--
EEF1D-215 (EEF1D-039)--ENST00000526340.56protein coding770---63--
EEF1D-245 (EEF1D-042)--ENST00000532596.53protein coding761---190--
EEF1D-248 (EEF1D-045)--ENST00000533494.57protein coding758---168--
EEF1D-234 (EEF1D-011)--ENST00000530616.56protein coding749---210--
EEF1D-249 (EEF1D-052)--ENST00000533749.55protein coding633---137--
EEF1D-252 (EEF1D-049)--ENST00000534377.55protein coding617---187--
EEF1D-233 (EEF1D-027)--ENST00000530545.53protein coding616---84--
EEF1D-241 (EEF1D-024)--ENST00000531931.12protein coding614---35--
EEF1D-210 (EEF1D-050)--ENST00000525223.12protein coding610---39--
EEF1D-228 (EEF1D-043)--ENST00000529832.53protein coding600---146--
EEF1D-231 (EEF1D-041)--ENST00000530306.53protein coding583---129--
EEF1D-211 (EEF1D-031)--ENST00000525261.53protein coding559---81--
EEF1D-220 (EEF1D-026)--ENST00000528303.54protein coding558---21--
EEF1D-255 (EEF1D-029)--ENST00000534804.54protein coding555---68--
EEF1D-222 (EEF1D-036)--ENST00000528519.12protein coding553---157--
EEF1D-254 (EEF1D-030)--ENST00000534475.54protein coding538---31--
EEF1D-214 (EEF1D-038)--ENST00000526135.53protein coding535---53--
EEF1D-229 (EEF1D-014)--ENST00000530109.53protein coding533---156--
EEF1D-242 (EEF1D-021)--ENST00000531953.53protein coding506---49--
EEF1D-226 (EEF1D-019)--ENST00000529516.56protein coding473---139--
EEF1D-227 (EEF1D-015)--ENST00000529576.53protein coding424---119--
EEF1D-243 (EEF1D-016)--ENST00000532400.14protein coding419---99--
EEF1D-213 (EEF1D-022)--ENST00000526133.12protein coding367---36--
EEF1D-209 (EEF1D-044)--ENST00000524900.13protein coding343---62--
EEF1D-221 (EEF1D-013)--ENST00000528382.13protein coding308---36--
EEF1D-206--ENST00000524397.58nonsense md957------
EEF1D-224--ENST00000529007.58nonsense md861------
EEF1D-250--ENST00000533833.57nonsense md831------
EEF1D-240--ENST00000531770.54processed transcript589------
EEF1D-219--ENST00000527741.54retained intron3718------
EEF1D-217 --ENST00000526786.56retained intron1246------
EEF1D-212 --ENST00000525695.53retained intron907------
EEF1D-251 --ENST00000534232.56retained intron817------
EEF1D-235--ENST00000530848.55retained intron688------

Table.1 Alterative splicing variants and isoforms of EEF1D.  (reworked from http://grch37.ensembl.org; ttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; https://web.expasy.org/protparam/; https://www.uniprot.org) ncRNA = non-coding RNA;  nonsense md =  nonsense mediated decay;  (?) = undetermined;  MW  = molecular weight;  pI = theoretical pI
Pseudogene According to Entrez Gene, the analysis of the human genome revealed the presence of several pseudogenes for EEF1D (Table.2) classified as processed pseudogenes and probably originated by retrotransposition. If these elements have any regulatory role in the expression of the respective gene as described for others (Hirotsune et al., 2003), is only speculation in the absence of experimental evidence.
Little more characterized are EEF1DP3 and EEF1DP4 pseudogenes respect the others. What is known is that these two pseudogenes are probably involved in human cancers or in other diseases. Especially EEF1DP3 was found in some genomic rearrangements with the formation of hybrid genes among which the most studied is EEF1DP3/FRY (Kim et al., 2015).
GeneGene  nameGene IDRefSeqLocusLocationStartEndLenght (nt)Main diseases/td>Reference
EEF1DP1EEF1D pseudogene 1126037NC_000019.10 Chromosome 1919p13.121407032514071304980Large B-cell lymphoma (?)-
Myeloid leukemia (?)-
EEF1DP2EEF1D pseudogene 2442429NC_000009.12 Chromosome 99q22.319283676692837741976Melanoma (?)-
EEF1DP3EEF1D pseudogene 3196549NC_000013.11 Chromosome 1313q13.13184678331959584112802Prostate carcinomaErho et al., 2012
 Breast carcinomaKim et al., 2015
Ankylosing spondylitisShahba et al., 2018
Melanoma (?)-
Non-small cell lung cancer (?)-
Multiple sclerosis (?)-
Large B-cell lymphoma cell lines (SUDHL4, Toledo, OCI-Ly3)(?)-
Lung adenocarcinoma (?)-
Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (?) 
EEF1DP4EEF1D pseudogene 4442325NC_000007.14 Chromosome 77q11.2164862951648644501500Glioma (?)-
Breast carcinoma (?)-
Primary myelofibrosis (?)-
Osteosarcoma (?)-
EEF1DP5EEF1D pseudogene 5442258NC_000006.12 Chromosome 66q22.33128580065128580952888 Breast carcinomaStefansson et al., 2011
EEF1DP6EEF1D pseudogene 6644357NC_000001.11 Chromosome 11p36.3241754634175899437--
EEF1DP7EEF1D pseudogene 7100422656NC_000017.11 Chromosome 1717q23.36363660163637110510--
EEF1DP8EEF1D pseudogene 8283236NC_000011.10 Chromosome 1111q12.36216921962169827609--

Table.2 EEF1D pseudogenes (reworked from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1937; https://www.targetvalidation.org; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geoprofiles/) [ (?) ] uncertain;  [ - ] no reference

Protein

 
  Figure.2 eEF1D protein isoforms. Graphical representation of eEF1D protein isoforms with the highlight of the main verified post-translational modifications (reworked from Kaitsuka et al., 2015; Kaitsuka et al., 2011; http://grch37.ensembl.org; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P29692; http://bioinf.umbc.edu/dmdm/gene_prot_page.php).
Description The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (alias eEF1D, eEF1delta;, eEF1Bdelta;) is a subunit of the macromolecular eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1 complex (alias eEF1, also called eEF1H), a high-molecular-weight form made up of an aggregation of different protein subunits: EEF1A (alias eEF1α), EEF1B2 (alias eEF1Β, eEF1Bα, eEF1B2), EEF1G (alias eEF1γ, heEF1γ, eEF1Bγ), EEF1D and valyl t-RNA synthetase ( VARS). eEF1H protein complex plays a central role in peptide elongation during eukaryotic protein biosynthesis, in particular for the delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome mediated by the hydrolysis of GTP. In fact, during the translation elongation step, the inactive GDP-bound form of eEF1A (eEF1A-GDP) is converted to its active GTP-bound form (eEF1A-GTP) by eEF1BGD-complex mediated the GTP hydrolysis. Thus eEF1BGD-complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) regenerating eEF1A-GTP for the successive elongation cycle. The physiological role of eEF1D in the translation context is still not well defined, however eEF1D seems to strictly collaborate with eEF1B in the conversion of eEF1A from its inactive GDP-bound form to its active GTP-bound form and so it covers a role as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for eEF1A (Le Sourd et al., 2006; Browne and Proud, 2002).
There are known four isoforms produced by alternative splicing: the isoform 1 (RefSeq NP_001123525 or NP_115754), also called eEF1DL or eEF1Bdelta;L, is the longest isoform that also has been chosen as the canonical sequence and it is formed by 647 residues. It is found in the eEF1H protein complex and it shows many domains: in the carboxyl half terminal there are an acidic region and an EF-1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain (EF1-GNE domain / GEF) while in the amino half terminal there are a highly-conserved leucine-rich zipper-like region (aa 184-225), a basic region (aa 272-294) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS)(Kaitsuka et al., 2015; Kaitsuka et al., 2011; Sanders et al., 1993). The basic region seems to be involved in DNA binding while the leucine zipper region may be a protein interaction domain. However, the exact functional role of these regions is unclear (Kaitsuka et al., 2015). The N-terminal domain of eEF1D interacts with the NT-eEF1G domain of eEF1G (Cao et al., 2014; Mansilla et al., 2002; Janssen et al., 1994) but there are no interactions between eEF1D and eEF1B (Sheu and Traugh, 1997), although different interactional models were proposed (Le Sourd et al., 2006; Jiang et al.,2005; Sheu and Traugh, 1999; Minella et al., 1998).
The long isoform of eEF1D (eEF1DL) interacts with HSF1 and NFE2L2 (NRF2) proteins into the nucleus (Kaitsuka et al., 2011; https://www.genecards.org) and regulates induction of heat-shock-responsive genes, such as HSPA6, CRYAB, DNAJB1 and HO-1, through the association with the heat shock transcription factors and with a direct DNA-binding at heat shock promoter elements (HSE) (Kaitsuka et al., 2015; Kaitsuka et al., 2011; https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P29692).
The isoform 2, with 281 amino acids, is smaller and, as the isoform 1, it is a multi-domain protein which consists of three main domains: from the amino to carboxyl half terminal there are an N-terminal leucine zipper domain, a C-terminal acidic region and a C-terminal domain that shows GDP/GTP exchange activity (GEF)( Kaitsuka et al., 2015; Kaitsuka et al., 2011). The roles of the isoform 4 and isoform 5 are still undefined.
All isoforms have many interaction surface points with the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) protein (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/ NP_001123525) and interact with the valyl -tRNA synthetase (Val-RS)(Le Sourd et al., 2006; Bec et al., 1994).
EEF1D interacts with SIAH1, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase involved in the regulation of cell cycle, tumorigenesis and also in the initiation of neurodegenerative diseases. Is reported that the overexpression of EEF1D is linked with an increase in SIAH-1 levels due to the inhibition of its autoubiquitination and thus of its degradation (Wu et al., 2011). In addition, EEF1D is an interaction partner of kinectin that function as the membrane anchor for EEF1D on the endoplasmic reticulum (Ong et al., 2003)
Post-translational modifications. Some post-translational modifications are observed, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and succinylation (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). eEF1D can be hyperphosphorylated and the phosphorylations are made by some protein kinases, including casein kinase 2 (Gyenis et al., 2011; Browne and Proud, 2002) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 ( CDK1) (Kawaguchi et al., 2003). In particular, CDK1 phosphorylates EEF1D at Ser-133 (Kawaguchi et al., 2003).
In addition, eEF1D can be found hyperphosphorylated by viral protein kinases after alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses infections (Kawaguchi et al., 2003).
 
  Figure 3. The translation elongation mechanism. The active form of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) in complex with GTP delivers an aminoacylated tRNA to the A site of the ribosome. Following the proper codon-anticodon recognition the GTP is hydrolyzed and the inactive eEF1A-GDP is released from the ribosome and then it is bound by eEF1B2GD complex forming the macromolecular protein aggregate eEF1H. eEF1H is formed previously by the binding of three subunits: eEF1B2, eEF1G and eEF1D. This complex promotes the exchange between GDP and GTP to regenerate active form of eEF1A (reworked from Dongsheng et al., 2013; Ejiri, 2002; Riis et al, 1990; https://reactome.org)
Expression eEF1D is expressed widely in human tissues and high levels of protein are reported in bone marrow stromal cells (https://www.genecards.org). The long form of eEF1D (eEF1DL) is found to be highly expressed in brain and testis (Kaitsuka et al., 2011).
Localisation eEF1D is located mostly in the cytoplasm but it is also found in the nucleus, especially its long form (Kaitsuka et al., 2011), and also in relation with the endoplasmic reticulum (Sanders et al., 1996).
 
  Figure 4. Subcellular localization of eEF1D. Cytoplasmic and nuclear localizations for eEF1D were determined by transfection experiments with GFP-eEF1D fusion proteins for both isoforms (GFP-eEF1D and GFP-eEF1DL) in HeLa cells. The tests were made by confocal microscopy with a scale bar of 20 m. eEF1D was found also in relation to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in primary fibroblasts VH25 cells. The long form of EEF1D (EF1DL) is the only isoform that is found also in nucleus, while in the cytoplasm and on ER co-localize both long and short isoforms (reworked from Kaitsuka et al., 2011; Sanders et al., 1996. Note: some picture elements were obtained from using BioRender illustration tool).
Function eEF1D has shown to cover an important role in normal brain functioning and development and some experiments on KO mice lacking the expression of its long isoform (eEF1DL) have done emerging its implication for normal physiology of the brain. In fact, in these KO mice were observed severe seizures in response to loud sounds and also significant brain structure alterations such as a decrease in brain weight, atrophy of the hippocampus and midbrain and a reduction of cortical layer thickness (Kaitsuka et al., 2018).
eEF1D shows canonical functions and multiple non-canonical roles (moonlighting roles) inside the cell.
Canonical function: eEF1D binds to eEF1B and eEF1G in the eEF1BDG macromolecular complex and contributes to catalyze the exchange of GDP/GTP for eEF1A during the translation elongation cycle.
Non-canonical roles: eEF1D seems to have other functions inside the cell besides its involvement in translation. At least two other non-canonical roles have been detected, i.e. its role as a transcriptional factor and its involvement in the stress response. These roles are closely connected to each other. In fact, it was demonstrated that heat shock induces the splicing-dependent expression change from the short eEF1D isoform (isoform 2) to the eEF1DL long isoform (isoform 1)(Kaitsuka et al., 2015). The silencing of eEF1DL inhibits the stress responses suggesting its role in the modulation of stress response in the cell (Hensen et al., 2013). In fact, EEF1D is a heat shock transcription factor that can bind to the heat shock element (HSE) in the promoter of the HSPA6 and HO-1 genes and activate their transcription (Kaitsuka et al., 2011).
Homology eEF1D is highly conserved and its homology between the species is reported in Table.3
OrganismSpeciesSymbol DNA Identity (%)PROT Identity (%)
HumanH.sapiensEEF1D100100
ChimpanzeeP.troglodytesEEF1D99.699.3
MacacoM.mulattaEEF1D95.795.7
WolfC.lupus LOC47511585.285.5
CattleB.taurusEEF1D92.188.3
Mouse M.musculusEef1d85.284.3
RatR.norvegicusEef1d86.884.5
ChickenG.gallusEEF1D57.761.6
Xenopus tropicalisX.tropicaliseef1d67.869.7
Zebrafish D.rerioeef1db65.866.3
Fruit flyD.melanogastereEF1delta55.657.0
Mosquito (Anopheles)A.gambiaeAgaP_AGAP00423548.557.0
 Caenorhabditis C.eleganseef-1B.253.857.6

Table.3 EEF1D homology (reworked from ps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene)

Mutations

Note A great number of mutations in the genomic sequence and in the amino acid sequence for EEF1D were discovered in cancer cells that are obviously genetically more unstable respect normal ones. The genomic alterations observed include the formation of novel fusion genes. However, there are no sufficient experimental data yet to understand the repercussions on cellular behaviour and so the implications in cancer of these fusion genes.
 
  Figure 5. Circos plot for fusion events involving eEF1D. The picture summarizes all fusion events concerning eEF1D and its fusion partners (from https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/search_genewise.html).

Implicated in

Note EEF1D is a cellular proto-oncogene (Joseph et al., 2002) and it is involved in many and heterogeneous genomic translocations in different kind of tumors with also the creation of numerous fusion gene (Table.4). An increase of its expression level has an oncogenic potential with resulting in cell transformation (Lei et al., 2002) and this was observed in many cancer types (Hassan et al., 2018). In addition, the use of antisense mRNA to block EEF1D translation can revert its oncogenic potential (Lei et al., 2002). These data could suggest its role as a potential diagnostic indicator and prognostic marker in tumors (Joseph et al., 2002).
Name5' end3' endLoc1Loc2DescriptionTypeDiseaseOrganCodeRef.
ACSF2/EEF1DACSF2EEF1D 17q21.338q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q21)Translocation(?)---
AGO2/EEF1DAGO2EEF1D 8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene(?)---
ASAP1/EEF1DASAP1EEF1D 8q24.218q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene(?)---
ASB8/EEF1DASB8EEF1D 12q13.118q24.3t(8;12)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
ATXN1/EEF1DATXN1EEF1D 6p22.38q24.3t(6;8)(p22;q24)Translocation(?)---
 B2M/EEF1D B2MEEF1D15q21.18q24.3t(8;15)(q24;q21)Translocation(?)---
BOD1L1/EEF1DBOD1L1EEF1D 4p15.33 8q24.3t(4;8)(p15;q24)Translocation(?)---
C19ORF10/EEF1DC19ORF10EEF1D 19p13.3 8q24.3t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
CAPN15/EEF1DCAPN15EEF1D 16p13.38q24.3t(8;16)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
CBX7/EEF1DCBX7EEF1D 22q13.18q24.3t(8;22)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
CHN2/EEF1DCHN2EEF1D 7p14.38q24.3t(7;8)(p14;q24)Translocation(?)---
CLPS/EEF1DCLPSEEF1D 6p21.318q24.3t(6;8)(p21;q24)Translocation(?)---
CLTB/EEF1DCLTBEEF1D 5q35.28q24.3t(5;8)(q35;q24)Translocation(?)---
CMSS1/EEF1DCMSS1EEF1D 3q12.18q24.3t(3;8)(q12;q24)Translocation(?)---
COLGALT1/EEF1DCOLGALT1EEF1D 19p13.118q24.3t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
CRY1/EEF1DCRY1EEF1D 12q23.38q24.3t(8;12)(q24;q23)Translocation(?)---
CTDP1/EEF1DCTDP1EEF1D 18q238q24.3t(8;18)(q24;q23)Translocation(?)---
CTTN/EEF1DCTTNEEF1D 11q13.38q24.3t(8;11)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
DDX23/EEF1DDDX23EEF1D 12q13.12 8q24.3t(8;12)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
DDX5/EEF1DDDX5EEF1D 17q23.38q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q23)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/ANKRD19PEEF1DANKRD19P8q24.39q22.31t(8;9)(q24;q22)TranslocationAdenocarcinomaStomachSTAD-
EEF1D/CALREEF1DCALR8q24.3 19p13.13 t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation-Cell lineMCF10Babiceanu et al.,2016
EEF1D/CKBEEF1DCKB8q24.3 14q32.33t(8;14)(q24;q32)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/DUSP28EEF1DDUSP288q24.3 2q37.3 t(2;8)(q37;q24)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/EEF1DP1EEF1DEEF1DP18q24.319p13.12t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/EEF1DP5EEF1DEEF1DP58q24.36q22.33t(6;8)(q22;q24)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/GSDMBEEF1DGSDMB8q24.3 17q12t(8;17)(q24;q12)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/KRT4EEF1DKRT48q24.3 12q13.13t(8;12)(q24;q13)Translocation-Esophagus-Babiceanu et al.,2016
EEF1D/KRT5EEF1DKRT58q24.3 12q13.13t(8;12)(q24;q13)TranslocationSquamous Cell CarcinomaHead and Neck HNSCKlijn et al., 2015
EEF1D/KRT6AEEF1DKRT6A8q24.3 12q13.13t(8;12)(q24;q13)TranslocationSquamous Cell CarcinomaHead and Neck HNSCKlijn et al., 2015
EEF1D/KRT10EEF1DKRT108q24.3 17q21.2t(8;17)(q24;q21)Translocation-Skin-Babiceanu et al.,2016
EEF1D/KRT14EEF1DKRT148q24.3 17q21.2t(8;17)(q24;q21)TranslocationSquamous Cell CarcinomaUterine cervixCESCAlaei-Mahabadi et al., 2016
EEF1D/LSP1EEF1DLSP18q24.3 11p15.5t(8;11)(q24;p15)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/MAN2C1EEF1DMAN2C18q24.3 15q24.2t(8;15)(q24;q24)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/NAPRTEEF1DNAPRT8q24.38q24.3Readthrough transcriptionFusion gene-Cell lineESCBabiceanu et al.,2016
MCF10
Burkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
Hepatocellular carcinomaLiver LIHC-
Laryngeal cancerHead and Neck HNSCTao et al., 2018
EEF1D/NFKBIBEEF1DNFKBIB8q24.319q13.2t(8;19)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/PARK2EEF1DPARK28q24.3 6q26 t(6;8)(q26;q24)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/PNLIPEEF1DPNLIP8q24.3 10q25.3 t(8;10)(q24;q25)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/PUF60EEF1DPUF608q24.3 8q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneSerous CystadenocarcinomaOvaryOVSC-
EEF1D/RNF2EEF1DRNF28q24.3 1q25.3t(1;8)(q25;q24)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/RYR1EEF1DRYR18q24.3 19q13.2t(8;19)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/SDC4EEF1DSDC48q24.3 20q13.12t(8;20)(q24;q13)TranslocationAdenocarcinomaProstatePRADWu et al., 2012
EEF1D/SFTPCEEF1DSFTPC8q24.3 8p21.3t(8;8)(q24;p21)Fusion gene(?)---
EEF1D/SPIBEEF1DSPIB8q24.3 19q13.33t(8;19)(q24;q13)TranslocationBurkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
EEF1D/TGEEF1DTG8q24.38q24.22t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneThyroid carcinomaThyroid THCA-
EEF1D/TSNARE1EEF1DTSNARE18q24.3 8q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneSerous CystadenocarcinomaOvaryOVSC-
EEF1D/TSTA3 EEF1DTSTA3 8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneAdenocarcinomaLungLUAD Yoshihara et al 2015
EEF1D/UBE2L3 EEF1DUBE2L3 8q24.322q11.21t(8;22)(q24;q11)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/ZBTB7AEEF1DZBTB7A8q24.3 19p13.3 t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
EEF1D/ZC3H3EEF1DZC3H38q24.3 8q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene(?)---
FAM104A/EEF1D FAM104A EEF1D17q25.18q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q25)Translocation-Cell lineCOLO794Klijn et al., 2015
FAM222B/EEF1DFAM222BEEF1D 17q11.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q11)Translocation(?)---
FLCN/EEF1DFLCNEEF1D 17p11.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;p11)Translocation(?)---
HDAC5/EEF1DHDAC5EEF1D 17q21.318q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q21)TranslocationBurkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
HIF1A/EEF1DHIF1AEEF1D14q23.28q24.3t(8;14)(q24;q23)Translocation-Cell lineOVTOKOKlijn et al., 2015
HIF3A/EEF1DHIF3AEEF1D 19q13.328q24.3t(8;19)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
HRH1/EEF1DHRH1EEF1D 3p25.38q24.3t(3;8)(p25;q24)Translocation(?)---
IGLL5/EEF1DIGLL5EEF1D22q11.228q24.3t(8;22)(q24;q11)Translocation-Cell lineMOLP-8Klijn et al., 2015
AdenocarcinomaStomachSTAD
IL4R/EEF1DIL4REEF1D 16p12.18q24.3t(8;16)(q24;p12)Translocation(?)---
IRF3/EEF1DIRF3EEF1D 19q13.338q24.3t(8;19)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
KRT13/EEF1DKRT13EEF1D 17q21.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q21)Translocation-Esophagus-Babiceanu et al.,2016
LGR6/EEF1DLGR6EEF1D 1q32.18q24.3t(1;8)(q32;q24)Translocation(?)---
METRNL/EEF1DMETRNLEEF1D 17q25.38q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q25)Translocation(?)---
MGRN1/EEF1DMGRN1EEF1D 16p13.38q24.3t(8;16)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
NCAM1/EEF1DNCAM1EEF1D 11q23.28q24.3t(8;11)(q24;q23)Translocation(?)---
NID1/EEF1DNID1EEF1D 1q42.38q24.3t(1;8)(q42;q24)Translocation(?)---
OAZ1/EEF1DOAZ1EEF1D 19p13.38q24.3t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
OGG1/EEF1DOGG1EEF1D3p25.38q24.3t(3;8)(p25;q24)Translocation-Cell lineES2-TOKlijn et al., 2015
OPLAH/EEF1DOPLAHEEF1D8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneAdenocarcinomaStomachSTAD-
PLA2G6/EEF1DPLA2G6EEF1D 22q13.18q24.3t(8;22)(q24;q13)TranslocationAdenocarcinoma BreastBRCA-
PLIN5/EEF1DPLIN5EEF1D 19p13.38q24.3t(8;19)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
PMF1/EEF1DPMF1EEF1D1q228q24.3t(1;8)(q22;q24)Translocation-Cell lineRT4Klijn et al., 2015
POLI/EEF1DPOLIEEF1D 18q21.28q24.3t(8;18)(q24;q21)Translocation(?)---
POU2F1/EEF1DPOU2F1EEF1D 1q24.28q24.3t(1;8)(q24;q24)Translocation(?)---
PSMB7/EEF1DPSMB7EEF1D9q33.38q24.3t(8;9)(q24;q33)Translocation(?)---
PTP4A3/EEF1DPTP4A3EEF1D 8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene(?)---
RAB3GAP1/EEF1DRAB3GAP1EEF1D 2q21.38q24.3t(2;8)(q21;q24)Translocation(?)---
RAB40C/EEF1DRAB40CEEF1D 16p13.38q24.3t(8;16)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
RCC1/EEF1DRCC1EEF1D 1p35.38q24.3t(1;8)(p35;q24)Translocation(?)---
RILPL2/EEF1DRILPL2EEF1D 12q24.318q24.3t(8;12)(q24;q24)Translocation(?)---
RNF14/EEF1DRNF14EEF1D 5q31.3 8q24.3t(5;8)(q31;q24)Translocation(?)---
RNF44/EEF1DRNF44EEF1D 5q35.28q24.3t(5;8)(q35;q24)Translocation(?)---
RPL30 /EEF1DRPL30 EEF1D8q22.28q24.3t(8;8)(q22;q24)Fusion geneAdenocarcinoma BreastBRCA-
RPL36AL/EEF1DRPL36ALEEF1D 14q21.38q24.3t(8;14)(q24;q21)Fusion gene(?)---
RPS9/EEF1DRPS9EEF1D 19q13.428q24.3t(8;19)(q24;q13)TranslocationBurkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
RSAD1/EEF1DRSAD1EEF1D 17q21.338q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q21)Translocation(?)---
SCRIB/EEF1DSCRIBEEF1D8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneSerous CystadenocarcinomaOvaryOVSC-
SCYL1/EEF1DSCYL1EEF1D 11q13.18q24.3t(8;11)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
SH2B2/EEF1DSH2B2EEF1D 7q22.18q24.3t(7;8)(q22;q24)TranslocationBurkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
SMYD3/EEF1DSMYD3EEF1D 1q448q24.3t(1;8)(q44;q24)Translocation(?)---
SORBS1/EEF1DSORBS1EEF1D 10q24.18q24.3t(8;10)(q24;q24)Translocation(?)---
SORT1 /EEF1DSORT1 EEF1D1p13.38q24.3t(1;8)(p13;q24)Translocation(?)---
SPIB/EEF1DSPIBEEF1D 19q13.338q24.3t(8;19)(q24;q13)TranslocationBurkitt lymphomaBloodBL-
ST3GAL1/EEF1DST3GAL1EEF1D 8q24.228q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene(?)---
TATDN1/EEF1DTATDN1EEF1D8q24.138q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion geneAdenocarcinoma BreastBRCA-
TMEM99/EEF1DTMEM99EEF1D 17q21.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;q21)Translocation(?)---
TMLHE/EEF1DTMLHEEEF1D Xq288q24.3t(X;8)(q28;q24)Translocation(?)---
TOP2B/EEF1DTOP2BEEF1D 3p24.28q24.3t(3;8)(p24;q24)Translocation(?)---
TP53I3/EEF1DTP53I3EEF1D 2p23.3 8q24.3t(2;8)(p23;q24)Translocation(?)---
TP53TG5/EEF1DTP53TG5EEF1D 20q13.128q24.3t(8;20)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
TTC21B/EEF1DTTC21BEEF1D2q24.3 8q24.3t(2;8)(q24;q24)Translocation(?)---
TTLL3/EEF1DTTLL3EEF1D3p25.38q24.3t(3;8)(p25;q24)TranslocationCarcinomaEsophagusESCA-
UBAP2/EEF1DUBAP2EEF1D 9p13.38q24.3t(8;9)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
UBE2G1/EEF1DUBE2G1EEF1D 17p13.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
UFM1/EEF1DUFM1EEF1D 13q13.38q24.3t(8;13)(q24;q13)TranslocationAdenocarcinomaColon COAD-
XRN2/EEF1DXRN2EEF1D20p11.238q24.3t(8;20)(q24;p11)Translocation(?)---
ZC3H3/EEF1DZC3H3EEF1D8q24.38q24.3t(8;8)(q24;q24)Fusion gene-Bone marrow-Babiceanu et al.,2016
Cell lineCa SkiKlijn et al., 2015
CarcinomaEsophagusESCA-
ZG16B/EEF1DZG16BEEF1D 16p13.3 8q24.3t(8;16)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
ZNF146/EEF1DZNF146EEF1D 19q13.12 8q24.3t(8;19)(q24;q13)Translocation(?)---
ZNF232/EEF1DZNF232EEF1D 17p13.28q24.3t(8;17)(q24;p13)Translocation(?)---
ZNF429/EEF1DZNF429EEF1D 19p128q24.3t(8;19)(q24;p12)Translocation(?)---
ZNF608/EEF1DZNF608EEF1D 5q23.28q24.3t(5;8)(q23;q24)Translocation(?)---

Table.4 EEF1D rearrangements: translocations and fusion genes (reworked from ps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene; http://www.tumorfusions.org; https://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes; http://quiver.archerdx.com; http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org//Bands/8q24.html#REFERENCES; https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html) [ (?) ] unknown;  [ - ] no reference
  
Entity Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Note EEF1D is a potential candidate gene associated with ALS (Wain et al., 2009) but more studies are needed to clarify its effective contribution.
  
  
Entity Bladder cancer
Note There are no data about EEF1D expression alterations in bladder cancer. However, it was reported the translocation t(1;8)(q22;q24) PMF1/EEF1D (Klijn et al., 2015).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(1;8)(q22;q24) PMF1/EEF1D was detected in bladder transitional-cell carcinoma RT4 cell line (Klijn et al., 2015). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of "polyamine modulated factor 1" ( PMF1) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. There are no data about its chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers
Note EEF1D is found to be overexpressed in astrocytoma and in glioblastoma samples and also in low-risk patients. This may associate its expression to favourable survival outcome (Hassan et al., 2018).
  
  
Entity Breast cancer
Note EEF1D is involved in breast cancer (Jurca et al., 2016). In fact, was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in BT483, EFM19, HCC1143, HCC1395, HCC1569, HCC1806, HCC1937, HCC2157, HCC2218, HDQP1, MDAMB436 and UACC893 breast cancer cell lines and in about 10% of breast invasive carcinoma donor samples (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/). EEF1D was found overexpressed in T-47, MCF-7, MDA-MB-361 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell lines (Joseph et al., 2004). It is also overexpressed in breast cancer samples and this predicted worse relapse-free survival (RFS) in luminal A subtype patients and poor overall survival (OS) and RFS in basal subtype (Hassan et al., 2018).
Some authors have found an EEF1D downregulation in ER+/ER- cancer cell lines and in human breast cancer samples when high levels of bone morphogenetic protein-6 ( BMP6) are expressed (Yang et al., 2007). This seems to be linked with the prevention of eEF1D-induced breast cancer metastasis. In fact, EEF1D is a candidate protein marker of human brain metastasis in primary breast tumors (Sanz-Pamplona et al., 2011; van't Veer et al., 2002). In addition, some fusion genes and genomic translocations were reported (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The translocation t(8;22)(q24;q13) PLA2G6/EEF1D was found in breast carcinoma (BRCA) and consists by the fusion of 'phospholipase A2 group VI' (< CC: TXT: PLA2G6 ID: 45836>) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. In addition, other uncharacterized and rare rearrangements due to the translocation t(8;8)(q24;q24) are reported, i.e. the RPL30 /EEF1D and TATDN1/EEF1D fusion genes (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html). In particular, the t(8;8)(q24;q24) RPL30 /EEF1D brings to the formation of a transcript composed by the exons 1 to 3 of RPL30 joined with exons 2 to 7 of EEF1D (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=RPL30_EEF1D), while the t(8;8)(q24;q24) TATDN1/EEF1D brings to the formation of a transcript composed by the exon 1 of TATDN1 joined with exons 2 to 7 of EEF1D (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=TATDN1_EEF1D). Despite what has just been said, these genomic alterations are still poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Chondrosarcoma
Note The human chondrosarcoma cells are able to respond to mechanical stimuli, like cellular stretching, with different phosphorylation events. Increase of phosphorylations impacts also on the EEF1D protein. It is unclearly the significance or the effect on the cell of these phosphorylations as also if these changes may affect the level or speed of protein synthesis (Pitti et al., 2008).
  
  
Entity Colorectal cancer
Note It was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in LS123 and RKO colorectal cancer cell lines and in about 5% of colon adenocarcinoma donor samples (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/). In addition, EEF1D transcript is found to be significantly overexpressed (Hassan et al., 2018), especially in the right-sided colon cancer (RSCC) respect left-sided colon cancer (LSCC) samples (Shen et al., 2013). It was reported the translocation t(8;13)(q24;q13) UFM1/EEF1D (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;13)(q24;q13) UFM1/EEF1D was found in colon adenocarcinoma. This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of 'ubiquitin fold modifier 1' ( UFM1) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is unknown.
  
  
Entity Gastric cancer
Note It was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in 2313287, LMSU, MKN1, SNU5, SNU216, SNU601 and SNU668 gastric cancer cell lines (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/) but it was found down-expressed in gastric cancer samples (Hassan et al., 2018). Some fusion genes and genomic translocation are reported (Klijn et al., 2015; https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;22)(q24;q11) IGLL5/EEF1D was found in gastric adenocarcinoma samples (Klijn et al., 2015) and consists by the fusion of 'immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5' ( IGLL5) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. In addition, other uncharacterized and rare rearrangements are reported, i.e. OPLAH/EEF1D fusion gene and t(8;9)(q24;q22) EEF1D/ANKRD19P (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html). In particular, the t(8;9)(q24;q22) EEF1D/ANKRD19P brings to the formation of a new chimeric gene with a transcript formed by the exons 1 to 5 of EEF1D joined with exon 10 of 'ankyrin repeat domain 19 pseudogene' ( ANKRD19P). The protein resulting from this rearrangement lacks the GEF domain in the C-terminal (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=EEF1D_ANKRD19P). Despite what has just been said, these genomic alterations are still poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC)
Note EEF1D gene was found up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) (Hassan et al., 2018; Han et al., 2009). In particular, Flores and colleagues (Flores et al., 2016) detected its overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) respect to oral healthy mucosa. It could have a critical role both in cell proliferation and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In fact, EEF1D knockdown shown a decrease in cell cycle rate and proliferation. Some fusion genes and genomic translocation are reported (Klijn et al., 2015).
In addition, EEF1D was found up-regulated in human laryngeal cancer (Peyvandi et al., 2018) and was found an intrachromosomal translocation with the formation of a chimeric fusion gene between EEF1D and NAPRT1 genes in laryngeal cancer (Tao et al., 2018).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;12)(q24;q13) EEF1D/KRT5 and the t(8;12)(q24;q13) EEF1D/KRT6A were found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) samples with the production of chimeric genes originated by the fusion of EEF1D at 5'-end with 'keratin 5' ( KRT5) or 'keratin 6A' ( KRT6A) genes at 3' end (Klijn et al., 2015). In addition, it was detected in laryngeal cancer the fusion gene 5' EEF1D - 3' NAPRT (Tao et al., 2018) that is probably originated by readthrough transcription, a known mechanism into the cell (He et al., 2018). In fact, EEF1D and NAPRT1 are two neighboring genes on the same chromosome.
The roles of all these genomic alterations are unknown.
  
  
Entity Kidney cancer
Note High EEF1D mRNA levels were found in renal Wilms tumor and in clear cell carcinoma (Hassan et al., 2018). Some authors have detected missense mutations of EEF1D in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC)(Liu et al., 2015). These mutations could contribute to the pathogenic mechanism for PRCC but more studies are necessary.
  
  
Entity Liver cancer
Note EEF1D was found overexpressed in moderately to poorly differentiated (M/P-) primary human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues (Hassan et al., 2018; Shuda et al., 2000). In addition, it was found the EEF1D/NAPRT fusion gene (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The EEF1D/NAPRT fusion gene was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of EEF1D gene at 5'-end with 'nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1' (NAPRT) gene at 3' end and it is probably due to readthrough transcription. In fact, EEF1D and NAPRT1 are two neighboring genes on the same chromosome. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is unknown.
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Note EEF1D was found to be down-expressed in lung carcinoid tumor and not shows any correlation with survival parameters (Hassan et al., 2018). It was also found down-expressed in adriamycin-resistant variants of DLKP squamous lung cancer cell line (Keenan et al., 2009). On the contrary, other authors found overexpression of EEF1D mRNA in some adenocarcinoma of the lung and squamous lung cell carcinoma tissue samples (Varemieva et al., 2014). In addition, eEF1D was found both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line (Varemieva et al., 2014) and the EEF1D/TSTA3 fusion gene was reported for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD)(Yoshihara et al 2015).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The EEF1D/TSTA3 fusion gene was found in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) samples (Yoshihara et al 2015). This rearrangement is originated by t(8;8)(q24;q24) i.e. from the fusion of EEF1D gene at 5'-end with 'tissue specific transplantation antigen P35B' ( TSTA3) gene at 3' end. In particular, this rearrangement brings to the formation of a transcript composed by the exon 1 of EEF1D joined with exons 4 to 11 of TSTA3 (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=EEF1D_TSTA3). Despite what has just been said, this genomic alteration is still poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Lymphoma and other blood cancers
Note EEF1D is significantly overexpressed in different lymphoma subtypes, i.e. ALK-negative/ ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, Hodgkin's lymphoma, acute adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Hassan et al., 2018). Some fusion genes and genomic translocation were reported (Klijn et al., 2015; https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html).
Cytogenetics The t(8;19)(q24;q13) EEF1D/ SPIB, t(8;17)(q24;q21) HDAC5/EEF1D, t(8;19)(q24;q13) RPS9/EEF1D, t(7;8)(q22;q24) SH2B2/EEF1D, t(8;19)(q24;q13) SPIB/EEF1D translocations and EEF1D/NAPRT fusion gene were reported for Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). In addition, the t(8;22)(q24;q11) IGLL5/EEF1D was observed in multiple myeloma MOLP-8 cell line (Klijn et al., 2015). There are no data about the respective chimeric transcripts or proteins and the role of these genomic alterations is unknown.
  
  
Entity Medulloblastoma / Ependymoma
Note EEF1D is overexpressed in medulloblastoma samples and it is adversely associated with overall and progression-free survival regardless of cytogenetic profile (De Bortoli et al., 2006). In addition, EEF1D was found highly expressed in ependymoma and this is related to poor outcome (de Bont et al., 2008).
  
  
Entity Melanoma
Note EEF1D was found overexpressed in human chemoresistant melanoma cell lines (Sinha et al., 2000) and it was reported the translocation t(8;17)(q24;q25) FAM104A/EEF1D (Klijn et al., 2015).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;17)(q24;q25) FAM104A/EEF1D was reported in COLO794 cell line (Klijn et al., 2015). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of "family with sequence similarity 104 member A" ( FAM104A) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is unknown.
  
  
Entity Neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders
Note Mutations of EEF1D are involved in neurodevelopmental abnormalities, severe intellectual disability (ID) and microcephaly (McLachlan et al., 2018; Reuter et al., 2017). In particular, some authors identified a pathogenic variant of EEF1DL that could be a candidate for the autosomal recessive ID (ARID) due to its loss of function (Ugur Iseri et al., 2019). In addition, also the interaction between eEF1D and SIAH1 could impact on the initiation of neurodegenerative diseases when eEF1D is over-expressed (Wu et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Oesophageal carcinoma
Note It was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in TE8, TE10 and TE11 oesophageal cancer cell lines (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/) and an EEF1D overexpression in oesophageal carcinoma and cardioesophageal carcinoma samples respect noncancerous ones (Veremieva et al., 2011; Ogawa et al., 2004). In addition, it was found a significant correlation between EEF1D overexpression and advanced disease stages and also lymph node metastasis and this correlates with poor prognosis (Ogawa et al., 2004). Some fusion genes and genomic translocation are reported (Babiceanu et al.,2016; https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(3;8)(p25;q24) TTLL3/EEF1D, t(8;17)(q24;q21) KRT13/EEF1D, t(8;12)(q24;q13) EEF1D/KRT4 translocations and ZC3H3/EEF1D fusion gene were reported in oesophageal carcinoma (ESCA).
In particular, the t(3;8)(p25;q24) TTLL3/EEF1D brings to the formation of a transcript composed by the exons 1 to 3 of "tubulin tyrosine ligase like 3" ( TTLL3) joined with exons 2 to 7 of EEF1D (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=TTLL3_EEF1D), while the t(8;8)(q24;q24) ZC3H3/EEF1D brings to the formation of a transcript composed by the exon 1 of "zinc finger CCCH-type containing 3" ( ZC3H3) joined with exons 4 to 7 of EEF1D (http://203.255.191.229:8080/chimerdbv31/chimerseq_link.cdb?gene_pair=ZC3H3_EEF1D). Despite what has just been said, these genomic alterations are still poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Osteosarcoma
Note EEF1D may play an important role in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis because it is overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues samples respect to adjacent non-tumor tissues and this enhances the Akt-mTOR and Akt-Bad signalling pathways. In fact, knockdown of EEF1D in MNNG/HOS and U2OS cells (both osteosarcoma cell lines) shows a slight decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt, MTOR and BAD. In addition, the high expression of EEF1D has a positive correlation with recurrences and its expression levels are higher in patients in advanced Enneking stage than in the early stage ones (Cheng et al., 2018). It was reported the translocation t(3;8)(p25;q24) OGG1/EEF1D (Klijn et al., 2015).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(3;8)(p25;q24) OGG1/EEF1D was detected in sarcoma ES2-TO cell line (Klijn et al., 2015). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of "8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase" ( OGG1) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and so this genomic alteration is still poorly understood.
  
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note It was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in COV362, KURAMOCHI, OVCAR4, OVCAR8 and SNU119 ovarian cancer cell lines, in about 26% of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma donor samples (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/) and also in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas and other ovarian cancer samples (Zhang et al., 2015; Sung et al., 2013). Some fusion genes and genomic translocation are reported (Klijn et al., 2015; https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The EEF1D/ PUF60, EEF1D/ TSNARE1 and SCRIB/EEF1D fusion genes originated by t(8;8)(q24;q24) were found in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OVSC) samples. In addition, the t(8;14)(q24;q23) HIF1A/EEF1D was reported for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma OVTOKO cell line (Klijn et al., 2015). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of "hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha" ( HIF1A) gene at 5'-end with EEF1D gene at 3' end. The roles of these genomic alterations are still unknown.
  
  
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Note EEF1D mRNA is found to be down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissue samples (Hassan et al., 2018).
  
  
Entity Parkinson's disease
Note Some rare mutated variants of eEF1D are considered potential candidates in Parkinson's disease. These mutated variants differ from the amino acid sequence of EEF1D for some amino acids substitutions, i.e. in position 290 (Gly/Arg), 325 (Ala/Thr), 549 (Ala/Val) and 601 (Pro/Ser) (Schulte et al., 2014).
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note EEF1D mRNA is found to be up-regulated in prostate cancer tissue samples (Hassan et al., 2018). In addition, it was found the translocation t(8;20)(q24;q13) EEF1D/SDC4 (Wu et al., 2012).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;20)(q24;q13) EEF1D/SDC4 was found in prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of EEF1D gene at 5'-end with "syndecan 4" ( SDC4) gene at 3' end. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration in prostate cancer is unknown.
  
  
Entity Thyroid cancer
Note There are no data about EEF1D expression alterations in thyroid cancers. However, it was reported the EEF1D/TG fusion gene (https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in/home.html; https://ccsm.uth.edu/FusionGDB/index.html).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The EEF1D/TG fusion gene was reported in thyroid Carcinoma (THCA). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of EEF1D gene at 5'-end with "thyroglobulin" ( TG) gene at 3' end due to the translocation t(8;8)(q24;q24). There are no data about its chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is unknown.
  
  
Entity Uterine cancer
Note It was detected an EEF1D gene copy number gain in about 14% of uterine carcinosarcoma donor samples (http://www.oasis-genomics.org/). It was found the translocation t(8;17)(q24;q21) EEF1D/KRT14 (Alaei-Mahabadi et al., 2016).
Hybrid/Mutated Gene The t(8;17)(q24;q21) EEF1D/KRT14 was found in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC). This rearrangement is originated by the fusion of EEF1D gene at 5'-end with "keratin 14" ( KRT14) gene at 3' end. There are no data about the respective chimeric transcript or protein and the role of this genomic alteration is unknown.
  

To be noted

Role of eEF1D in viral replication and pathogenesis. Have been discovered some interactions between some human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins, such as HIV-1 Tat, and eEF1D and its recruitment for the viral mRNAs translation (Milev et al., 2012). In addition, eEF1D can be found hyperphosphorylated by viral protein kinases after alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses infections. In particular, the viral protein kinases involved in eEF1D phosphorylation include UL13 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), UL97 of human cytomegalovirus and BGLF4 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Kawaguchi et al., 2003). Apart from that, in general, this brings a reduction of cellular proteins biosynthesis efficiency instead privileging the viral proteins translation process (Milev et al., 2012).

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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Cristiano L.
EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/EEF1DID43240ch8q24.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  EEF1D/TSTA3 (8q24)


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)EEF1D   3211
Cards
AtlasEEF1DID43240ch8q24.txt
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)EEF1D  1936  eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta
AliasesEF-1D; EF1D; FP1047
GeneCards (Weizmann)EEF1D
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000104529 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000104529 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000104529 [Sequence]  chr8:143579722-143597675 [Contig_View]  EEF1D [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000104529
TCGA cBioPortalEEF1D
AceView (NCBI)EEF1D
Genatlas (Paris)EEF1D
WikiGenes1936
SOURCE (Princeton)EEF1D
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)EEF1D
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)EEF1D  -     chr8:143579722-143597675 -  8q24.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)EEF1D  -     8q24.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathEEF1D - 8q24.3 [CytoView hg19]  EEF1D - 8q24.3 [CytoView hg38]
ImmunoBaseENSG00000104529
Mapping of homologs : NCBIEEF1D [Mapview hg19]  EEF1D [Mapview hg38]
OMIM130592   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF370363 AI366989 AK024550 AK093756 AK225040
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001130053 NM_001130054 NM_001130055 NM_001130056 NM_001130057 NM_001195203 NM_001289950 NM_001317743 NM_001330646 NM_001960 NM_032378
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000008 NT_187571
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)EEF1D
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.703306 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.703306
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000104529
Gene ExpressionEEF1D [ NCBI-GEO ]   EEF1D [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   EEF1D [ SEEK ]   EEF1D [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)EEF1D [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)1936
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)EEF1D
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000104529-EEF1D [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP29692   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP29692  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP29692
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP29692
PhosPhoSitePlusP29692
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)EF1BD_1 (PS00824)    EF1BD_2 (PS00825)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)eEF-1beta-like_sf    EF-1_beta_acid_region_euk    EF1B_bsu/dsu_GNE    Transl_elong_EF1B/ribosomal_S6    Transl_elong_EF1B_B/D_CS   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)EF-1_beta_acid (PF10587)    EF1_GNE (PF00736)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam10587    pfam00736   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)EF-1_beta_acid (SM01182)  EF1_GNE (SM00888)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)EEF1D
DMDM Disease mutations1936
Blocks (Seattle)EEF1D
PDB (RSDB)2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
PDB Europe2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
PDB (PDBSum)2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
PDB (IMB)2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)2MVM    2MVN    2N51    5JPO   
SuperfamilyP29692
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000104529-EEF1D [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP29692
HPRD00560
IPIIPI00023048   IPI00642971   IPI01009986   IPI00432356   IPI00982982   IPI00868909   IPI00985353   IPI00064086   IPI01013278   IPI00980105   IPI00981244   IPI00979002   IPI01009351   IPI01015965   IPI00792430   IPI00980230   IPI00978462   IPI00795920   IPI00984413   IPI00980590   IPI00981909   IPI00976417   IPI00982699   IPI00979449   IPI00982433   IPI00984173   IPI00977237   IPI00977923   IPI00976644   IPI00985447   IPI00983770   IPI00983108   IPI00979070   IPI00984808   IPI00978855   IPI00980791   IPI00977067   IPI00981822   IPI00982062   IPI00975963   IPI00976589   IPI00977285   IPI00981462   IPI00979705   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P29692
IntAct (EBI)P29692
FunCoupENSG00000104529
BioGRIDEEF1D
STRING (EMBL)EEF1D
ZODIACEEF1D
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP29692
Ontology : AmiGOfibrillar center  DNA binding  translation elongation factor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  cytoplasm  endoplasmic reticulum  cytosol  cytosol  eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 complex  translational elongation  translation factor activity, RNA binding  positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling  cadherin binding  cellular response to ionizing radiation  
Ontology : EGO-EBIfibrillar center  DNA binding  translation elongation factor activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  cytoplasm  endoplasmic reticulum  cytosol  cytosol  eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 complex  translational elongation  translation factor activity, RNA binding  positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling  cadherin binding  cellular response to ionizing radiation  
Pathways : KEGGHerpes simplex infection   
REACTOMEP29692 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-156842 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkEEF1D
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkEEF1D
Wikipedia pathwaysEEF1D
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB1936
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000104529
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamEEF1D
HOGENOMP29692
Homologs : HomoloGeneEEF1D
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)EEF1D
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanEEF1D/TSTA3 [8q24.3/8q24.3]  
Fusion PortalEEF1D 8q24.3 TSTA3 8q24.3 LUAD
Fusion : FusionGDB10968    10969    10970    10971    10972    10973    25447    27443    29136    31871    32890    35418    3689    40690    42237   
Fusion : Fusion_HubACSF2--EEF1D    AGO2--EEF1D    ASAP1--EEF1D    ASB8--EEF1D    ATXN1--EEF1D    B2M--EEF1D    BOD1L1--EEF1D    C19ORF10--EEF1D    CAPN15--EEF1D    CBX7--EEF1D    CHN2--EEF1D    CLPS--EEF1D    CLTB--EEF1D    CMSS1--EEF1D    COLGALT1--EEF1D   
CRY1--EEF1D    CTDP1--EEF1D    CTTN--EEF1D    DDX23--EEF1D    DDX5--EEF1D    EEF1D--ANKRD19P    EEF1D--CALR    EEF1D--CKB    EEF1D--DUSP28    EEF1D--EEF1D    EEF1D--EEF1DP1    EEF1D--EEF1DP5    EEF1D--GSDMB    EEF1D--KRT10    EEF1D--KRT14   
EEF1D--KRT4    EEF1D--LSP1    EEF1D--MAN2C1    EEF1D--NAPRT1    EEF1D--NFKBIB    EEF1D--PARK2    EEF1D--PNLIP    EEF1D--RNF2    EEF1D--RYR1    EEF1D--SDC4    EEF1D--SFTPC    EEF1D--SPIB    EEF1D--TG    EEF1D--TSTA3    EEF1D--UBE2L3   
EEF1D--ZBTB7A    EEF1D--ZC3H3    FAM104A--EEF1D    FAM222B--EEF1D    FLCN--EEF1D    HDAC5--EEF1D    HIF1A--EEF1D    HIF3A--EEF1D    HRH1--EEF1D    IGLL5--EEF1D    IL4R--EEF1D    IRF3--EEF1D    KRT13--EEF1D    LGR6--EEF1D    METRNL--EEF1D   
MGRN1--EEF1D    NCAM1--EEF1D    NID1--EEF1D    OAZ1--EEF1D    OGG1--EEF1D    PLIN5--EEF1D    PMF1--EEF1D    POLI--EEF1D    POU2F1--EEF1D    PSMB7--EEF1D    PTP4A3--EEF1D    RAB3GAP1--EEF1D    RAB40C--EEF1D    RCC1--EEF1D    RILPL2--EEF1D   
RNF14--EEF1D    RNF44--EEF1D    RPL30--EEF1D    RPL36AL--EEF1D    RPS9--EEF1D    RSAD1--EEF1D    SCYL1--EEF1D    SH2B2--EEF1D    SMYD3--EEF1D    SORBS1--EEF1D    SORT1--EEF1D    SPIB--EEF1D    ST3GAL1--EEF1D    TATDN1--EEF1D    TMEM99--EEF1D   
TMLHE--EEF1D    TOP2B--EEF1D    TP53I3--EEF1D    TP53TG5--EEF1D    TTC21B--EEF1D    TTLL3--EEF1D    UBAP2--EEF1D    UBE2G1--EEF1D    XRN2--EEF1D    ZC3H3--EEF1D    ZG16B--EEF1D    ZNF146--EEF1D    ZNF232--EEF1D    ZNF429--EEF1D    ZNF608--EEF1D   
Fusion : QuiverEEF1D
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerEEF1D [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)EEF1D
dbVarEEF1D
ClinVarEEF1D
1000_GenomesEEF1D 
Exome Variant ServerEEF1D
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000104529
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000104529
Varsome BrowserEEF1D
Genetic variants : HAPMAP1936
Genomic Variants (DGV)EEF1D [DGVbeta]
DECIPHEREEF1D [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisEEF1D 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalEEF1D 
TCGA Data PortalEEF1D 
Broad Tumor PortalEEF1D
OASIS PortalEEF1D [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICEEF1D  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDEEF1D
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch EEF1D
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)EEF1D
DoCM (Curated mutations)EEF1D (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)EEF1D (select a term)
intoGenEEF1D
NCG5 (London)EEF1D
Cancer3DEEF1D(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM130592   
Orphanet
DisGeNETEEF1D
MedgenEEF1D
Genetic Testing Registry EEF1D
NextProtP29692 [Medical]
TSGene1936
GENETestsEEF1D
Target ValidationEEF1D
Huge Navigator EEF1D [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease1936
BioCentury BCIQEEF1D
ClinGenEEF1D
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD1936
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA27647
Clinical trialEEF1D
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)EEF1D (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexEEF1D
Probes
Litterature
PubMed106 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineEEF1D
EVEXEEF1D
GoPubMedEEF1D
iHOPEEF1D
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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